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The Problem of Evil – 1000-Word Philosophy
bumpy paper writing There are many reasons why some children. have difficulty learning how to form letters. and numbers, and the problem of evil essays, how to write neatly. T here. are lots of thesis by jared diamond, fun ways to make this important. Learn about the handwriting curriculum that is being taught to your child at school. If your child is struggling, ask the teacher for. worksheets you can practice on at home. Letters in print should be written from the problem of evil essays top to bottom and from left to right. A multi-sensory approach to learning is a great approach for all children. Prepare a tray or baking pan with a shallow layer of the problem of evil, any. impressionable substance (sand, sugar, salt, bird seed, rice, pudding, shaving cream, etc.) Practice forming letters and the problem of evil essays, numbers. using the index (pointer) finger. Remember to form letters from top to bottom and from left to right.
Make raised letters on index cards to thesis constitution use for t rac ing with the index finger. Here 's how to make them : use glue to form the. letter, then cover it with sand or bird seed; puffy fabric paint; add food coloring to white glue and form letters in color . The Problem Essays. Make. sure to trace letters and numbers from top to bottom and from left to right. Pre-write letters on paper and have the child trace over them with glue (squeeze bottle type) form letters by gluing beans, rice, seeds, etc. on paper. form letters with putty, play doh, clay, modelling compound, etc. write letters with a vibrating pen; this additional sensory input will enhance the child's memory for letter formation. For letter recognition, have child read through a story at his/her reading level and of evil, circle all of the a's or b's, etc. Write letters in the air with the pointer finger and large arm movements. Try it with eyes closed, then eyes open. Write letters on your child's back and see if he/she can guess what letter it is.
Write on each other's palms. Write capital letters and numbers within boxes that are rectangular, oriented to be tall rather then wide. U se the attributes of. the box as landmarks. For example, an H is of evil formed starting at the top left corner to draw a line going down the left side of the best, the. box , then down the right side and the problem essays, finally a horizontal line across the middle (developed by the Handwriting Without Tears Writing letters from beard thesis ap us top to bottom (printing/manuscript) forming letters to write words in a consistent direction is the most efficient way to write. For printing, the the problem of evil essays top-down method is. Review all of the Learning Letter activities above.
Emphasize starting at the problem the top and working from left to essays right. On lined paper, in the left margin draw a simple house: the roof (a triangle) is within the top half of the line, the house is a square. within the bottom half, below the house is the basement. Remind the of evil essays child to start letters in the attic or roof if capitols, tall. lower case letters and numbers. Small letters stay in the house and start at the top of the box. Descending letters also start at. the the problem essays top of the philosophy and other essays box and live in the basement.
Make up a song or a chant about starting letters at the type. The Handwriting Without Tears writing program has a CD filled. with songs about letter writing. Write letters in the air with the the problem pointer finger and with large arm movements. Try it with eyes closed, then eyes open. Write letters on the best essay your child's back and see if he/she can guess what letter it is. Write on each other's palms. On a large chalk board or dry erase board, write large letters, always starting at the top.
Turn them into rainbow letters by. going over them with different colors. Write letters on paper that is placed over a textured surface, such as sandpaper, plastic craft canvas or rubbing plates. The Problem Of Evil. The. tactile feedback from the bumpy surface will enhance the child's memory for correct letter formation. Writing on Lines.
In many Kindergarten classrooms, children begin to write on paper without lines. And Other Essays. Eventually lines are introduced, sometimes. around mid-year. If your child has difficulty using writing lines effectively, here are some strategies: Highlight the the problem of evil essays bottom half of the line. Blind Assassin Essays. Instruct the child to stay in the yellow (or whatever colored was used) for all the small. letters; tall letters start at the problem essays the top line and descending letters dive down from the middle. Darken the lines to increase awareness; sometimes copying paper on the darkest setting will mak e the lines easier to see.
Create a raised base (bottom) line b y using glue once it's dry or Wikki Stix. Use the thesis constitution clear color changing marker on of evil the base line, then write with a color marker in the set. When the assassin color has changed the. child knows he/she has reached the bottom line. There are a variety of paper styles and modifications available for purchase. Talk to your child's therapist for recommendations. On lined paper, in the left margin draw a simple house: the roof (a triangle) is within the top half of the line, the house is a square. within the bottom half, below the house is the basement. Tall letters start in the attic, short letters are inside the house and. descending letters go down to the basement.
Highlight the of evil left margin to increase the child's awareness of where to begin and continue sentences. Highlight the right margin if the child tends to cram in words at the ends of the lines. Teach child to place a ruler at the left margin; remind him/her to return to blind assassin the ruler to continue sentences. Highlight the of evil essays left margin green (for go) and right margin red (for stop). Beard Thesis Constitution. Teach child to finger space: place his/her left index finger (if right handed) after each word he writes. For lefties, it's better to space with an object, such as a popsicle stick.
Have child make his/her own finger spacer: decorate a popsicle stick or tongue depressor, Call it a spaceman Have child place a dot with a stamp marker or highlighter after each word as a spacer, or to make a small dot with the the problem pencil; later. he/she can erase the dots. It's better to have large exaggerated spaces, especially for the problem, young writers. Using 2 fingers to space may be a good way to start. Try graph paper, enlarge the boxes if necessary on a copy machine, and write one letter in each box with one box in between. Readispace paper, made by Mead, can be purchased at some WalMart stores or ordered directly from the Mead website: this. has short vertical lines on each writing line for writing and spacing letters evenly. To increase awareness and also f or fun, challenge your child to read sentences that d on' t have spaces in of evil between words. Have. him/her rewrite the sentences correctly. Letter and constitution, Number Reversals (writing backwards) Reversals of numbers and upper case letters can be fixed by of evil essays, writing within boxes ( rectangular shaped and oriented to the problem of evil essays be tall. Of Evil. rather th a n wide ). Use the features of the box as landmarks. Add a sticker or draw a star at the top left corner of the box. (developed by the Handwriting Without Tears program , www.HWTears.com ) . For the the problem number 5, for example, tell child to start. instructions for most numbers and letters. Lower case letter reversals are commonly seen with the letters b/d, p/q/g, w/m, j, s and z. For b/d, teach child to make your bed by forming 2 thumbs up, touching knuckles together, the left hand forms a 'b', the right hand forms a 'd', pictured at right.
Talk to the problem your child's therapist or teacher about worksheets with activities to of collapse diamond help children. identify problematic letters. As examples, there are circle all the the problem essays w's mixed within a field. of m's; coloring activities to philosophy color targeted letters, hidden pictures, and more. work on learning the directional terms right and left. The Problem. Can your child identify his/her own right and left hands point to objects. on the right vs. left sides of his immediate environment? Try this fun dice game: called Left-Center-Right at http://www. form letters with putty, play doh, clay, modelling compound, etc. For letter recognition, have child read through a story at his/her reading level and circle all of the b 's or d 's, etc. Write letters in the air with the pointer finger and large arm movements. Try it with eyes closed, then eyes open. Write letters on your child's back and see if he/she can guess what letter it is. Write on each other's palms.
People hold pencils and other writing tools in a variety of fair project paper requirements, ways. The most common grip is called a tripod grip. This involves. The Problem. pinching the pencil between the the problem of evil essays pads of the thumb and index finger while the pencil rests on the side of the the problem middle finger. Many. Essay Company. people use a quadrupod grip which is similar except two fingers are on top of the the problem essays pencil opposing the thumb and the pencil rests on. the side of the ring finger. And there are many variations. For more information about optimal pencil grip, visit Thumb Opposition. and scroll down to information on web space. MOST PENCIL GRIPS DO NOT NEED TO BE CORRECTED.
It's important to. Of The. discuss this with your child's therapist. If you feel that your child's grip on the pencil is affecting his/her handwriting legibility, there are a number of activities to help. develop the correct muscles for the problem essays, holding. Refer to the section on Pincer Grasp for ideas. when coloring, drawing and writing use short writing and drawing tools such as broken crayons, golf pencils, Pip Squeak markers, short colored pencils or small bits of chalk. Discuss your conerns with your child's therapist. There are a variety of finger positioning devices available, if needed. Posture for Writing. Ideal sitting posture for writing is to be upright in the chair with the diamond hips and the problem, knees at 90 degrees and feet.
flat on the floor. The elbows should be bent at 90 degrees or less. When the arms are straight down at the. sides, the desktop should be about halfway between the shoulder and elbow or lower. Essays. The desk should be lowered (or the chair. raised) if the desktop is the problem of evil essays higher than this. The head should be a reasonable distance from the paper, about beard thesis constitution ap us, 12 to 20 inches. When writing, the wrist should be in a neutral position or slightly extended (hand bent back). The best writing surface is a slanted one.
This helps to keep the head upright and supports the forearm and hand in the problem of evil essays the optimal. position for writing. Philosophy. Most school desks are not slanted but a simple modification is to use a wide 3-ring binder (3 to 4 inch spine)
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The Problem of Evil: Evidential Arguments from Evil - Secular Web
Is the Sudan conflict best understood in terms of race, religion, or regionalism? The extensive literature on of evil essays, the Sudan places great emphasis on the regional North-South divide, the racial divide between Arabs and Africans, and the many religious divisions created as a consequence of the confrontation between Islam, Christianity and thesis of the ap us, ‘traditional religions’. This essay will take these three broad divisions as starting points to understand and situate the Sudan conflict within an anthropological context of identity formation in times of longstanding violence and confrontation. The Problem. It will be proposed that both the enormous diversity within Sudan in combination with the lack of a specifically and substantial “Sudanese” identity accounts for of evil the prevalence of conflict. This absence of the problem a widely accepted and omnipresent state identity also offers explains how identity is formed in relation to hegemony: no matter what arguments are put forward to the contrary, the Sudanese state, or lack thereof, constitutes a hegemonic regime and such hegemony plays an enormous role in identity formation, even in times of conflict and civil war when parts of the population actively defend their identities. The Sudanese civil war (or wars, depending on the particular stance adopted) is widely regarded as one of the most complex instances of intra-state violence to constitution date. Indeed, Yokwe goes so far as to assert that ‘[t]he Sudan case is rather unique and more intricate than the the problem of evil essays, rest of the of the ap us, African countries in the problem essays similar situations’ whilst others throw around the blind assassin essays, heavily-loaded term “genocide”, with the International Criminal Court officially charging Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir with three counts of genocide in Darfur on 12 th July of this year. Nevertheless, while scholars remain divided in their exact opinions, sufficient consensus exists among them to of evil suggest that the vast and numerous differences within its population are among the root causes of the conflict in the Sudan. As one non-governmental organisation has concluded after extensive research and assassin, fieldwork, ‘divided by geography, culture, race, ethnicity and religion, Sudan is the world’s foremost example of of evil a seemingly intractable and endless civil war.’ Of these divisions, the exhaustive literature on the Sudan places particular emphasis on the regional North-South divide, the racial divide between Arabs and Africans, and the many religious divisions created as a consequence of the confrontation between Islam, Christianity and what Falola and Prah term ‘traditional religions’.
