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My Assignment Help : Samples Case Study Review Sample. OUR TOPIC IS: THE AGE CARE IN AUSTRALIA. AND PLEASE DO THE ASSIGNMENT FOLLOWING THIS: What is the being asked ? Two parts: (i) the relevant facts and viewpoints pertaining to the issue. (ii) the advantages and disadvantages of each policy option – in particular the macbeth, implications for equity and economic efficiency. – Introduction, give your essay plan, 100-150 words. – Part i) facts and viewpoints, give the facts and viewpoints (policy positions of different interest groups ) but try to conclude by answering “What are the issues?” – 500-600 words. Analyse the efficiency equity of two policy approaches. Evaluate the two policies – 1000 words.
Like many developed countries Australia is essays, also faced with the problem of macbeth and oedipus, ageing population, thus making policy and statement health care for the aged a priority for the Australian government. Macbeth Essay! Various policy measures have been undertaken by the government aimed to provide social support or residential health care or care through discounting services for the aged. While some policies have been successful the others have been faced with implementation challenges or deficiencies in the policy. The paper examines the policy measures undertaken by the Australian government to provide care to the aged. It also analyses the success of the policies and the challenges faced by the policies in the implementation process.
2. Need to spanish essays about love provide Care to the Aged. Like many developed countries Australia is also faced with the problem of ageing population, thus making policy and health care for the aged a priority for the Australian government. With increased longevity and essay high fertility rates implies large numbers of aged population in the future. According to an estimate in 2001 there were 2.4 million persons over dissertation fundamental phenomenological, the age of 65 years forming 12.5% of the population this number is likely to increase by 2021 to about 18% of the total population. Though there is not an increase in the number but there is an increase in proportion of population that can be classified as aged.
This proportion of the population cannot be ignored. Thus, the need to provide care to and oedipus the aged has become increasingly important to meet the people’s expectation to provide care in family, the old age. As the numbers of the aged grow there is macbeth, also a change in the aspirations of the group from the policy makers. It also has to be noted that the nature of health care which would be provided to the group would vary in different groups, creating diversity in the group. For instance a group of nighter essay, aged may require health care in hospitals. The health status of each may vary, therefore the government needs to formulate policies so that the needs of all the groups can be accommodated and social welfare can be equally distributed among the most that need it the most. The aged persons requiring care according to estimates 90% of those are pensioners. Health care services are huge cash outflows thus burdening the population with excessive expenses. The pensioners can be classified as relatively poor on the income hierarchy tree. And Oedipus! Therefore there is a need of essays about love, concentration of government policy considering the income factor of the population. There is also a rise in the health care needed by the aged in the special groups like the disabled or those suffering from mental illnesses.
This has been the result of increase in the life expectancy of the population. Thus with rising diverse needs of the aged population ,the government is expected to fulfil the demands and expectations of the groups making policy making a key issue for the government to support the aged population. (www.agedcare.org.au – accessed on 4/5/2012) 3. The Australian Government Policy to Support the essay, Aged and its Strengths. With the ageing concerns of the of the Australian population like many developed countries have increased the statement, Australian government’s policy measures to essay provide health care as well as support care to the aged. The rise in the aged population over the years likely has increased the chemosynthesis sugar, proportion of population in the aged group.
Therefore the need and the expectation of this group of population from the government have been increasing. As a result the government has adopted several policy measures to support this section of the population. The proportion of persons aged 80 years or more is likely to increase from 3.3 % in 2002–03 to 9.1% by 2044–45, thus putting an increased pressure on essay the government to increase the expenditure on age care in sugar, particular residential aged care, in particular residential aged care. This group is the main user of the aged care services as well as the main beneficiary of any policy measures undertaken by the government. Thus the increase in the number of aged has resulted in the increase in the number of policy measures needed to support the group (Tannous and Luo, 2006) Therefore to support the group the following policy measures have been undertaken by macbeth and oedipus essay, the Australian government. 3.1 Increase in the Resource Allocation. With the launch of the essays about, Aged Care Act the Australian government’s expenditures on the provision of resources for the purpose has been increasing continuously. In 2008-2009 the expenditure increased to $9.1 billion from $8.1 billion in 2007-2008, implying an increase of over 9% over a year’s span. This trend has continued till 2012 despite the growing fiscal deficits of the government the government has made appropriate resource allocations to support the aged.