It is these divisions that lay at the crux of the philosophy essays, conflict. Certainly within these three categories there is an abundance of intricacies and complex inter-relations to be explored, yet to ensure a focussed and pervasive analysis this essay will take these three broad divisions as isolated starting points in order to understand and the Sudan conflict; the aim is to examine the impact such divisions has on the role on identity formation and how the identities formed in such a fractured community ultimately lead to the problem violence and conflict. This will, in turn, allow for discussion and assessment of the role played by hegemony and essay company, subordination in the problem identity formation so that a holistic picture of the Sudan conflict begins to emerge. For the sake of simplicity it would be tempting to science fair project requirements conclude that simply highlighting the above internal divisions provides a sufficient understanding for the problem of evil essays the instigation of violence in the Sudan, especially when contrasted to the view held by many South Koreans that ‘[i]n many ways, […] homogeneity is one of Korea’s greatest strengths. Shared values create harmony […] It is the cornerstone that has helped Korea survive adversity.’ In light of a lack of social, cultural, religious, and racial homogeneity, then, it should come as no surprise that the Sudan is beard ap us, embroiled in civil war and thus the beginnings of the essays, conflict can be forgotten to focus on more important matters such as ending the conflict. However, to and other merely outline the divisions without properly understanding them is ultimately useless and essays, so it is the purpose of fair project requirements this essay to of evil essays delve into some of the internal divisions of the essays, Sudan so that we may truly understand the conflict; only then will people be able to contemplate bringing the war to a suitable and complete end.
Furthermore, as alluded to above, the prevalence of diversity alone fails to account entirely for the unique situation that has existed in the problem the Sudan for so long; we need only look to such countries as the United States of America, the ap us, United Kingdom, Australia and Canada in which the rather broadly-termed “multiculturalism” and more aptly-named “ethnic diversity” contribute to a degree of societal stability not seen in the Sudan, or Germany where regional diversity is the problem of evil essays, ‘deeply ingrained’ as is ‘the line between the Northern Protestant and the problem, Southern Catholic traditions’. Here some commentators might contend that in order to attain cohesion and stability a highly diverse country such as the Sudan requires a degree of the problem of evil economic development on of collapse, a par with Western nations, or even sufficient living space for the different societal groups to form their own satellite communities within geographically large states (since over half the population of Sudan lives in the problem essays just 15 percent of the land due to science project paper water shortages). Such an argument, however, overlooks the the problem essays, existence of thesis diamond small, non-Western states such as the Philippines and Mauritius in which multiculturalism is celebrated and institutionalised. There is clearly to more to the Sudan conflict than a diverse, economically-deprived population forced into relatively close living conditions. What, then, has led scholars such as Gadir Ali to essays conclude that ‘[t]he civil war in diamond the Sudan was inevitable’ and Prah to ask ‘[w]hy has the Sudan conflict so far eluded substantial peace?’ Here it will be proposed that it is both the enormous diversity within the Sudan in combination with the lack of a specifically and substantial “Sudanese” identity which accounts for the intense prevalence of conflict; the absence of a single strand of state identity which runs through every individual and collective in the Sudan means that these different individuals and groups are able to view themselves as remote ‘little islands of sociality’ in a vast ocean brimming with alien cultures and “others”. Of course, this metaphor is extremely exaggerated to clarify the point and in the Sudan several groups, particularly in the South, actually share a number of commonalities and relationships of varying closeness. However, the fact remains that the many differences and idiosyncrasies existing between the Sudan’s diverse population have been exacerbated to the point of intra-state conflict because there is no single conception of state identity to establish even the slightest semblance of unity and likeness among Sudan’s population; the different religious, racial and regional groups within the the problem of evil essays, Sudan fear and fight one another because there is no plane of writing company existence on which everyone recognises everyone else as a member of the same state and an equal. The Problem Of Evil. It might even be contested that the Sudan is hardly a state at all and thesis by jared, is, in fact, a series of muddled groups thrown together in the problem an attempt to mould the philosophy essays, Afro-Arab region into the problem of evil essays, the Western, state-centric conception of essays statehood. Not only does this absence of a widely accepted and omnipresent state identity explain the unyielding nature of civil war in the Sudan, but it also offers an account of how both individual and group identities are formed in relation to hegemony. The Problem Of Evil Essays. Nagengast asserts that: ‘The ideal state is the problem of evil, one in the problem of evil which the and other, illusion of a single nation-state is created and of evil essays, maintained and in which resistance is managed so that profound social upheaval, separatist activity, revolution, and coups d’etat are unthinkable for most people most of the essay writing, time.’
Following this conception of the state, then, it becomes apparent that the Sudan is far from realisation of becoming ‘the ideal state’ given the predominance of anti-state movements and militias within its borders and the distinct nonexistence of a unitary illusion of the Sudanese people. Indeed, often when discussing Sudanese affairs and the conflict waged there, an overwhelming number of commentators write about the problem of evil essays, “the Sudan”, the region, rather than “Sudan” the state. Blind Assassin. Although one should be wary of his personal motives in saying so since he is essays, advocating the secession of southern Sudan from the North, one prominent South Sudanese politician has gone so far as to suggest that: ‘There is nothing in common between the various sections of the community; no body of of the shared beliefs, no identity of interests, no local signs of the problem of evil essays unity and above all, the Sudan has failed to compose a single community.’ Rolandsen rather more objectively claims that there ‘is little binding the country together but the shared history of colonial rule.’ However, even though one might argue that the Sudan does not function as a state and does not enjoy the allegiance of the vast majority of people resident within its territorial borders, that is not to say that the beard thesis of the, continuing presence of some semblance of the problem a central authority (what one might call “the Sudanese state”) has not played a role in forming the of collapse diamond, identities of its would-be people; as Gerd Baumann notes, neither the attempts to establish a Sudanese state nor the identities of the individuals and groups who live in the Sudan are formed in a vacuum with a complete lack of awareness of, or relations with, the other – ‘there must always be room for the problem of evil essays “alterity” – for some sort of relation to the Other – in order to keep the specificity of a group’s own identity alive.’ In other words, the central Sudanese authority justifies its identity and existence in the problem of evil essays reference to the people within its borders, just as the many different groups within the Sudanese border shape and define their identities in reference to essays the central authority. Therefore, it is essay, axiomatic that the central Sudanese authority, no matter how unpopular or unrepresentative, should influence identity formation. Taking initiative from the ideas expressed in the works of both Filip De Boeck and Sherry Ortner, particular emphasis will be played to two complementary trends: firstly, how, no matter what arguments are put forward to the contrary, the Sudanese state, or lack thereof, constitutes a hegemonic regime and, secondly, how such hegemony plays an enormous role in identity formation even in times of conflict and civil war when parts of the population are actively and hostilely resisting any such imposition upon their identities by essays, the offending hegemony. ‘The dominant feature of our nation is an Islamic one and its overpowering expression is Arab, and this nation will have entity identified and the problem of evil essays, its prestige and of evil essays, pride preserved under an Islamic revival.’ In view of such vehement declarations by members of the assassin, Sudan’s political elite, it is hardly difficult to the problem understand why journalists have noted that ‘[i]t’s hard to discuss Sudan’s civil war without accounting for the role that Islam played in science fair project paper the conflict.’ It seems that the Muslims are determined to rule the the problem of evil essays, region an entirely Islamic one. Indeed, it is the problem essays, difficult to locate an academic work on the Sudanese conflict which does not lend credence to the argument that a religious schism is, partially or wholly, responsible for the intra-state violence. However, along what lines that schism is the problem of evil, drawn is often contested; some point to a “clash of civilizations” between Islam in the North and science research requirements, Christianity in the South, whereas others broaden their analysis to of evil include ‘traditional’ or indigenous religions (sometimes incorrectly grouped together as ‘pagan’ or ‘animist’) situated in southern Sudan as well. Nevertheless, wherever the science paper requirements, line is the problem, drawn, the division among the different religions present within the Sudan is an apparently irreconcilable one and one which demonstrates the intense threat posed to the Sudan’s minority identities.
In fact, both the past and present situations in the Sudan serve as terrible examples of the extremes to which religious segregation and tension can escalate within a state. Geschiere writes that religion ‘plays a front-stage role’ in paper requirements the ‘quest for belonging’ and it can be concluded that this is because religion allows an individual to locate themselves within a collection of beliefs, rituals, customs, dialogues and even hierarchy and this placing of of evil essays one’s self within an established order begins to mould and beard of the, shape one’s identity. Moreover, locating one’s self within a religion enables individuals to identify themselves with likeminded others and this association with those with whom an individual shares beliefs, in turn roots one’s identity in a partially-homogenous group and helps affirm an the problem individual’s sense of the self. It is a mutually-reinforcing process out of and other which strong, collective identities emerge. In the Sudan in particular, religion has proved particularly significant in identity formation, as ‘Abd Al-Rahim notes: ‘Until at least the beginning of this century, the the problem of evil essays, “Sudanese” identified themselves as members of beard of the constitution different tribes and sub-tribes, adherents to of evil essays various Tariqas or religious fraternities, belong to thesis ap us this or that religion of the country, and (especially the Northern Sudanese, when thinking of essays wider affiliation) as Muslin and/or Arab people. But they never thought of themselves as “Sudanese”, unless they happened to belong to what were regarded as the less sophisticated, non-Islamized and non-Arabized section of the population.’ Therefore, as noted in the introduction, with the absence of a profound and overarching “Sudanese” identity crystallising the identities of the blind, Sudan’s population around religion, a clearer picture begins to emerge of the problem essays how threats to the religious status quo , and the existence of a significant number of others who are just as attached to their different religious beliefs as an thesis individual is to their own, can lead to friction, division, and even outright opposition; as history has taught us, knowledge of other sections of the population who worship in a manner very different from the problem, yourself and knowledge of those who claim the existence of an of evil almighty entity or entities different to the one with whom you identify can breed caution, suspicion, fear and intolerance.
This is essays, especially true of the Sudan where the two predominant religions, Islam and Christianity, have been involved in fair project research paper zealous crusades to of evil convert non-believers and infidels in the past; within both religions there exists, to thesis a debatable extent, what Lynch calls ‘the exclusivist position’ which ‘argues in favor [ sic ] of the superiority of one’s own system of belief as well as the the problem essays, right to propagate it as widely as possible’. The effects of having two exclusivist religions vying for influence and supremacy in an area have been closely examined by thesis by jared diamond, Falola, who concludes that: ‘In countries where Islam and Christianity compete, as in the case of the Sudan and Nigeria, the problems of stability and identity have been compounded by rivalries for religious ascendancy, resulting in the problem of evil essays the desire for religious control or even the turning of the state into a theocracy and company, imposing a religious ideology […] In cases where indigenous religions are closely bound up with communal lives, the opposition by Islam and Christianity has also meant an attack on local custom and culture.’ What Falola makes clear, then, is that as Muslims and Christians battle for the reins of power in the Sudan, they tyrannise and attack one another and the intensity of this constant battle makes Muslims and Christians more determined to not back down and so more attached to their respective religious identities. Here it is extremely important to highlight that the religious competition in the Sudan is far from evenly mathced; not only are indigenous religions caught in the clash between Islam and Christianity, but they are notably less aggressive in their in seeking to convert others. Furthermore, it is estimated that around 70 per cent of the population is Muslim, with most living in of evil the northern two-thirds of the Sudan, with Christians and those who practice traditional religions accounting for the remaining 30 per cent. With Islam possessing the aforementioned ‘exclusivist’ characteristics, as well as constituting an of evil enormous majority in the problem of evil essays the Sudan, it is little wonder that non-Muslims feel under threat. They are right to do so. Of Collapse By Jared Diamond. ‘Dr. Hassan Turabi […], leader of the present National Islamic Front (NIF), argued that the south had no culture and so this vacuum would necessarily be filled by Arab culture under an Islamic revival’ and the problem, it was this coercive, so-called Islamic revival that led to the introduction of of evil essays a great quantity of quasi-colonial, repressive policies being imposed in the problem of evil essays the South under General Abbud’s programme of Islamification between 1958 and essay, 1964. These policies included: flooding schools with Arab history, story and the problem of evil essays, religious books; forcing teachers and pupils to wear the jaballia whilst in school; compelling government workers to the best company become Muslim; building mosques in southern, predominantly non-Muslim towns and of evil, villages; making Friday the new day of rest, thus forcing the Christian minority to the problem essays attend work on Sundays, their own day of worship. In addition to this, the of evil essays, imposition of Sharia Law across the South created a clear hierarchy, with Muslims at the top, followed by Christians, with the remaining “infidels” at the very bottom. This unique situation has shaped identity in a number of ways, ways which help to understand the Sudan conflict in both complementary and conflicting ways: complementary in blind essays that all religious identities have been strengthened in one way or another and contradictory because this was not the desired outcome.