However, it is argued by many critics that the allocations made are often insufficient to support the large population in the group and also because aged care is expensive. The government has supported the expenditures and largely financed the expenditures through the tax revenues. As the government has experienced an increase in the tax revenues the resource allocation has also increased proportionately. But the financial crisis has increased the economic burden on the consumer and has led to the reduction in the tax receipts over macbeth, the years 2010-2012. Total tax receipts have been revised to $9.8 billion in 2010?11 and $6.6 billion in 2011?12. The write downs of $16.3 billion of black issue neutron phenomenological star, tax receipts over the two years period have accounted for a downward revision of $12.4 billion for 2013. Therefore financing the macbeth and oedipus essay, aged care bill through tax revenues may create pressure on the government thus other methods should also be used. (www.budget.gov.au- accessed on 4/5/2012)
3.2 The Provision of chemosynthesis equation, Grants and Subsidies. The government provisions for the care for the aged seem to and oedipus be highly subsidised. This can illustrated through with the comparison of the expenditures when compared between public and chemosynthesis equation sugar private residential care for the aged. The private residential home largely operates on the principle of macbeth essay, profit maximization. On the other hand the government organizations are non-profit entities aimed at the maximization of social benefits, hence proving that the government sector is highly subsidised in comparison to sugar the private sector. In 2011 The New South Wales government aimed to provide individualised arrangements through extensive consultations. These consultations were launched by the minster of Disability Services; Over 3000 persons participated in the process and based on and oedipus the individual consultations the grants to individuals were made.
The community relations department of the New South Wales has also invited grants from the community to support the social welfare schemes of nighter essay, provide care to the aged. (www.ncoss.org.au- accessed on 4/5/2012) 3.3 Healthy Aging Savings Accounts. The Australian government is macbeth, increasing the investment of the thesis statement, population in Healthy Aging Saving Accounts. The HASA is macbeth essay, a voluntary scheme being offered to black dissertation fundamental hole phenomenological citizens of the economy to save for old age and retirement care. Individuals are being encouraged to invest in these accounts and the government is offering them a tax rebate of 15%. Balances in the HASA’s accounts can be invested in the other activities and the gains from those investment activities would be automatically added to the HASA accounts at the reduced tax balance rates.
Greater flexibility in the saving system has been introduced with the HASA accounts, for instance it gives parents flexibility to macbeth essay invest in their children’s accounts to save for their future or the cares could contribute to the accounts of the person receiving HASA care. The HASA scheme is a tax haven for individuals as any income received through the spanish about love, HASA is not subject to the health tax provisions. This acts as a motivation and enables individuals to consider the macbeth and oedipus, HASA scheme. The HASA scheme reduces the future health care burden of the individuals which may incur in the future as it enables the accumulation of funds at the earlier stages of life which can be effectively utilised at the latter stages. The only disadvantage of the scheme is that it is privately owned and operated by yale dissertation, many service providers. Therefore the high costs uncertainties associated with the private sector cannot be ignored. The government should effectively work to macbeth make the HASA scheme more flexible such that transfer payments can be smoothened and the funds can be utilised by the individual when in need with ease. (National Seniors Australia, 2010)
3.4 Investment in Long Term Insurance Care (LTIC) The investment in the long term insurance care allows the people to insure themselves from the future risk of needing high cost aged care. This is similar to most of the insurances that people undertake, to safeguard themselves against other risks. Many developed countries have already offered these schemes to their citizens and have been met with success. Essay! In Australia the scheme is and oedipus essay, relatively new and is likely to about gain momentum gradually over the years.
Germany introduced mandatory LTIC for most of its population in 1995 this has encouraged a culture of saving for the old age care in the population. The LTCI schemes are both public as well as private. The choice of the LTCI is determined by the income and needs of the population. The higher income earner opts for the private LTCI schemes and the government and salaried employees largely invest in the government schemes. Whatever the case may be this has ensured that 90% of the German population is and oedipus essay, covered by insurance which is an indicator of the massive success of the scheme. Similar schemes have been implemented by the governments across all developed countries like Japan, US and UK.
The example of these countries is now being followed by the developing countries like India and China to encourage saving for old age care. In Australia, high incentives for this scheme are likely to be introduced and nighter essay are more likely to be provided by the private insurance companies like the German case. The determination of the premiums is based on an analysis of the and oedipus essay, mean tests rather than undertaking the risk analysis by the insurance companies. Statement! More over private enterprise schemes are more efficient than the public schemes, since the macbeth and oedipus essay, competition ensures both a greater degree of nighter essay, options as well as fair distribution of services among the consumers. The privately run schemes are also likely to reduce the efficiency loss that may be imposed through such schemes. (National Seniors Australia, 2010) The policy decisions undertaken by the Australian government create efficiency in services being provided to the aged. Macbeth! While some of the nighter essay, schemes may directly benefit the users as the services being provided are at and oedipus essay subsidised rates, and others may be long term investments to provide for age care in the future. Though the policies have been formulated for the purpose of nighter essay, maximization of public welfare some inefficiency in the system are prevalent and have been discussed below.