Firstly, adopting a primordialist stance, focusing on of evil essays, what primordialists call the inherent and natural tendency of humans to identify themselves with a group whose members share obvious similarities, Hasenclever and Rittberger point to a possibility of two ultimate outcomes for identity formation in multireligious societies such as Sudan: ‘In the end, either these societies will fall apart or one community will gain dominance and suppress the others.’ For the Sudan this means either returning to assassin the pre-colonial, peaceful co-existence described by ‘Abd Al-Rahim above (brought about by what would undoubtedly be a colossal collapse of the Islamic government after a lengthy and cataclysmic war between the Muslims in the North and the non-Muslims on the South) or the Islamic government would gain unquestionable control over the region and establish an absolute theocracy. However, no matter how convincing these possible outcomes appear in theory, in practice the identity crisis brought about by religious divisions within the essays, Sudan has had contradictory effects. Paper. For instance, Lam Akol, a former high-ranking official in the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) which opposes the Sudanese government and fights for an independent South Sudan, has pointed out that: ‘The rationale for revolution, as presented in the [July 1983 SPLA/Sudan People’s Liberation Movement] Manifesto, focused on the specific grievances of the South, but the language of underdevelopment, nationality and the problem of evil essays, religion were deliberately broadened in an attempt to appeal to other regions and sectors of Sudanese society who would have been hostile to a Southern independence movement, but who had their own grievance against Nimairi and the central government.’ It appears, therefore, that religious identity was something of an afterthought or a scapegoat when amassing members of the Sudan’s population to rise up against the state; at the forefront of the minds of those leading the revolution were the ‘specific grievances of the South’ and it was these which had proved potent enough to the best company draw together a group of individuals who felt that their interests and way of life as Southerners, and not specifically Christians or practisers of indigenous religions, were sufficiently threatened. Consequently, then, it seems that religious identity is something of a secondary concern in the Sudan conflict whilst the broader regional identity has been propelled to the fore of the civil war. People are more compelled to of evil fight for regional autonomy rather than religious freedom. That is not to say that the of evil essays, dominance of Islam in of evil the Sudan has not played a considerable part in shifting the religious identities of the Sudanese population since it has, in fact, had a dual effect.
First of all, whilst the Sudanese government’s attempts at imposing Islam on those in the largely non-Muslim South have not been the essay writing company, driving factor behind the formation of the major resistance factions in the region, they have led to those practising indigenous religions to coalesce around the larger and more internationally supported Christianity. Lam Akol again notes that: ‘the current drive to Islamize the South has produced more Christian converts in the problem of evil the last decade than the entire colonial missionary enterprise did during the first half of the twentieth century.’ We can infer from this that the members of the smaller indigenous tribes of the and other, southern Sudan have felt their position increasingly endangered by of evil, the central government’s process of Islamification and so, either sensing safety in numbers or simply following what has become an increasing trend, these indigenous religions have slowly flocked to Christianity. Blind Assassin. To what extent this conversion from indigenous religions to the problem essays Christianity reflects a true and lasting alteration of religious identity in the Sudan is thesis of collapse diamond, impossible to the problem assess; it may well be that these practisers of indigenous religions have publicly embraced Christianity to benefit from the beard thesis of the ap us, protection it brings as a well-funded, well-publicised world religion and so attracting both financing and attention to their cause as resistors against an oppressive government regime, whilst privately they continue to worship in the traditional way. After all, as J.C. The Problem Of Evil. Scott writes in his work ‘Domination, Acting, and Fantasy’: ‘the greater the disparity in power between dominant and subordinate and the more arbitrarily it is exercised, the more the public transcript of subordinates will take on a stereotyped, ritualistic cast.’ In other words, the more forcefully and insistently the Sudanese government presses for those in the South to convert to Islam, the more we can expect those southerners to react in a somewhat stereotypical way: not, in this case, by science fair project paper requirements, pretending to be Muslim as we might expect since this is apparently acquiescing to governmental pressure too much, but by donning a Christian mask to make it known to the government that they resist the process of Islamification as a strong and united group. The term ‘mask’ is used here of essays course because in the comfort and of the ap us, privacy of their own homes these converts may continue to practise their previous religion, an idea Akol appears to support when he concedes that despite the high number of Christian converts in the South, ‘the indigenous religions of the southern Sudan continue to inform ideas about ethical behaviour, the moral community and political action.’ In the of evil essays, North of the Sudan where Islam is much more prevalent, the government’s policy of religious oppression in the South has had the opposite effect and has seen a rise of religious zealotry as certain sections of the population turn to the best essay writing company Islamic fanaticism: ‘To deal with shortcomings in morale and appease disgruntled parents in the north who are weary of having their sons come home wounded or dead, Khartoum has raised a parallel army: the Popular Defense Force (PDF).
This militia is composed of young Muslim volunteers persuaded that they are fighting a jihad against southern infidels. The Problem Of Evil Essays. The mujahideen in the PDF see war as a spiritual duty and death as a means of martyrdom and instant admission to heaven.’ For those individuals who subscribe to the ‘exclusivist’ view of Islam and ap us, religion in general, the the problem of evil essays, continuing existence of ‘rival’ religions in the South can simply not be tolerated and so for these individuals the government’s attempts at Islamification is a vehicle for translating these sentiments and feelings into action. The Problem Of Evil Essays. Their religious identity has been honed, sharpened and brought to the fore of the conflict between North and South and the problem of evil, so, from a Northern perspective, it is possible to claim that the Sudan civil war is best understood in terms of religion and religious conquest; unlike the SPLA which has merely used religious allegiance to entice additional southerners to join the regional North-South battle, for a significant number in the North the conflict has become all about beard of the constitution ap us, protecting and projecting their religious identity with the regional element becoming less significant. In light of all of these different ways in of evil essays which the Sudan conflict has shaped religious identity and assassin, vice versa, one constant remains: that religious identity in the Sudan, for members of all religions, is a constant struggle against hegemony. This is true even in the problem the case of those belonging to Islam because, for some Muslims, it is a relentless battle to science research paper requirements assert oneself as the dominant religion. Mutua, on the other hand, is insistent that ‘[r]ace – not religion – is the fundamental fault line in Sudan’ and there is ample evidence to essays support her view. Indeed, the science project research, primordialist interpretation of the Sudan conflict is not exclusive to analysing the role played by religious affiliation, but can also be applied to the problem explain how racial identity is drawn into the civil war. Lind, for example, invokes ancient and immutable hostilities in the Sudan, claiming that conflict arises from people fighting for ‘their primary loyalty’ to tribe and race, as they have done since ‘history’s dawn’. The attraction of such an interpretation is of evil essays, that one’s racial identity is often obvious to the problem of evil essays the outside world as physical appearance differs substantially from one race to the next; Badal explains in his article on project research requirements, separatism that in the case of the Sudan the racial divide lies between ‘the peoples of the southern Sudan [who] are African and negroid’ and the peoples of the northern Sudan who are ‘not Arabs proper, but peoples of both Arab and African descent assimilated into Islamic and Arabic culture.’ Yokwe has traced this racial divide throughout the Sudan’s history and summarised it thusly: ‘Ever since the historical contact between North and South, slavery and slave trade have been practised on racial lines, always the the problem of evil essays, Arab North raiding the African South and not vice versa. Such a practice has heightened the racial tension.
Racism in the Sudan is also manifested in social interaction particularly in of evil the institutions of marriage and work. In the Sudan the Arabs marry the Southern girls regardless of race and religion. But the Arabs will not allow their daughters to of evil be married to the Southerners regardless of race and religion. In fact, in the 1960s there were cases where Arab parents slaughtered their daughters and dumped them in the river because they were found pregnant by Southern young men.’ What we see here is vastly similar to the religious schism between Islam and Christianity – one group seeking to conquer or exploit the other. Except in this case, rather than Muslims battling for supremacy over Christians, Arabs are struggling to exert their dominance over of evil essays, Africans. Just as Christians (and practisers of indigenous religions) feel their religious identity is under threat, then, so do Africans in the Sudan feel that their racial identity is the problem essays, threatened. The Problem Of Evil Essays. This ultimately means that racial identity in the Sudan has been shaped in much the same way as religious identity has: in the North the Arabs have strengthened their Arabic identity through a sense of superiority over the Africans in the problem the South, and in the South the Africans have developed their strong bonds of racial identity through sheer determination not to be conquered and not to blind assassin be exploited by the Arabs. Of Evil. Once again we see that identity formation in of collapse by jared the Sudan civil war is two sides of the same coin, or even a double-edged sword; strong racial identity has led to cause for conflict and conflict has led to essays a strengthening of racial identity.
In the of the, context of the Sudan civil war, since one side contends that they are somehow so fundamentally different to the other that they should not be ruled under the same central authority, it seems appropriate to analyse the ethnic dimension as well as the race, especially because ethnicity is another way in which the Sudan is highly divided. The Problem Of Evil Essays. In fact, the highest number of divisions exists along lines of ethnicity in the Sudan, as one trio of dedicated scholars have discovered: ‘Excluding foreigners, an philosophy ethnic polarization index of 0.625 is calculated for the country. If a polarization index in excess of the problem of evil 0.5 is considered high, then clearly the Sudan is an ethnically polarized country.’ There is essay writing, such a high degree of ethnic polarization in the Sudan because of the existence of a great number of of evil ethnic tribes. In his work, Lam Akol explains the importance of tribal affiliations and their continued relevance throughout the course of Sudan’s history: ‘The word “tribe” has been discarded in the problem of evil essays much anthropology, except where it translates a local word, and is resented in much of Africa as a pejorative term. Its retention [here] is justified because of its specific political meaning in the ethnography of the Sudan, and because most Sudanese, both Southern and Northern, recognise the existence of tribes and willingly assert their membership of them. Of Evil. The Arabic word for tribe, gablia , is commonly used throughout the Sudan.’ The many different tribes and writing company, the many different forms of relations and interactions between them will not be explored in the problem essays great depth here, firstly because the focus of this essay is specifically the role played by tribal identity in the Sudan conflict, and secondly because there are many anthropologists who have done a far better job in observing and understanding the Sudan’s tribes than I could ever hope to achieve. What is important to note here, however, is that: ‘Tribal societies lack the kinds of centralized authority characteristic of states. Their regulative institutions, their mechanisms of of the constitution ap us social control, are therefore inherently weak and essays, operate only over beard thesis constitution ap us, a limited range of of evil essays social relationships. Peace and security can be assured at all only blind assassin within relatively small social groups, typically groups of kin.
The relationships between these little islands of sociality are fragile and always potentially hostile.’ The smallness and closeness of tribes naturally means that interactions between their members are frequent and intense, with each and every tribal member fully aware of the group dynamics at play. This high level of social interaction among their members means that tribes play an the problem of evil essays enormous role in the best forming and consolidating an individual’s identity in the Sudan. An individual’s tribe is an the problem of evil essays intimate network of support, protection, provision and labour and the best writing company, it is essays, through the various roles available within a tribe that an individual can shape their identity; a woman might be a mother, a wife, a sister, the beard constitution, cook, the cleaner, the gardener and essays, a whole host of other roles whereas a man could be a hunter, a warrior, a father, a husband, and a leader. The exact distribution of these roles will of course differ from tribe to tribe and varying degrees of the best overlap may exist, but the fact remains that people’s roles within their tribe will greatly affect their experience of day-to-day life and their identity will form around that central pillar of being. Aside from the the problem, international relations within tribes, the external relations between tribes play a large role in shaping the identities of Sudan’s population and there are almost as many forms of inter-tribe relations as there are tribes; some tribes, the Pari for instance, have been notably isolationist throughout their history, whilst others enjoy peaceful relations with a number of other tribes and rely on these for their livelihoods and trade. Still others, such as the Nuer and the Dinka, relate to one another through raiding, kidnap and states of war, but it is important to note that ‘the feuding [does] not dominate relations.’ Negotiated access for Baggara cattle to Dinka and Nuer watering spots was more common than raids before the war.’ Through tribal identity, then, the Sudan’s population is interconnected and shares a fundamental level of understanding which is certainly not attained through religious of national identity. It would be easy to mistake this as a reason why the the best, people of the Sudan might be reluctant to the problem essays enter into a civil war when they have enjoyed a relatively peaceful and the problem essays, well-established dynamic based upon the acceptance of the above relations through tribal interactions, but this overlooks the the problem of evil, enmity, explored below, that exists between the Arab tribes of the North and the African tribes of the South; although the beard ap us, status quo has been historically stable between tribes within the the problem of evil, Northern regions and between those in the South, examples of amicable and nonviolent relations between northern and southern tribes are few and far between.
If anything, tribal affiliation has been a relatively inconspicuous factor in initiating the Sudanese conflict, except for exacerbating existing North-South tensions, and instead is and other, more helpful in understanding why the conflict has endured for so long because, as one commentator suggests, ‘[t]he protracted civil war has altered the nature of traditional conflicts in Southern Sudan […] Conflicts have become more complex’ and ‘new conflicts have emerged’. So, for instance, the the problem of evil essays, traditionally reclusive Pari who were once wary of the Dinka-dominated SPLA/M saw large numbers of their men join the SPLA’s ranks when the essays, militia stopped in their villages whilst Nuer-Dinka relations became so explosive between 1991 and of evil, 1994 that it caused a split within the Southern separatist movement, with the Dinka remaining in the SPLA/M and the Nuer forming their own South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A) – the spit was so cataclysmic, in fact, that the essays, SSIM/A fought with the northern government against their southern brethren, something which would have been unthinkable if not for the waging of civil war in the region. In addition to this, tribal relations have become increasingly more violent as a result of the Sudanese civil war, with one Sudanese local saying that ‘previously we only of evil heard about cattle raids but not killing of women and children like has happened of paper requirements late.’ Filip De Boeck asks: ‘How does (ethnic) self-representation operate as a psychological and cultural strategy for coping with the chaotic and despotic socio-politics and economics in a peripheral “frontier” situation?’ The answer in the case of the Sudan can, it seems, be located within Geschiere’s The Perils of Belonging in which he notes that ‘identities can shift from inclusive to exclusive tendencies’; within the context of the problem essays civil war, the ethnic and particularly the tribal identities of the Sudan’s populations have intensified to the extent that they have become increasingly intolerant of outsiders and ‘others’. Actual violence and animosity has replaced almost ritualistic practices of philosophy and other essays raiding cattle pillaging wives between competing tribes and traditionally isolationist tribes have been drawn into conflict through increasing interaction with outsiders and independence movements. However, at the root of this intensification of identity is the exacerbation of the of evil essays, regional conflict in the Sudan – the ethnic hostility and fluctuations in tribal relations are manifestations of a much more fundamental identity conflict in of evil essays the region. Whilst not explicitly stating so, Buzan and Weaver’s concise and simple summary of the Sudan conflict effectively demonstrates that both the of evil essays, racial and religious tensions are framed almost perfectly by a regional confrontation; the Sudan civil war, they note, pitches ‘a mostly Arab, Islamic north against a mostly black, non-Islamic south’. The Best Essay Writing Company. Whilst their short analysis of the conflict is somewhat over-simplistic, it does succeed in getting to the heart of the matter and it will be argued here that they are right in suggesting that a regionalist account offers the best, most holistic means of understanding the Sudanese civil war because not only does it incorporate the issues of religion and race already discussed above, but it also brings new elements for analysis. The Problem Essays. As commentators have noted, the history of Sudan ‘is full of tales of thesis of collapse by jared invasions, enslavement and exploitation of the South by the North’ and issues of Northern and Southern nationality and national identity ‘occupy a central position in the conflict’ and so it is of evil essays, this historical and all-pervasive aspects of the regionalist factor which accounts for its enormous significance in beard of the constitution ap us understanding the Sudanese conflict. The historical basis of the severe regional tensions in the Sudan is an unfortunate postcolonial legacy left over from the of evil essays, momentous occasion when power was finally stripped from the beard thesis constitution, Sudan’s colonial masters and granted to the newly autonomous region. Already before this process had even begun, there existed an intense suspicion of government and central authority throughout all of Africa, as Falola has discussed in-depth in her book on African culture: ‘The dominant political value revolved around exploitation: the primary motive of the colonial power was to the problem of evil essays cheat and exploit Africans; and the primary duty of Africans was to resist.
Government was perceived as the enemy of the beard constitution ap us, people, a view that remains current today.’ In this context of suspicion, oppression and subordination, then, it was negotiated that the colonial structures erected and maintained by Britain would be transferred intact to the northern Sudanese nationalists, therefore the perception of the problem of evil essays government as ‘the enemy of the people’ was eliminated in the North since they inherited the hegemonic legacy whereas those living in thesis of collapse the South remained subjugated and powerless. Moreover, since the colonial regime had sought to the problem of evil ‘preserve’ the ‘innate’ qualities of native cultures, it had sharpened and essentialised interethnic racial divisions which had only served to exacerbate regional tensions and further segregate the North from the by jared, South and so by the time the the problem of evil, North held the reins of power the science fair project research requirements, South felt completely and utterly under threat. The Problem Of Evil. As a result, it is little surprise that: ‘Southern leaders have since argued that de-colonisation was flawed in the sense that Southerners had no influence on the process in general, nor on the future of the Southern Sudan. Blind Assassin Essays. The fundamental question of whether the of evil essays, South belonged in the Sudanese state at all was not addressed.’ The issue of southern independence has been a contentious one up until the present day and the fact that a referendum was held on January 9 th 2011 to determine whether or not the Sudan will indeed split into essays, two separate entities only lends credence to the extremely significant role regional identity has played in the conflict – the referendum is the problem essays, surely testament to the sheer force of will of those in the South to assert their regional identity. Of course, that regional identity is a culmination of religious, racial, and other affiliations, but, as will become clear, the regional identity in the Sudan has become the most cultivated and the most fiercely protected.
The determination of the the best essay writing, Sudan’s southern population in defending their regional identity has been shaped, in part, by the oppressive actions of the government in the North who, intent on maintaining the separation of North and South, developed the “Southern Policy” which mandated regional and racial segregation, whereby ‘the South was to be developed along “African”, rather than “Arab” lines’ and was to be intentionally underdeveloped when compared to the North. The Problem Essays. This policy of subjugation only served to science fair paper unite the southerners further as they formed mutual bonds through their experiences of oppression and of evil essays, adversity; Gerd Baumann calls this phenomenon ‘alterity’ and has observed that ‘[w]hen one party argues that it encompasses the other, the other party will often respond by postulating a grammar of segmentation.’ This goes a long way in explaining why the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Army became such a powerful organisation as it pushed for Southern independence and blind, attracted people from even the remotest parts of the South. John Garang de Mabior, leader of the SPLA/M, claims that the appeal of the organisation was so strong because the the problem of evil essays, oppression had become so terrible that ‘the marginal cost of rebellion in the South became very small, zero or negative; that is, in the South it pays to rebel.’ For all its strengths, however, formation of essays regional identity in the Sudan has been severely hindered over the years, with pockets of disagreement and in-fighting proving extremely counterproductive to the southern separatists’ cause in particular. Of Evil Essays. It has already been noted that the SPLM/A suffered internal divisions which led to essays a splinter group, the the problem of evil, SSIM/A, allying with the and other essays, Khartoum government and ‘[a]ttempts were made by [the SPLA/M] to essays join forces with Anyanya 2 groups, but these often ended with their fighting each other.’ Badal even goes so far as to essay writing suggest that in the South ‘it can be assumed that there exists a condition more suitable for conflict than for a claim for a separate existence.’ Even in the comparatively homogenous North there exists an ‘ethnic struggle for the problem power in Khartoum.’ Furthermore, whilst it can be seen to encompass them both rather perfectly, regional identity in the Sudan can also be seen to be in competition with religious and racial identity: ‘the “observation” that kinship is beard thesis of the constitution, made of flesh and blood contains the verdict that the physical facts of biological relatedness count as shared identity, which then entails the presumption that certain kinds of rights and of evil, duties will be assumed between “kin” as a matter of course.’ The duties and obligations an individual may feel to his kin who, more often than not are integrated in that individual’s tribe, are further compounded by the observations made by Evans-Pritchard and Rivers who ‘noticed how systems of religion and social organization reflected and supported those kinship systems of beliefs and practices.’ Religion and the best essay, race, therefore, can be seen as mutually reinforcing an individual’s identity, and thus become of more importance to that individual, in ways in of evil which regional identity cannot. Nevertheless, as the saying goes, actions speak far louder than words and the outcome of the referendum that was held on 9 th January 2011, which is expected to come in a matter of weeks, is expected to the problem prove that the number of people in the South who voted for the problem essays unity with the North is an extremely tiny minority – even Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir has hinted that he suspects he will eventually have to concede that he can no longer rule the blind, people of southern Sudan. ‘[D]omination, aggression, and violence are intrinsic parts of social life. This is often expressed in of evil essays terms of the problem of evil essays race, class, and gender but can also be based on religious beliefs, political affiliation, national origin, age, and physical or mental disabilities.’ There are few examples of domination, aggression, and the problem essays, violence in recent history to blind essays the extent that has been, and continues to be experienced in the Sudan.
For this very reason, the of evil essays, Sudan serves as a perfect case study for assessing the role played by such domination, aggression, and violence on research requirements, identity formation and it has already been proposed that such oppression has had a profound effect on shaping religious, racial and regional identity in particular. Here it is possible to link this conception of identity formation through domination, aggression, and violence to the notion of hegemony, which, as one scholar has argued, ‘has played an especially strong part in helping us to understand how power works to form the social person, shaping the way in which people variously experience the the problem of evil essays, world they live in.’ In linking hegemony, power, and identity formation within the context of the Sudan conflict, some conclusions begin to emerge. First and foremost, it becomes explicitly clear that at the best essay writing company the heart of hegemony is the ability to actively affect the identities of those over whom it has influence, and the reverse side of the problem this is that the individuals living under the hegemon are receptive, either knowingly or entirely ignorantly, of its influence. Fair Project Research. In other words, the hegemon seeks to change its subjects and its subjects are continually being changed. The Problem Essays. It is a two-way process: there is the top-down aspect in which the hegemonic regime exerts its influence on science fair project research paper requirements, the population and there is the grassroots aspect by which the essays, population absorb the hegemonic influence into their existing identities and thesis of the, roles and the problem essays, make it their own. Which brings us to the second point, which is that because identity formation through hegemonic influence is a two-way process it is all the blind essays, more unpredictable because there are so many possible outcomes: the influence of the hegemon can be overwhelming and cause the desired outcome, as has been the case with mujahideen in the North of the Sudan; the influence could be entirely rejected and instead have the opposite effect, which can be seen in the way the North’s policy of Islamification has created a large number of Christian converts in the South; or hegemony and the resistance to it could reach a relatively comfortable degree of equilibrium. According to Malwal, the essays, prevailing trend in the Sudan is that the more the attempt by diamond, the northern governments to promote the dominant religion and language in a “vain and costly effort to establish a nation state of the problem essays cultural and religious homogeneity in the place of one of beard of the diversity” has only aggravated the the problem of evil, grievances of the southern Sudanese’ and only served to increase their determination to oppose the North. Ortner suggests that ‘[r]esistors are doing more than simply opposing domination, more than simply producing a virtually mechanical re -action […] They have their own politics.’ However, he fails to and other essays appreciate that this is precisely why hegemony has such an enormously transformative and pervasive effect on identity formation because hegemonic influence has the power to change these internalised politics of both resistors and supporters alike.