4. The Weaknesses of the Current System. The current aged care system in Australia has been inherent with certain weaknesses. These weaknesses have resulted in the creation of economic inefficiency in macbeth and oedipus, the system. The age care system has largely been formulated and thesis for kids funded by the government but provision of unfair subsidies results in and oedipus essay, the creation of economic inefficiency. Some of the weaknesses of the system have been highlighted below: The biggest problem of the sector has been the continuous lack of funds faced by the system and the inability of the nighter essay, government to provide subsidies to meet with the growing needs and demands of the age care sector. However the 2004 federal budget provided some relief to the citizens. The government undertook the recommendations made by the Hogan Review of Pricing Arrangements in macbeth essay, Residential Aged Care; these were particularly to statement for kids provide residential care to the aged. These measures were largely short term in nature and would be able to support the sector in the short run; however the long run viability is questionable.
There have been no budgetary measures undertaken to support the and oedipus essay, sector. Another weakness of the current system is that it seems to be overly regulated by the government. There are too many systems and policies that overlap this make the system inefficient. The regulations are largely similar but have certain different aspects. These regulations are far too detailed and need to be simplified so that efficiency in the sector can be restored. (www.agedcare.org.au – accessed on prizes 4/5/2012) For example let us consider the example of the Residential Aged care facilities being provided by the government. These facilities operate in macbeth and oedipus, a highly regulated structure at the national, state or and local areas and have certain standards and guidelines imposed on them by the government. The regulations incorporate all respects from the building and design of the, type of residents that can be cared for as well as the nature of the type of services being provided. The intensity of the care provided differs from area to nighter essay area based on then regulations and the support provided by the local government. Thus the over regulations creates economic in efficiencies in the system.
The occupational health and safety (OHS) has by tradition fallen in the territory of the state governments in Australia. Regulations of OHS in Australia have been imposed through the legal enactment and the enforcement apparatus associated with it. Whereas the duty care of the employees and their roles and responsibilities fall under the purview of the Commonwealth Department of Health and essay Family Services 1996 and Industry Commission 1995. Nighter Essay! Thus there are too many bodies regulating the same sector which creates economic inefficiency. (Tannous and Luo, 2006)
Under current system is largely funded by tax revenues, where the government pays to for the residential care for the aged. These revenues are used subsidise the macbeth and oedipus essay, sector and pay for the care of the essay, aged. The high costs incurred to and oedipus pay for the care of the chemosynthesis equation, aged is imposed on macbeth essay the tax payers. This creates an economic disparity among the social groups in the society, thus eventually resulting in the burden of the subsidy falling on the tax payer. Therefore until the efforts to increase the tax revenues are not made the current system would be economically inefficient and prizes would continue to borne high costs to the tax payers. The economic efficiency loss can be illustrated with the help of a graphical presentation. Figure 1: Existence of Dead Weight loss and a result of funding through Revenues. When the funding is done through revenues it results in the loss of efficiency as a result in dead weight loss. As a result of tax, the tax payer is forced to pay a higher price which is inclusive of tax; the normal price charge is essay, lower. Thus at nighter essay the quantity supplied is lower if the funding would be done through the tax revenues, creating loss of efficiency because of and oedipus, existence of the dead weight loss. In the above figure: If the market is in equilibrium the Price P should be charged i.e. is at functionalism family the point of intersection of the demand and supply curve.
But however if taxation is macbeth essay, imposed the price p + t is yale, charged resulting in the loss on quantity supplied , and the existence of the dead weight loss which is a loss of efficiency. The economic inefficiencies are also created if the system is funded through when the services are provided in macbeth essay, kind rather than cash. The in kind provision of the fundamental hole issue, services results in and oedipus essay, the higher loss of economic efficiency. The cash transfers ensure a more equitable distribution not however loss of efficiency still exists, but the efficiency loss is lesser. (Tannous and Luo, 2006) 4.4 Employment and Workforce Issues. A highly skilled work force is required to provide care to the aged in Australia. The skilled workforce comprises of doctors and nurses which are required to care for the aged. Australia is already facing workforce issues; Australia is currently faced with a shortage of doctors and nurses that are required to provide high quality health care to yale prizes the aged. The workforce shortage that already exists is likely to intensify in the future. Macbeth Essay! Thus the quality of workforce needs to be improved with the government aims to provide quality care to the aged.
(www.agedcare.org.au – accessed on 4/5/2012) 4.5 Lack of Research and spanish love Development Expenditure. Commentators and macbeth essay analysts have often complained of the lack of research and development expenditure incurred to develop the facilities and health care for the aged. A greater investment in the research and development would result in equation sugar, greater efficiency in the sector and as well improve the quality of care provided. Higher investment would also benefit the community as a whole as the benefits can be reaped in the form of better health care, residential facilities as well as increased life expectancy of the aged. (www.agedcare.org.au – accessed on 4/5/2012) Like many developed countries Australia is also faced with the problem of ageing population, thus making policy and health care for the aged a priority for the Australian government. For this purpose various policy decisions have been undertaken by the Australian government. Though many of the schemes introduced may be privately run and operated the macbeth and oedipus essay, Australian government has played an prizes, active role in regulation and the implementation of the policies to maximise social welfare.
But despite the and oedipus, best efforts of the Australian government, the policies are inherent with some weaknesses .This has resulted in the loss of equation, economic efficiency and creating a burden on the government’s fiscal load. The subsidization of the and oedipus, care being provided to the aged may be economically not feasible in the long and particularly in the current economic scenario where the economies are trying emerge out thesis for kids, of the essay, financial crisis. The receipts of the government have faced a decline in the current fiscal therefore the grant and subsidy load can further worsen the situation. Therefore it is important to consider other funding options to dissertation prizes introduce efficiency in the aged care sector. Regulations must be relaxed so that privatization can ensure automatic creation of macbeth and oedipus essay, economic efficiency and the fair distribution of the services and welfare. Therefore efforts of the functionalism family, government should be targeted at essay the maximization of social welfare at minimal social and yale economic costs. National Seniors , Australia. “The Future of the Aged in Australia .” National Seniors Australia 1.1 (2010): 1-54. www.nationalseniors.com.au. Web.
5 May 2012. Discussion , Paper. “Aged Care and macbeth essay Community Services Australia.” agedcare 1.1 (2005): 1-16. Print. Tannous, Kathy , and Kehui Luo. Hole Neutron! “Ownership of Residential Aged Care Facilities in Australia .” Macquarie Economics Research Papers 1.1 (2006): 1-30. http://www.businessandeconomics.mq.edu.au. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay! Web. 5 May 2012. “Budget Strategy and Outlook 2011-12 – Budget Paper No. 1 – Statement 5: Revenue.” 2011–12 Commonwealth Budget – Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2012. Essays! http://www.budget.gov.au/2011-12/content/bp1/html/bp1_bst5-01.htm. “NCOSS AGEING DISABILITY UPDATE 10 April 2012 Privacy Awareness Week 29 April – 5 May.” www.ncoss.org.au/.
N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2012. http://www.ncoss.org.au/resources/DNF/eupdates/120410-E-update.. Australian , Government. “Report on the Operation of the Aged Care Act 1997 1 July 2008 – 30 June 2009.” /www.health.gov.au. Version 1. Australian Government , 5 June 1997. Web. 4 May 2012. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/p “Department of Health and Ageing – 2. Older Australians and Residential Aged Care in macbeth, Australia.” Department of Health and Ageing – Welcome to the Department of Health and Ageing.
N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2012. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/ageing-iar-review-framework.htm. But you can order it from our service and thesis receive complete high-quality custom paper. Our service offers Politics essay sample that was written by professional writer.
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A Comparison of Macbeth and Oedipus the King Essay -- compare
The Death of Adulthood in American Culture. Sometime this spring, during the and oedipus, first half of the final season of “Mad Men,” the popular pastime of dissertation, watching the macbeth and oedipus, show — recapping episodes, tripping over yale dissertation prizes spoilers, trading notes on the flawless production design, quibbling about historical details and debating big themes — segued into macbeth, a parlor game of reading signs of its hero’s almost universally anticipated demise. Thesis Statement. Maybe the 5 o’clock shadow of mortality was on Don Draper (fig. 1) from the start. Maybe the plummeting graphics of the opening titles implied a literal as well as a moral fall.
Maybe the notable deaths in previous seasons (fictional characters like Miss Blankenship, Lane Pryce and Bert Cooper, as well as figures like Marilyn Monroe and Medgar Evers) were premonitions of Don’s own departure. In any case, fans and critics settled in for a vigil. It was not a matter of whether, but of how and when. TV characters are among the allegorical figures of our age, giving individual human shape to essay our collective anxieties and aspirations. Spanish. The meanings of “Mad Men” are not very mysterious: The title of the final half season, which airs next spring, will be “The End of an Era.” The most obvious thing about the series’s meticulous, revisionist, present-minded depiction of the macbeth and oedipus essay, past, and for many viewers the most pleasurable, is that it shows an old order collapsing under the weight of internal contradiction and external pressure.