In his work culture, Hall expands upon this and explains that: ‘Ruling ideas may dominate other conceptions of the social world by setting the limit to what will appear as rational, reasonable, credible, indeed sayable or thinkable, within the the problem of evil, given vocabularies of motive and action available to us.’ An example of essays hegemonic influence shaping everyday motive and action in the Sudan can be seen in the renowned works of Sharon Hutchinson who spent several periods of her life living with the essays, Nuer tribe of the South; instead of philosophy and other conversations revolving around ‘cows and of evil, oxen, heifers and beard, steers, rams and sheep, he-goats and she-goats, calves and lambs and the problem essays, kids’ as they had during her first visit to the Nuer cattle camps in 1978-1979, less than two decades later Hutchinson found that the essay, Nuer’s conversations were now preoccupied by ‘national political issues, cabinet shake-ups, regional troop movements, and the Jonglei Canal scheme.’ In other words, the sheer occurrence and pervasiveness of interaction with the hegemonic regime in the interim years had completely altered the the problem of evil, interests, the hopes, and the fears of the thesis diamond, Nuer; simply the knowledge of the Khartoum government’s oppressive policies and the Sudanese conflict was enough to adjust to everyday dynamic. This point clearly serves to address De Boeck’s question when he asks: ‘Are social co-operation and control limited to small pockets of society in the absence of generalised, overarching civic and political culture, or are there still wider dynamics at play?’ There is the problem of evil, no doubt that there is a distinct absence of an ‘overarching civic and the best company, political culture’ in the Sudan. Indeed, Eisei Kurimoto notes how, in the case of the the problem essays, Pari from southern Sudan, this sense of isolation and removal from the state is reinforced in beard constitution ap us their everyday speech and language: ‘ Gaala is a Pari word which connotes all foreigners of lighter skin, both Arab and Europeans, as well as residents of the problem towns. Government is also called gaala […] The implication in the use of this term is that for the Pari successive rulers of the Sudan are just foreigners and their governments are also alien. To the Pari people all outsiders are enemies to a certain degree.’ In calling it ‘gaala’, the Pari assert that the feel no allegiance to the government in thesis Khartoum and have no sense that there is an overarching authority determining their motives and actions; of of evil essays course the government exists to the Pari in the most rudimentary sense, but it is a simple and distant existence without any immediate implications for the tribe. The Pari think of the alien Sudanese government much as they might when discussing a foreign country or a distant star. This is assassin, not a recent trend and those living in the South of the Sudan have a long tradition of disregard for whatever government might come along, with Rolandsen noting that ‘[i]n the period up to the problem 1918 without any close administration, it probably did not make much difference to most Southerners whether it was the and other essays, Turks, the of evil essays, Mahdists or the British who claimed sovereignty in their territory.’
However, as alluded to the problem above hegemony is about more than asserting sovereignty over an area of essays land: it is about ‘the mastering of history’ and, as Antonio Gramsci proposed in his prominent works on social and cultural hegemony, it is about how a social class or group exerts cultural leadership or dominance over other classes in maintaining the socio-political status quo whilst influencing these subordinate classes to the best essay writing company accept and adopt the values of the of evil, hegemon. It is this unrivalled power to change those in the lower echelons of society which explains why ‘[t]he African elite, irrespective of their location and sources of idea, regard culture as the number one tool in creating a difference between African and non-African, consolidating national and ethnic identities.’ Therefore, to answer the question posed by De Boeck earlier, there are certainly wider dynamics of control at play even in the absence of an philosophy essays overarching, formalised and legitimate central authority; the influence exerted by the hegemon in the problem a population or society penetrates and infiltrates the the best writing company, culture and the problem, daily lives of those beneath in numerous and varied ways so that those being influenced may not be immediately aware of the existence of these external forces at work. Thus, in the case of the Sudan, whilst sectors of the population may be almost oblivious to, or completely disregard, the Sudanese government, the government in question has unquestionably shaped and fair paper, altered their identities, beliefs and dialogues through the continuing presence of conflict and strife. Either directly or indirectly, the essays, religious, racial and regional identities of those living in the Sudan have been broken down and rebuilt by the hegemonic regime in place. As one final point it is important to emphasise that the philosophy, transformative power of hegemony should not be overestimated; as an elusive and sometimes intangible concept, it is easy to sometimes see hegemonic influence and a subsequent change in society where neither exists. Indeed, Brown raises the point that ‘[r]esistance is a perfect vehicle for of evil essays the expression of moral fervor precisely because it is so vague, so easily left to the eye of the beholder’ and it is sometimes tempting for scholars and students to view an event or the belief of a group and thesis diamond, make links between oppression and resistance when, in actuality, the event of belief was created through other means. There is a prime example of such an event in the problem essays the account of Kurimoto’s stay with the Pari: ‘A Pari explained his people believed the coming of the SPLA would result in thesis of the ap us a situation of “no government”, as had been the case during the first civil war, and the problem, they destroyed all the things belonging to the government. One could say it was an expression of their wish to remain autonomous without government. However, the fact that 200 bags of sorghum stored by the problem of evil essays, the co-operative association were seized and distributed by the mojomiji [the middle-aged tribal rulers] of the six villages might mean the the problem, looting was controlled by the mojomiji and may not have been an uncontrolled mob action.’ Here Kurimoto questions the motives of the rulers of the Pari tribe in bringing about the philosophy essays, destruction of the government buildings. Certainly they could have been expressing their desire to be free of the unwanted Sudanese government in the North, but equally the mojomiji could have been using the threat of civil war to assert their dominance and of evil essays, maintain their own form of hegemony and stability in light of the problem of evil essays a more pressing external threat; on arriving in of evil essays the Pari villages, the SPLA had proved popular enough to draw away many men to the battlefields and it is just as plausible that the mojomiji wanted to keep their influence over these men themselves rather than see them led astray by the southern separatist movement.
Enzensberger, speaking as a patronising, imperial stepfather might talk about an unwanted, unreasonable child, makes his stance known when he exclaims that in fair Africa ‘[v]iolence has freed itself from of evil essays, ideology’ and the contemporary civil wars which occur within its borders are a form of science project research requirements ‘political retrovirus […] about nothing at all’. Even if one should entirely reject the arguments offered throughout the course of this essay, it is fervently hoped that, if it has achieved nothing else, this essay has convincingly rejected notions such as Enzensberger’s from discourse concerning the conflict in Sudan; the Sudanese civil war and associated violence is firmly rooted in a battle for the problem of evil essays one’s identity and constitution, place in both group dynamics and wider society. As Hanlon rightly states, identity is ‘an internal root of war’ and so to suggest that self-realisation, the expression of the problem one’s self and situating that self in relation to the ever-fluctuating hegemonic regime is ‘nothing’ is sheer ignorance and, quite frankly, an untenable position. Because a significant number of constitution ap us notable sectors of its population live under an incompatible, alien central authority, the conflict in of evil the Sudan is ultimately a confrontation between groups in search of a common overarching identity under which they can unite. ‘Abd Al-Rahim, M., ‘Arabism, Africanism, and assassin, Self-Identification in the Sudan’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.) The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.29-46. Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniversire, 2003). Badal, R.K., ‘The Rise and essays, Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan’, African Affairs (October 1976), Vol. 75, No. 301: 463-474. Banton, M., ‘Ethnic Conflict’, Sociology (August 2000), Vol. Philosophy Essays. 34, No.
3: 481-498. Baumann, G., ‘Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach’ in Baumann, G. and Gingrich, A. (eds.) Grammars of of evil Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006) pp. 18-52. Brown, M.F., ‘On Resisting Resistance’, American Anthropologist , (December 1996) Vol. 98, No. 4: 729-749. Buzan, B. and Weaver, O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Cramer, C., Violence in Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006). D’Andrade, R.G., ‘Cultural Meaning Systems’ in Schweder, R.A. and LeVine, R.A. (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), p.92.
De Boeck, F., ‘Postcolonialism, Power and and other essays, Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from the problem essays, Zaire’ in of collapse diamond Werbner, R. and the problem essays, Ranger, T. (eds.), Postcolonial Identities in Africa (London: Zed Books Ltd, 1996), pp.75-106. Falola, T., The Power of beard thesis African Cultures (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2003). Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’ in Collier, P. and Sambanis, N. The Problem. (eds.), Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, Vol. Thesis Constitution. 1 – Africa (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005), pp.193-220. Geschiere, P., The Perils of of evil Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and essays, Exclusion in Africa and Europe (Chicago: University of the problem of evil Chicago Press, 2009). Hall, S., ‘The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism Among the Theorists’ in C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds.) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Urbana: Univ. III. Press, 1988), pp.35-57.
Hanlon, J., ‘Ethnicity and Identity’ in Yanacopulos, H. and Hanlon, J. By Jared. (eds.), Civil War, Civil Peace (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), pp.95-112. Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), p.4. Hasenclever, A. and Rittberger, V., ‘Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict’ in the problem of evil essays Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.107-147. Holsti, K.J., The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory (Boston: Alan and Unwin, 1987). Hutchinson, S.E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State (London: University of California Press, 1996). Idris, A., ‘The Racialised and Islamicised Sudanese State and the Question of ap us Southern Sudan’ in the problem of evil essays Jalata, A. (ed.), State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa (London: Routledge, 2004), pp.30-44. International Crisis Group, God, Oil and Country: Changing the Logic of War in Sudan (Brussels: IGC Press, 2002), p.3. Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Oxford: James Currey, 2004) Johnson, D.H., ‘Darfur: Peace, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity’ in Kaarsholm, P. (ed.), Violence, Political Culture and Development in Africa (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), pp.92-104. Karns, M.P. and Mingst, K.A., International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of fair paper requirements Global Governance , 2 nd edn. (London: Lynne Rienner, 2010).
Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’ in Fukui, K. and Markakis, J. (eds.), Ethnicity Conflict in the Horn of the problem Africa (London: James Currey, 1994), pp.95-111. Lynch, C. ‘Dogma, Praxis, and Religious Perspectives on blind essays, Multiculturalism’ in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.55-78. Mamdani, M., ‘Making Sense of Political Violence in Post-Colonial Africa’, Socialist Register (2003): 132-151. Martin, R., ‘Sudan’s Perfect War’, Foreign Affairs ( Mar/Apr 2002), Vol. 81, No. The Problem. 2: 111. Meyer, C., DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of fair project research paper requirements Britain’s Ambassador to the US at the Time of 9/11 and the Run-up to the Iraq War (London: Phoenix, 2005).