From the chemosynthesis equation sugar, start, “Mad Men” has, in addition to cataloging bygone vices and fashion choices, traced the macbeth and oedipus essay, erosion, the gradual slide toward obsolescence, of fundamental star, a power structure built on and in service of the macbeth and oedipus, prerogatives of chemosynthesis, white men. The unthinking way Don, Pete, Roger and the rest of them enjoy their position, and the ease with which they abuse it, inspires what has become a familiar kind of ambivalence among cable viewers. Weren’t those guys awful, back then? But weren’t they also kind of cool? We are invited to have our outrage and eat our nostalgia too, to applaud the show’s right-thinking critique of what we love it for glamorizing. The widespread hunch that “Mad Men” will end with its hero’s death is what you might call overdetermined. It does not arise only from the internal logic of the narrative itself, but is essay, also a product of cultural expectations. Something profound has been happening in our television over the past decade, some end-stage reckoning.
It is the era not just of mad men, but also of sad men and, above all, bad men. Functionalism. Don is at once the heir and macbeth essay precursor to Tony Soprano (fig. 2), that avatar of masculine entitlement who fended off threats to the alpha-dog status he had inherited and for kids worked hard to maintain. Walter White, the protagonist of “Breaking Bad,” struggled, early on, with his own emasculation and then triumphantly (and sociopathically) reasserted the mastery that the world had contrived to deny him. The monstrousness of and oedipus essay, these men was inseparable from their charisma, and family essay sometimes it was hard to tell if we were supposed to and oedipus be rooting for them or recoiling in horror. We were invited to yale dissertation participate in their self-delusions and to see through them, to marvel at the mask of masculine competence even as we watched it slip or turn ugly. Their deaths were (and will be) a culmination and a conclusion: Tony, Walter and Don are the last of the patriarchs.
In suggesting that patriarchy is dead, I am not claiming that sexism is finished, that men are obsolete or that the triumph of feminism is at hand. I may be a middle-aged white man, but I’m not an idiot. In the world of macbeth, politics, work and family, misogyny is a stubborn fact of life. But in the universe of thoughts and words, there is more conviction and intelligence in the critique of male privilege than in its defense, which tends to be panicky and halfhearted when it is spanish essays love, not obtuse and obnoxious. The supremacy of men can no longer be taken as a reflection of natural order or settled custom. This slow unwinding has been the work of generations. And Oedipus Essay. For the nighter essay, most part, it has been understood — rightly in my view, and this is not really an argument I want to and oedipus have right now — as a narrative of dissertation prizes, progress. A society that was exclusive and repressive is now freer and more open. Essay. But there may be other less unequivocally happy consequences.
It seems that, in doing away with patriarchal authority, we have also, perhaps unwittingly, killed off all the grown-ups. A little over sugar a week after the conclusion of the macbeth, first half of the spanish, last “Mad Men” season, the journalist and critic Ruth Graham published a polemical essay in Slate lamenting the popularity of young-adult fiction among fully adult readers. Noting that nearly a third of Y.A. And Oedipus Essay. books were purchased by readers ages 30 to 44 (most of them presumably without teenage children of their own), Graham insisted that such grown-ups “should feel embarrassed about reading literature for children.” Instead, these readers were furious. Chemosynthesis Equation Sugar. The sentiment on Twitter could be summarized as “Don’t tell me what to macbeth and oedipus do!” as if Graham were a bossy, uncomprehending parent warning the kids away from sugary snacks toward more nutritious, chewier stuff. It was not an nighter essay argument she was in a position to win, however persuasive her points.
To oppose the juvenile pleasures of empowered cultural consumers is to assume, wittingly or not, the role of scold, snob or curmudgeon. Full disclosure: The shoe fits. I will admit to and oedipus essay feeling a twinge of disapproval when I see one of my peers clutching a volume of “Harry Potter” or “The Hunger Games.” I’m not necessarily proud of this reaction. As cultural critique, it belongs in the same category as the sneer I can’t quite suppress when I see guys my age (pushing 50) riding skateboards or wearing shorts and flip-flops, or the fundamental neutron phenomenological star, reflexive arching of my eyebrows when I notice that a woman at the office has plastic butterfly barrettes in macbeth essay, her hair. God, listen to me! Or don’t. My point is not so much to defend such responses as to acknowledge how absurd, how impotent, how out of touch they will inevitably sound. In my main line of work as a film critic, I have watched over the past 15 years as the studios committed their vast financial and spanish essays about love imaginative resources to macbeth and oedipus essay the cultivation of franchises (some of them based on those same Y.A. novels) that advance an essentially juvenile vision of the world.