Mutua, M., ‘Racism at the Root of Sudan’s Darfur Crisis’, The Christian Science Monitor , 14 July 2004: 10. Nagengast, C., ‘Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State’, Annual Review of Anthropology (1994) Vol. 23:109-136, p.109. Ortner, S.B., ‘Resistance and the Problem of the problem of evil essays Ethnographical Refusal’, Comparative Studies in Society and History , Vol. 37, No.1: 173-193.
Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , paper prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for thesis of collapse Social Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy , September 2001, Durban, South Africa. Essays. Accessible via the internet at project requirements [http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/prah-01e.pdf]. Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005). Russell, P. and the problem, McCall, S., ‘Can Secession Be Justified?’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.93-122. Salih, K.O., ‘British Policy and the Accentuation of Inter-Ethnic Divisions: the Case of the Nuba Mountains Region of Sudan, 1920-1940’, African Affairs (July 1990), No.89: 417-436. Scott, J.C., ‘Domination, Acting, and Fantasy’ in Nordstrom, C. and Martin, J. (eds.), The Paths to Domination, Resistance, and Terror (Berkley: University of California Press, 1992), pp.55-84. Smith, G., ‘Hegemony’ in fair paper requirements Nugent, D. And Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of the problem of evil Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp.216-230. Straus, S., ‘Darfur and fair research paper requirements, the Genocide Debate’, Foreign Affairs (Jan-Feb 2005), Vol.
84, No.1: 123-133. Van Willigen, J., Applied Anthropology: An Introduction , 3 rd edn. (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 2002). Wai, D.M., ‘Introduction’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.1-6. Wassara, S.S., Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Southern Sudan (Berlin: Berghof Foundation for Peace Support, 2007). Whiteford, L.M. and Bennett, L.A., ‘Applied Anthropology and Health and Medicine’ in Kedia, S. and of evil essays, van Willigen, J. (eds.), Applied Anthropology: Domains of assassin Application (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), pp.119-149. Yokwe, E.M., ‘Arabicisation and Language Policy in the Sudan’, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences , Vol. 14, No. 2: 149-170. Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of the problem Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, Africa Media Review (1997), Vol. 11, No.
3: 80-103. ‘Multiculturalism in Korea’, JooAng Daily , August 26 th , 2010. Agency for Independent Media, ‘In Southern Sudan Conflicts, Women and Children are Targeted’, 13 th February 2010, accessed on 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.aimonline.org/]. Foreign Policy, ‘The World’s Newest Global Capital?’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/06/the_worlds_newest_capital]. Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’, November 24 2003, accessed 17 th December, 2010 via [http://www.hrw.org/en/node/12243/section/1]. International Criminal Court press release (12/07/2010), accessed 3 rd January, 2011 via [http://www.icc-cpi.int/menus/icc/press%20and%20media/press%20releases/pr557]. The Economist, ‘Independence Beckons’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.economist.com/node/17851399].  Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, Africa Media Review (1997), Vol. 11, No. 3: 80-103, p.82.
 See for example Karns, M.P. and science fair research requirements, Mingst, K.A., International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance , 2 nd edn. (London: Lynne Rienner, 2010), p.212 and Straus, S., ‘Darfur and the Genocide Debate’, Foreign Affairs (Jan-Feb 2005), Vol. 84, No.1: 123-133. International Criminal Court press release (12/07/2010), accessed on 3 rd January 2011 via.  Examples of such a consensus exist in Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniversire, 2003), Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of the problem of evil Sudan’s Civil Wars (Oxford: James Currey, 2004), Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005), Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973).  International Crisis Group, God, Oil and Country: Changing the Logic of War in Sudan (Brussels: IGC Press, 2002), p.3.
 Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures (Rochester: University of philosophy and other essays Rochester Press, 2003).  Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , paper prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy , September 2001, Durban, South Africa. Can be accessed via the internet at [http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/prah-01e.pdf].  ‘Multiculturalism in Korea’, JooAng Daily , August 26 th , 2010.  Meyer, C., DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of Britain’s Ambassador to the US at the Time of the problem of evil 9/11 and the Run-up to the Iraq War (London: Phoenix, 2005), p.28.  Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’, November 24 2003, accessed 17 th December, 2010 via.
 Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’ in Collier, P. and Sambanis, N. (eds.), Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, Vol. 1 – Africa (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005), p.219.  Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in blind assassin the Afro-Arab Borderlands , p.5.  Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), p.4.  Nagengast, C., ‘Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State’, Annual Review of Anthropology (1994) Vol.
23:109-136, p.109.  Aggrey Jaden, President of the Sudan African National Union, in a speech given at the inauguration of the Union in essays Kampala in 1964, quoted in Russell, P. and McCall, S., ‘Can Secession Be Justified?’ in fair paper Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , p.107.  Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the the problem essays, 1990s , p.22.  As evaluated by blind essays, Geschiere, P., The Perils of the problem of evil essays Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and diamond, Exclusion in Africa and Europe (Chicago: University of essays Chicago Press, 2009), p.166.  Excerpt of a speech given by science fair project research requirements, Sayed Saddig El-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party, at the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Philosophical Societies of Sudan (1965), cited in Yokwe, E.M., ‘Arabicisation and Language Policy in the Sudan’, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences , Vol.
14, No. 2: 149-170, p.155.  Martin, R., ‘Sudan’s Perfect War’, Foreign Affairs ( Mar/Apr 2002), Vol. 81, No. 2: 111.  Although for an interesting article which attempts to remove the Sudanese conflict from its religious context see Mutua, M., ‘Racism at the Root of Sudan’s Darfur Crisis’, The Christian Science Monitor , 14 July 2004: 10.  Lam Akol writes that ‘“Animism” is an archaic term with little descriptive value’ used to avoid the pejorative terms associated with paganism. He goes on the problem of evil essays, to state that ‘as “animism” is now generally understood […] there are properly no “animists” in the southern Sudan’. For more see Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: the Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniverse, 2003), p.xv-xvi.
 Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and beard thesis of the, Europe , p.1.  ‘Abd Al-Rahim, M., ‘Arabism, Africanism, and essays, Self-Identification in the Sudan’ in Wai, D.M. (ed.) The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , pp.33-34.  Lynch, C. ‘Dogma, Praxis, and Religious Perspectives on Multiculturalism’ in Petito, F. and thesis of collapse diamond, Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from the problem, Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p.62.  Falola, Y., The Power of African Cultures , pp.57-58.  Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’, pp.43-44.  Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, p.94.  Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005), pp.24-5.  Banton, M., ‘Ethnic Conflict’, Sociology (August 2000), Vol.
34, No. 3: 481-498, at p.482.  Hasenclever, A. and Rittberger, V., ‘Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict’ in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.110.  Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniverse, 2003), p.63.  Scott, J.C., ‘Domination, Acting, and Fantasy’ in Nordstrom, C. and Martin, J. Philosophy Essays. (eds.), The Paths to Domination, Resistance, and Terror (Berkley: University of essays California Press, 1992), p.56.
 Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.xv-xvi.  Martin, R., ‘Sudan’s Perfect War’.  Mutua, M., ‘Racism at the Root of Sudan’s Darfur Crisis’, p.10.  Quoted in Johnson, D.H., ‘Darfur: Peace, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity’ in Kaarsholm, P. (ed.), Violence, Political Culture and Development in essay writing company Africa (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), p.92.  Badal, R.K., ‘The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan’, African Affairs (October 1976), Vol. 75, No. 301: 463-474, p.464.
 Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of the problem of evil Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, pp.85-6.  Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and of evil, El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’ p.216.  Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.xv.  Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia , p.4.  Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’ in Fukui, K. and Markakis, J. (eds.), Ethnicity Conflict in the Horn of the problem Africa (London: James Currey, 1994), pp.95-111.
 Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’.  Human Rights Watch, ‘Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights’.  Wassara, S.S., Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Southern Sudan (Berlin: Berghof Foundation for Peace Support, 2007), p.5.  Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern, p.100.  Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars .  Hon Maker Chol Adol, the member of the thesis of collapse by jared diamond, South Sudanese Legislative Assembly from Makauch Payam, quoted in Agency for Independent Media, ‘In Southern Sudan Conflicts, Women and Children are Targeted’, 13 th February 2010, accessed on 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.aimonline.org/].  De Boeck, F., ‘Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and the problem of evil essays, Global Perspectives from Zaire’ in Werbner, R. and Ranger, T. (eds.), Postcolonial Identities in Africa (London: Zed Books Ltd, 1996), p.75.  Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe , p.32.  Buzan, B. and Weaver, O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p.241.  Wai, D.M., ‘Introduction’ in Wai, D.M. Fair Project Paper Requirements. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , p.1.  Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.339.  Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures , p.102.
 Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars , p.22.  Salih, K.O., ‘British Policy and the Accentuation of Inter-Ethnic Divisions: the Case of the Nuba Mountains Region of of evil essays Sudan, 1920-1940’, African Affairs (July 1990), No.89: 417-436.  Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the of evil essays, 1990s , p.24.  Idris, A., ‘The Racialised and Islamicised Sudanese State and the Question of Southern Sudan’ in Jalata, A. Of Evil Essays. (ed.), State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa (London: Routledge, 2004), pp.30-44.  Baumann, G., ‘Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach’ in Baumann, G. and Gingrich, A. (eds.) Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006), p. 31.  In a statement made to the Sudanese people on the ‘Founding of the beard constitution ap us, Sudan’s People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudan’s People Liberation Movement (SPLM)’, quoted in Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?’, p.193.  Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.27.
 Badal, R.K., ‘The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan’, p.465.  Yokwe, E.M., ‘Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of the problem Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies’, p.82.  D’Andrade, R.G., ‘Cultural Meaning Systems’ in Schweder, R.A. and LeVine, R.A. (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on diamond, Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), p.92.  Whiteford, L.M. and Bennett, L.A., ‘Applied Anthropology and Health and Medicine’ in Kedia, S. and van Willigen, J. (eds.), Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), p.122.  Foreign Policy, ‘The World’s Newest Global Capital?’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/06/the_worlds_newest_capital].  The Economist, ‘Independence Beckons’, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.economist.com/node/17851399].  Van Willigen, J., Applied Anthropology: An Introduction , 3 rd edn. (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 2002), p.92.  Smith, G., ‘Hegemony’ in Nugent, D. and Vincent, J. The Problem. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p.216.  Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., ‘The Sudan’s Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for thesis by jared diamond So Long?’, p.211.
 Ortner, S.B., ‘Resistance and the Problem of Ethnographical Refusal’, Comparative Studies in of evil essays Society and the best writing, History , Vol. 37, No.1: 173-193, pp.176-177.  Hall, S., ‘The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism Among the Theorists’ in C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds.) Marxism and the Interpretation of of evil essays Culture (Urbana: Univ. III. Press, 1988), p.44.  Hutchinson, S.E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and essays, the State (London: University of California Press, 1996), pp.32-33.  De Boeck, F., ‘Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from Zaire’, p.76.
 Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’, pp.95-111.  Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.23.  Smith, G., ‘Hegemony’ in Nugent, D. and the problem of evil essays, Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of essay writing Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p.217.  Holsti, K.J., The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory (Boston: Alan and Unwin, 1987).  Falola, T., The Power of the problem of evil African Cultures , p.3.  Brown, M.F., ‘On Resisting Resistance’, American Anthropologist , (December 1996) Vol. 98, No. 4: 729-749, p730.  Kurimoto, E., ‘Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan’, p.100.  Quoted in essays Cramer, C., Violence in essays Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006), p.77.
 Hanlon, J., ‘Ethnicity and Identity’ in Yanacopulos, H. and Hanlon, J. (eds.), Civil War, Civil Peace (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), p.110. Written at the problem of evil essays : Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Written for : Professor Filip De Boeck. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.
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The Importance of Therapy “Homework” Assignments for of evil Treating Your Anxiety Disorder. Have you done your therapy homework today? There was a time when psychotherapy meant reclining on a comfortable sofa, free-associating to a silent “all-knowing” therapist. It may not have done much to thesis diamond, treat anxiety disorders, but it was comfortable and risk-free. If you are serious, however, about treating your anxiety disorder, a very different and much more effective approach is the problem essays required: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) with an emphasis on Exposure with Response Prevention (ERP). Science Fair Project Research Requirements. This approach involves taking concrete steps towards changing your thoughts, beliefs, and of evil essays, behaviors in order to lessen your anxiety. This requires committing yourself to thesis of collapse by jared diamond, hard and often uncomfortable work in the short term in order to live a more comfortable future. Typically, this means “homework” and lots of it! Yes.
I agree that coming to therapy once a week and getting a pleasant dose of supportive reassurance might (in the short term) be more enjoyable than coming to essays, therapy and blind essays, doing challenging things like ERP, only to leave with homework assignments for the problem the week. Writing Company. If research showed that the former worked, I’d gladly do that type of therapy. Research, however, consistently shows that CBT is the non-medical treatment of choice for anxiety disorders . Consequently, if you are serious about managing your anxiety disorder, then challenging yourself with CBT (and the homework that comes along with it) is what gives you your best chance of victory. The rule-of-thumb with CBT is that you get out of it what you put into essays, it. Research Paper Requirements. Ultimately, you are the only one who can make the choice to face your fears and therefore (assuming you have access to appropriate anxiety diagnostic, treatment, and support resources) you are responsible for the success of your treatment. What types of homework might be expected of me?
Since the types of things people fear are limitless, the content of your homework could be anything. Early on, you will likely be given questionnaires and other “data-collection” tasks to do. The Problem Essays. Then, you will need to learn about thesis by jared your anxiety through hand-outs, book recommendations, and/or internet information sources (You’re doing that right now…good for you!). Then, you will be taught specific CBT and ERP skills and will be expected to practice regularly outside of therapy. Some people will also be taught specific social, problem-solving, relaxation, or acceptance-based skills that they will be expected to practice regularly.
How much time will I need to devote to homework assignments? That depends. With severe anxiety disorders, I typically recommend that clients budget a minimum of one hour daily, six to seven days per week for the first month or so. I know that finding an extra hour for ERP each day is challenging, but here’s the the problem essays deal—research shows that exposure therapy works best when exposure sessions occur frequently and for longer durations. You will likely make more progress in philosophy and other essays, two weeks if you spend four hours a day, seven days a week doing ERP than spending ten years doing ERP once a week for fifteen minutes. What are some reasons why people do not do their homework?
Lack of understanding of the essays importance of therapy homework is the assassin essays most likely reason (“I’m terrified of dogs. Of Evil. Why on earth would I want to interact with one?”). Everyone who engages in thesis constitution ap us, CBT or ERP needs to of evil essays, have a reason to science fair project requirements, do so that makes sense to them. Do you really want to do something that someone else tells you is the problem of evil essays a good idea, is very uncomfortable, and makes no sense as to why you ought to do it? I thought not. Project Research Requirements. If you are serious about the problem of evil essays getting your anxiety disorder under control, ask questions, read appropriate self-help or psycho-educational materials, and the problem essays, if you can, talk to people who have had a similar problem and have treated it successfully. Take charge of your own anxiety by becoming informed. Some people feel pressured to come for treatment. Perhaps a spouse or parent is giving you an ultimatum—get treatment or else! By coming to therapy, you grudgingly meet the externally imposed mandate and by of evil essays, NOT doing your therapy homework you get to fail at therapy and blind assassin, tell the people who are pressuring you, “See, it doesn’t work”, ensuring that they will get off your back.
Change is the problem of evil unlikely without sufficient motivation . For some, the discomfort they fear they will have with ERP feels too painful for them to undergo. In this case, perhaps they (or their therapist) have set too challenging of a homework task —it happens. This can be resolved by either learning anxiety coping skills prior to ERP or breaking the task up into smaller steps. There is always a micro-step, so find it and repeat it until it is the best writing less distressing, and then take the next micro-step. If you are devoting an hour or so to ERP a day, those micro-steps can add up to substantial progress quickly.
Homework usually means changing a problem behavior that may be very automatic. The Problem. Avoidance is a hard habit to break for many . Genuine ambivalence is common among people contemplating facing their fears. And Other. Early and honest discussion of this with your therapist is important in order to reduce the likelihood of being assigned homework that you are not yet ready to undertake. If you are still not sure that you want to make a change, it is not appropriate for the problem essays you to thesis of collapse by jared, be sent home from therapy with an ERP action plan for the week. Therefore in these cases, your initial homework is best focused on the problem of evil essays, seeking information and bolstering motivation.
If the reasons for thesis by jared diamond making a difficult change does not sufficiently outweigh the reasons for continuing your avoidance then it is likely NOT the right time to treat your anxiety disorder. Better to be honest about this upfront and cease CBT/ERP rather than accumulating a list of half-hearted homework “attempts” and failures and concluding that this treatment doesn’t work for you. It is common for people with severe anxiety disorders to also be depressed. The Problem Of Evil Essays. Depression saps one’s motivation to the problem of evil, engage in pleasurable activities so it certainly presents a challenge for the problem of evil essays completing tasks that might be scary, such as facing a feared situation. Often depression will need to be treated prior to treating an anxiety disorder . While there may be the hope that your anxiety disorder can be overcome, there may be a stronger belief that it is just not possible to get better , that maybe you are too far gone.
This can certainly impact one’s willingness to beard ap us, do ERP. Talk to your therapist about your concerns. The Problem. It is fair research paper requirements important for you to know that people CAN learn to manage their anxiety disorder even if it is severe and has gone on for many years. It will, however, take consistent work on your part to of evil essays, make that happen. While some people are open to trying new things if it seems like it might help them with a problem, there are some people whose personality is greatly defined by resisting help from other people.
Some of essays, us tend to be just plain oppositional. If you put someone like that in therapy and the problem, ask them to do something differently, they are likely to dig their heels in even deeper. The more they are pushed the harder they resist. Essay Writing. If this describes you then your best bet for improving your anxiety is to become an expert in your anxiety. Do it for you and no one else. Don’t go to therapy to get told what to do, but “hire” a therapist with an expertise in your anxiety disorder and utilize them as a consultant in your self-directed treatment. Just be sure to be up front about this so that the therapist understands his or her role.
There are others whose personality is characterized by a more passive, dependent, or avoidant stance. These are people who have a consistent pattern across many facets of their life that revolve around either avoiding unpleasant things or enlisting someone else to do unpleasant things for them (or at least accompany them). Of Evil. If this is beard thesis constitution ap us your personality, then your anxiety might be managed best if you can push yourself to take on ERP challenges more independently, initially enlist someone as an the problem essays anxiety coach in the early stages, or enroll in a more intensive treatment program where, at least initially, you could have more one to one time with your therapist while doing exposure activities. Most people would agree that discomfort is thesis a normal and natural part of life. Some people, however, carry a belief that they “should always be comfortable” . The Problem Of Evil Essays. This is a Thinking Trap that propels people towards a never-ending quest for comfort. The more you try to essay, stay always-comfortable, the more your ability to tolerate discomfort diminishes. Chasing comfort, therefore, can make your world quite small and your activities very limited. Discomfort IS normal and building up a tolerance for discomfort is the problem of evil actually part of some anxiety treatment protocols.
For someone with a severe anxiety disorder, treatment needs to be a top priority in thesis of the, order to ensure that sufficient time and attention is devoted to of evil, taking those steps needed to get better. Fair Project. In life, however, illnesses, crises, time-consuming work obligations, or other genuine obstacles may present themselves. There are, in fact, worse times to treat anxiety disorders than others. Sometimes other life events DO need to essays, take priority. That’s not to say that you cannot treat your anxiety in thesis by jared, the face of the problem essays, other problems or obligations, but being realistic about your time constraints (and competing priorities) is important in deciding when to proceed with treatment and at what level of intensity. If you really are unable to make anxiety treatment a very important priority in your life, discuss this with your therapist and decide together whether to the best essay writing company, postpone treatment or to briefly shift focus. There are also therapist issues to consider such as whether they have an the problem of evil expertise in and other essays, ERP and are willing to work within established CBT treatment protocols. The Problem Of Evil Essays. If you are concerned whether the and other types of homework assignments are appropriate for treating your anxiety disorder, ask questions, read anxiety educational materials, and get informed. Of Evil Essays. If you are working with a therapist who you feel does not understand the problem for which you are seeking treatment, or you simply are not “hitting it off” then discuss this with him or her and look for of evil another treatment provider.
It is important that you feel your concerns are being addressed. It is difficult to do therapy homework when you have a poor relationship with the the problem therapist who has recommended your daily ERP tasks. Some people do not follow-through with therapy homework assignments because of the “secondary gains” they receive from maintaining an anxiety disorder . For example: Disability payments Additional attention and support from fair research requirements, friends and of evil, family More time with kids, parents, or partners More time to pursue other interests (read—not having to work) Maintaining a status quo Getting out of chores or other obligations Avoiding other normal life discomforts. Maintaining an anxiety disorder in order to blind essays, receive secondary benefits is typically NOT something people are aware they are doing. They may attend therapy for the problem essays the attention or because they are pressured by others, but taking consistent steps towards real improvement is typically absent because getting better would lead to the problem of evil essays, losing something they do not want to lose. The unfortunate thing is that in the problem of evil, many cases the benefits from overcoming their anxiety disorder would greatly outweigh the beard thesis benefits they are receiving from the problem of evil essays, their secondary gain—they just can’t see it. Sometimes the secondary gain is to relieve pressure from of collapse, someone else. For example, a child with separation anxiety may refuse to leave home to go to school partly because of of evil essays, unspoken pressure to support a depressed parent’s dependency needs (in other words the parent is diamond meeting one of the problem essays, their needs by having a “sick” child). What should I do if I cannot get myself to follow through with homework assignments at all? That depends on ap us, a number of factors and I recommend that you discuss this with your therapist.
However, here are some possible approaches: Explore with your therapist the pros and the problem essays, cons of treating your anxiety Work with therapist on problem-solving or decision-making skills Treat an philosophy essays interfering condition first Put off treatment until you are ready (or seek more supportive treatment first and work on basic motivational issues) Find a therapist who has more expertise on treating your problem (for anxiety disorders check www.adaa.org for a list of therapists who belong to the Anxiety Disorders Association of America) Work with your therapist to the problem of evil, take smaller steps Make sure you understand (and agree with) the rationale for doing CBT homework Tell supportive people your goals (making it public increases likelihood of the best, follow-through) Enlist a friend or family member as an anxiety coach to cheer you along as you complete your homework Schedule homework into your day Make it a top priority Reward yourself after completing your homework (perhaps only watch TV after your homework is done) Generate bigger incentive such as taking a vacation if you follow-through on your homework for a month Impose a negative consequence for not doing your homework (such as giving money to a charity you despise) Consider a more intensive treatment (such as an of evil intensive outpatient IOP program or an philosophy and other essays inpatient or residential anxiety treatment program) where you will do more of your ERP with a therapist present Stop treatment for a set amount of the problem of evil essays, time (teachers might hold off on treatment until they are off of teaching for the problem of evil essays the summer) In sum, there is good news and bad news. The Problem Of Evil Essays. The bad news is that for many people with an anxiety disorder, they will not get better unless they follow-through with appropriate, but potentially unpleasant treatment assignments. The good news is that with follow-through on these assignments most people will improve their anxiety significantly. Eric Goodman, Ph.D.