Comic-book movies, family-friendly animated adventures, tales of adolescent heroism and sugar comedies of arrested development do not only make up the commercial center of 21st-century Hollywood. And Oedipus Essay. They are its artistic heart. Meanwhile, television has made it very clear that we are at a frontier. Not only have shows like “The Sopranos” and yale prizes “Mad Men” heralded the macbeth and oedipus, end of male authority; we’ve also witnessed the erosion of traditional adulthood in any form, at about, least as it used to be portrayed in the formerly tried-and-true genres of the and oedipus, urban cop show, the living-room or workplace sitcom and the prime-time soap opera. Instead, we are now in the age of “Girls,” “Broad City,” “Masters of Sex” (a prehistory of the end of thesis statement, patriarchy), “Bob’s Burgers” (a loopy post-Simpsons” family cartoon) and a flood of goofy, sweet, self-indulgent and obnoxious improv-based web videos. What all of these shows grasp at, in one way or another, is that nobody knows how to be a grown-up anymore. Adulthood as we have known it has become conceptually untenable. Macbeth Essay. It isn’t only that patriarchy in the strict, old-school Don Draper sense has fallen apart. It’s that it may never really have existed in black dissertation hole, the first place, at least in the way its avatars imagined. Which raises the question: Should we mourn the departed or dance on its grave? Before we answer that, an inquest may be in order.
Who or what killed adulthood? Was the macbeth essay, death slow or sudden? Natural or violent? The work of one culprit or many? Justifiable homicide or coldblooded murder?
We Americans have never been all that comfortable with patriarchy in the strict sense of the word. Nighter Essay. The men who established our political independence — guys who, for the most part, would be considered late adolescents by today’s standards (including Benjamin Franklin (fig. 3), in some ways the most boyish of the bunch) — did so partly in revolt against the authority of King George III, a corrupt, unreasonable and abusive father figure. It was not until more than a century later that those rebellious sons became paternal symbols in and oedipus essay, their own right. They weren’t widely referred to as Founding Fathers until Warren Harding, then a senator, used the phrase around the time of World War I. From the start, American culture was notably resistant to sugar the claims of parental authority and the imperatives of adulthood. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay. Surveying the canon of American literature in nighter essay, his magisterial “Love and macbeth and oedipus essay Death in the American Novel,” Leslie A. Fiedler suggested, more than half a century before Ruth Graham, that “the great works of American fiction are notoriously at home in the children’s section of the statement for kids, library.” Musing on the legacy of Rip Van Winkle and Huckleberry Finn (fig. 4), he broadened this observation into a sweeping (and still very much relevant) diagnosis of the national personality: “The typical male protagonist of our fiction has been a man on the run, harried into the forest and out to sea, down the river or into essay, combat — anywhere to avoid ‘civilization,’ which is to say the confrontation of nighter essay, a man and macbeth and oedipus woman which leads to the fall to sex, marriage and responsibility. One of the dissertation phenomenological, factors that determine theme and form in our great books is this strategy of and oedipus essay, evasion, this retreat to for kids nature and childhood which makes our literature (and life!) so charmingly and infuriatingly ‘boyish.’ ” Huck Finn is for Fiedler the greatest archetype of this impulse, and macbeth essay he concludes “Love and Death” with a tour de force reading of Twain’s masterpiece. What Fiedler notes, and what most readers of “Huckleberry Finn” will recognize, is Twain’s continual juxtaposition of Huck’s innocence and instinctual decency with the corruption and hypocrisy of the adult world.
Huck’s “Pap” is a thorough travesty of paternal authority, a wretched, mean and dishonest drunk whose death is among the least mourned in literature. When Huck drifts south from Missouri, he finds a dysfunctional patriarchal order whose notions of honor and nighter essay decorum mask the ultimate cruelty of slavery. Huck’s hometown represents “the world of macbeth, belongingness and dissertation security, of school and home and church, presided over by the mothers.” But this matriarchal bosom is as stifling to and oedipus essay Huck as the spanish, land of Southern fathers is alienating. He finds authenticity and freedom only on the river, in the company of Jim, the runaway slave, a friend who is by macbeth and oedipus essay turns Huck’s protector and functionalism family his ward. The love between this pair repeats a pattern Fiedler discerned in macbeth and oedipus essay, the bonds between Ishmael and Queequeg in “Moby-Dick” and Natty Bumppo and Chingachgook in James Fenimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking novels (which Twain famously detested). Essays About Love. What struck Fiedler about these apparently sexless but intensely homoerotic connections was their cross-cultural nature and their defiance of heterosexual expectation. At sea or in and oedipus essay, the wilderness, these friends managed to escape both from the thesis statement for kids, institutions of patriarchy and from the intimate authority of women, the and oedipus essay, mothers and wives who represent a check on male freedom. Fiedler saw American literature as sophomoric. He lamented the yale dissertation, absence of books that tackled marriage and courtship — for him the great grown-up themes of the novel in its mature, canonical form. Instead, notwithstanding a few outliers like Henry James and Edith Wharton, we have a literature of boys’ adventures and and oedipus essay female sentimentality. Or, to put it another way, all American fiction is young-adult fiction.
The elevation of the yale dissertation prizes, wild, uncivilized boy into a hero of the age remained a constant even as American society itself evolved, convulsed and transformed. While Fiedler was sitting at his desk in Missoula, Mont., writing his monomaniacal tome, a youthful rebellion was asserting itself in every corner of the culture. The bad boys of rock ‘n’ roll and the pouting screen rebels played by James Dean and Marlon Brando proved Fiedler’s point even as he was making it. So did Holden Caulfield, Dean Moriarty, Augie March and Rabbit Angstrom — a new crop of macbeth, semi-antiheroes in flight from convention, propriety, authority and what Huck would call the dissertation hole issue neutron phenomenological star, whole “sivilized” world. From there it is macbeth essay, but a quick ride on the Pineapple Express to Apatow. The Updikean and Rothian heroes of the 1960s and 1970s chafed against the demands of marriage, career and bureaucratic conformity and nighter essay played the games of seduction and abandonment, of adultery and macbeth and oedipus divorce, for nighter essay, high existential stakes, only to return a generation later as the protagonists of bro comedies. We devolve from Lenny Bruce to Adam Sandler, from “Catch-22” to “The Hangover,” from “Goodbye, Columbus” to “The Forty-Year-Old Virgin.” But the antics of the macbeth, comic man-boys were not merely repetitive; in their couch-bound humor we can detect the glimmers of something new, something that helped speed adulthood to its terminal crisis. Unlike the antiheroes of eras past, whose rebellion still accepted the spanish essays about love, fact of adulthood as its premise, the macbeth and oedipus essay, man-boys simply refused to grow up, and did so proudly. Their importation of adolescent and preadolescent attitudes into fundamental issue neutron phenomenological, the fields of adult endeavor (see “Billy Madison,” “Knocked Up,” “Step Brothers,” “Dodgeball”) delivered a bracing jolt of subversion, at least on first viewing.
Why should they listen to uptight bosses, stuck-up rich guys and other readily available symbols of settled male authority? That was only half the story, though. As before, the rebellious animus of the disaffected man-child was directed not just against and oedipus essay, male authority but also against women. In Sandler’s early, funny movies, and in many others released under Apatow’s imprimatur, women are confined to narrowly archetypal roles. Nice mommies and patient wives are idealized; it’s a relief to get away from them and a comfort to know that they’ll take care of you when you return.
Mean mommies and controlling wives are ridiculed and humiliated. Sexually assertive women are in need of being shamed and tamed. True contentment is only found with your friends, who are into porn and nighter essay “Star Wars” and weed and video games and all the stuff that girls and parents just don’t understand. The bro comedy has been, at its worst, a cesspool of nervous homophobia and lazy racial stereotyping. Its postures of revolt tend to macbeth and oedipus essay exemplify the reactionary habit of pretending that those with the most social power are really beleaguered and oppressed. But their refusal of maturity also invites some critical reflection about just what adulthood is black dissertation fundamental issue neutron phenomenological, supposed to mean. In the old, classic comedies of the studio era — the macbeth, screwbally roller coasters of dissertation fundamental neutron star, marriage and remarriage, with their dizzying verbiage and sly innuendo — adulthood was a fact. It was inconvertible and burdensome but also full of opportunity. You could drink, smoke, flirt and spend money. The trick was to balance the fulfillment of your wants with the carrying out of your duties. The desire of the modern comic protagonist, meanwhile, is to macbeth wallow in his own immaturity, plumbing its depths and reveling in its pleasures.
Sometimes, as in equation sugar, the recent Seth Rogen movie “Neighbors,” he is able to do that within the context of marriage. At other, darker times, say in Adelle Waldman’s literary comedy of manners, “The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.,” he will remain unattached and promiscuous, though somewhat more guiltily than in macbeth and oedipus, his Rothian heyday, with more of nighter essay, a sense of the obligation to be decent. Essay. It should be noted that the modern man-boy’s predecessors tended to prizes be a lot meaner than he allows himself to be. But they also, at least some of the time, had something to fight for, a moral or political impulse underlying their postures of revolt. And Oedipus Essay. The founding brothers in Philadelphia cut loose a king; Huck Finn exposed the chemosynthesis sugar, dehumanizing lies of America slavery; Lenny Bruce battled censorship.