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100 Exploratory Essay Topics With Research and Sample Papers. The Problem Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. These essays don't argue for a particular position. Instead, they look at an issue from thesis of collapse diamond, several points of view.
An excellent essay keeps the reader guessing. You present the best arguments and essays, evidence from all sides and the problem, then let the reader make up their mind. 1. How to Pick a Great Topic. 2. 5 Types of Exploratory Questions. 3. Of Evil. Sample Essays. 4. Exploratory Topics and Research Articles on: Energy and essay writing, the Environment. These essays are great for hot-button topics. The best paper topics will be something that: Have at least two sides that people argue. Are something that many people are interested in talking about. Is an the problem essays, issue that is philosophy essays, not agreed on.
Is something that you can research. Includes information which is not just opinion. To get you started, I have included many different exploratory essay topics below. For many of the topics, I've included one or more links to essays which will get you thinking about the topic. 1. Fact: What is the problem essays, it?
What is true? How can I know? 2. Definition: what does it mean? How should we categorize this? 3. Cause: What or who caused this? Who is responsible? 4. Value: How important is it? How much attention should we pay to it? Is it overblown or undervalued? 5. Policy: What should we do? Who should do it?
How can we do it? Example of blind essays Different Questions on One Topic. Of Evil Essays. Creationism vs. Evolution vs. Intelligent Design: Creationism and Evolutionism continue to be a debate both within the church and thesis of collapse by jared diamond, within American society. The Problem Of Evil. I explore 5 different positions that Christians hold on this issue and include some excellent reference works on of collapse by jared diamond, this debate. Is Big Love Better Love? People who practice polygamy preach the virtues of big families, but others say it isn't right for the problem of evil, men to share wives. This excellent student essay explores both sides of the question using examples in the United States and around the world. Beard Thesis Of The Constitution. How to Become a Republican: I explore my own uneasy relationship to patriotism and the American flag in the problem of evil a humorous exploratory essay. Is Love the Most Important Thing?
What is the most important thing to look for in a spouse? Is it love and physical attractiveness, compatibility, similar backgrounds, or a combination? What does race really mean? Do you have to play the blind, role that nature assigns you? Is race more defined by culture and our family environment, or by genetics? Would the United States be a better country if more people identified themselves as multi-racial? Why do most Americans feel they must identify with one particular race? Should people have their DNA tested for their racial background?
What would be the consequences of the problem of evil humans knowing genetic information about themselves? Should average individuals seek to have their DNA sequenced? Who should have access to of the, that information? Should cloning of humans be outlawed? Is it all right to genetically manipulate an of evil, embryo in order to prevent them from having a genetic disease? What does your DNA reveal about you? The Bachman / Baughman D.N.A.
Project and how this test has been used to identify genes for Obesity, Alcoholism and other disorders. Human DNA Sequencing, Website of National Human Genome Research Institute. Essays. Do recycling and using green products make a difference? Are there some things individuals can do to improve the environment which make more of the problem of evil essays a difference than others? Is the greenhouse effect real?
How important is it to blind, make policy changes that affect greenhouse gases? Is the of evil, problem with changing emissions political or technological? Are there existing technologies which would let us reduce greenhouse gas now? Is reducing emissions in blind essays the United States going to the problem essays, make a significant difference? How can the by jared, world influence China and India and other heavily polluting countries to essays, reduce emissions?
Do greenhouse gases really harm people? Can renewable energy really provide enough power? Should we rely on nuclear energy more? Should there be more government funding for alternative energy research and development? What is Materials Science? How important is Materials Science to solving world energy and essay, technology problems? Is an electric car a realistic possibility in the near future? Will nanotechnology really help us clean up the environment? How can we make sure nanotechnology is the problem of evil, safe?
Can we really repair the and other essays, rainforest? Is eating and growing food locally really better for the environment? Will advanced technologies like driverless cars or super fast vacuum trains be the answer to the environmental crisis? Some Convenient Truths by Gregg Easterbrook, in Atlantic Monthly, September 2006. Of Evil Essays. Building a Better World with Chemicals [panel discussion about possible future developments in nanotechnology and of evil, chemistry] in Discover Magazine, September 2012. Are we doing too many high-tech tests in our health care system? Do these tests really make for better health care? How do we balance the need for the problem of evil, good health care with the writing, continually increasing cost of essays health care drug and testing technologies?
What is the relationship between malpractice suits and doctors insurance and the use of of collapse by jared high-tech tests on patients? Should we devote more international effort to solving the problem of tapeworms and other health issues found mostly in poorer nations? How can our health resource dollars be distributed more evenly? What responsibility do First World Nations have to give Third World peoples better heath care? Should a gastric bypass operation be used as a standard treatment for the problem of evil, Type 2 diabetes? Are we relying on expensive health technologies like surgery and the best writing, drugs to cure things that should be taken care of by the problem of evil better lifestyle choices like good diets and exercise? Are using nanobots a good idea? Could nanobots be used as weapons or by and other essays terrorists? What are nanobots and how can they help solve health problems?
Should humans have microchips and the problem, nanobots implanted in them? How should we value our bodies with respect to inner technologies? Could nanobots be harmful to the human body? How realistic is nanobot technology? How close are we to fair project, a practical human application? Is technology a solution or a danger to our health and the problem essays, society? How important are the new superbugs that are resistant to all antibiotics? What will happen if we don't find something to fight them? Our Bodies, Our Technologies: Discusses the way in which nanotechnology is poised to alter our relationship between our bodies and technology.
The Bypass Cure: Explains research which found that giving people bypass surgery also cured them of Type 2 Diabetes. Is surgery a good option for science fair project research, treating this condition? The Hidden Epidemic: Tapeworms in of evil essays the Brain: tells the the best essay writing, shocking story of what happens when tapeworms, which ordinarily live in the problem the stomach, end up moving to beard of the ap us, a person's brain. This article suggests that Western Nations should spend more resources investigating ailments which affect developing nations. How does egg and sperm donation affect family relationships? Should egg and sperm donors have a role in the life of a child? What are the ethical considerations in sperm donation? Should there be more regulation on egg and sperm donation? Are reproductive technologies necessary or are the fostering a “shopping” mentality among parents who want to choose their child’s genetic make-up? Is donating to a sperm or egg bank a good idea? How do policies of of evil sperm banks violate the privacy of donors?
How much information should sperm banks give about donors? Is it right for of evil essays, parents to choose the characteristics of their child? Should mothers allow their fetus to be tested for genetic disorders if they would not abort the child? What are the options in reproductive technologies for infertile couples? Is IVF a good choice for the problem of evil essays, infertile parents? Should medical insurance cover infertility treatments? How far should scientists go in altering the genetics of essay writing humans? Should parents be able to have their children cured of diseases by genetic altering before they are born? Reproductive Technology Research Articles.
Reverse Eugenics : Choosing an Embryo Who HAS a Disability: Should this be an the problem of evil essays, option for parents who are deaf or have other disabilities? Is Twitter or other social media helpful to classroom learning? Should students be allowed to text and use social media in class? Is it a good idea for philosophy, students to be allowed to the problem, follow a teacher on social media? How is technology in schools changing? How important is it for school districts to invest heavily in technology?
Will technology mean the loss of teacher jobs? Do computers teach better than humans? How will instructors and instructions have to blind, change in order to incorporate social media in the problem of evil the classroom? Will using digital technology make teaching easier or harder? Do students learn more when teachers incorporate technology in the class? Should all students be given and essays, Ipad or computer for class? Should all textbooks be digital? Is there a difference between reading a digital textbook and a paper one?
Which is better? How can schools limit bullying on social media? Can students be taught better if teachers don't use any technology? Or limited technology? If so, what is best?
What difference will it make in our lives if information is more easily accessible everywhere? Does the advent of the problem essays E-readers mean the end of thesis diamond libraries? Will electronic books really save students money? Will using tablets and E-readers have a negative effect on our eyesight? Do people read as well on computers and of evil, tablets as they do on the problem of evil, paper? Are today's students as good at reading as people in the past who read on paper and the problem essays, not digitally? Education Technology Research Articles.
How Reading is Being Reimagined by thesis of collapse by jared Matthew Kirschenbaum for The Chronicle of of evil essays Higher Education, 12/7/2007. How eBooks Lost Their Shine by Paula Cocozza for The Guardian, April 2017. Can people have a meaningful online dating relationship? How is social media changing teenage relationships? Do cell phones hurt or help relationships? Are today's high school and essay company, college students able to communicate face to face as well as people in the past? How does the of evil essays, ability to research paper requirements, post about your relationship on social media change modern dating relationships for better or worse? Is digital dating a good idea? What are the benefits or dangers?
Is digital dating a meaningful experience? Who should try digital dating? How can you be safe while digital dating? Should there be background checks? Is our digital age what it making it more difficult for people to find someone to date? What causes someone to the problem of evil, try digital dating? How common is online dating? How many online relationships end in marriage? Which online dating service is best?
Can online relationships be as meaningful as face to face ones? Can online learning be as good as meeting in a class? How is online education different than traditional classroom education? Should colleges and the government promote more online college classes to reduce the by jared diamond, cost of higher education? What causes people to choose an online learning environment rather than a traditional classroom? Is cost the major factor? Should employers judge online college classes differently than traditional college degrees? Communication Technology Research Articles.
The Ugly Truth About Online Dating by Ryan Anderson in Psychology Today, Sept. 6, 2016. Should everyone get their DNA sequenced? Is gene screening ethical? Does this change how we see ourselves and others? What are the dangers of people doing their own genetic experimentation at home? Should there be regulation on who can buy supplies and equipment which can be used for molecular genetic experiments? Should the government prohibit personal labs for genetic engineering? Is it a problem that many graduate students learning molecular engineering techniques are not U.S. citizens?
Harvard University geneticist George M. The Problem Essays. Church who worked on of the ap us, the Human Genome Project suggested that the possibility of cloning extinct species and even a Neanderthal man is something we will eventually be able to do. What are the ethics of such a project? Can genetic mapping and the problem, looking at the DNA of extinct species help us? Who should decide what should be cloned and philosophy, what should not? Does DNA research on extinct species take away from the efforts to preserve endangered species now? Genetic Engineering Research Articles. The Dawn of Biohackers: Do it Yourself Molecular Biologists by Delthia Ricks, in Discover, 10/05/2011. 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas.
by Virginia Kearney 0. Research Topics in English Literature. by of evil essays LisaKoski 33. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to philosophy and other essays, Write an Argument Essay Step by of evil Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. Michele McAlister 2 years ago. Perfect. I am completely starting ovr in life getting back to thesis by jared, my roots that are my passion positively affect my life future. Writing is one of these passions. So far your articles have been wonderful!
Keep them coming! Much love my fellow writer. I hope to learn from you. Xoxo. Eiddwen 4 years ago from Wales. The Problem Of Evil Essays. Very interesting and useful. Thanks for sharing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and blind assassin essays, company names shown may be trademarks of the problem of evil their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Thesis By Jared. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on essays, affiliate relationships and philosophy and other, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and the problem, others.
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We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available). For example, some of the the problem essays ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in essay writing, order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website.
Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from the problem third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and the problem of evil, interactions with us;
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You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by essay writing providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is used by the problem advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of science fair project paper requirements, our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. The Problem Of Evil Essays. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent.
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In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about essays You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in beard thesis, which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in of evil essays, the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of the best essay writing company, taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an the problem essays emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to essays, third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information.
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