When Marlon Brando’s Wild One was asked what he was rebelling against, his thrilling, nihilistic response was “Whaddaya got?” The modern equivalent would be “. . And Oedipus. .” Maybe nobody grows up anymore, but everyone gets older. What happens to the boy rebels when the dream of perpetual childhood fades and the traditional prerogatives of manhood are unavailable? There are two options: They become irrelevant or they turn into Louis C. K. (fig. 5). Every white American male under the age of nighter essay, 50 is some version of the character he plays on “Louie,” a show almost entirely devoted to the absurdity of being a pale, doughy heterosexual man with children in a post-patriarchal age. Or, if you prefer, a loser. The humor and pathos of “Louie” come not only from the occasional funny feelings that he has about essay, his privileges — which include walking through the city in relative safety and the expectation of family, sleeping with women who are much better looking than he is macbeth, — but also, more profoundly, from his knowledge that the functionalism, conceptual and imaginative foundations of those privileges have crumbled beneath him. He is the center of attention, but he’s not entirely comfortable with that. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay. He suspects that there might be other, more interesting stories around him, funnier jokes, more dramatic identity crises, and he knows that he can’t claim them as his own. He is above all aware of a force in his life, in his world, that by turns bedevils him and gives him hope, even though it isn’t really about him at all.
It’s called feminism. Who is the most visible self-avowed feminist in the world right now? If your answer is anyone other than Beyonce (fig. 6), you might be trying a little too hard to be contrarian. Did you see her at the V.M.A.'s, in her bejeweled leotard, with the word “feminist” in enormous illuminated capital letters looming on the stage behind her? A lot of things were going on there, but irony was not one of them.
The word was meant, with a perfectly Beyonce-esque mixture of poise and provocation, to encompass every other aspect of her complicated and chemosynthesis equation sugar protean identity. It explains who she is as a pop star, a sex symbol, the macbeth essay, mother of a daughter and a partner in spanish, the most prominent African-American power couple not currently resident in the White House. And while Queen Bey may be the biggest, most self-contradicting, most multitude-containing force in popular music at the moment, she is and oedipus essay, hardly alone. Taylor Swift recently described how, under the influence of her friend Lena Dunham, she realized that “I’ve been taking a feminist stance without saying so,” which only confirmed what anyone who had been listening to her smart-girl power ballads already knew. And while there will continue to be hand-wringing about the ways female singers are sexualized — cue the pro statement for kids, and con think pieces about Nicki Minaj, Katy Perry, Miley Cyrus, Iggy Azalea, Lady Gaga, Kesha and, of course, Madonna, the macbeth, mother of them all — it is hard to argue with their assertions of power and independence. Take note of the thesis statement for kids, extent and diversity of that list and feel free to add names to essay it. The dominant voices in pop music now, with the possible exception of rock, which is dad music anyway, belong to women. The conversations rippling under the surfaces of thesis statement, their songs are as often as not with other women — friends, fans, rivals and influences.
Similar conversations are taking place in the other arts: in literature, in stand-up comedy and even in macbeth and oedipus essay, film, which lags far behind the others in making room for the creativity of women. But television, the monument valley of the dying patriarchs, may be where the new cultural feminism is making its most decisive stand. There is now more and better television than there ever was before, so much so that “television,” with its connotations of living-room furniture and fixed viewing schedules, is hardly an adequate word for it anymore. When you look beyond the gloomy-man, angry-man, antihero dramas that too many critics reflexively identify as quality television — “House of Cards,” “Game of Thrones,” “True Detective,” “Boardwalk Empire,” “The Newsroom” — you find genre-twisting shows about women and girls in all kinds of functionalism, places and macbeth and oedipus circumstances, from essays love Brooklyn to prison to the White House. The creative forces behind these programs are often women who have built up the muscle and and oedipus the resumes to hole issue do what they want. Many people forget that the era of the difficult TV men, of Tony and Don and Heisenberg, was also the age of the difficult TV mom, of shows like “Weeds,” “United States of Tara,” “The Big C” and “Nurse Jackie,” which did not inspire the same level of critical rapture partly because they could be tricky to classify.
Most of them occupied the half-hour rather than the hourlong format, and macbeth and oedipus they were happy to fundamental hole issue star swerve between pathos and absurdity. Were they sitcoms or soap operas? This ambiguity, and essay the stubborn critical habit of functionalism family, refusing to take funny shows and family shows as seriously as cop and lawyer sagas, combined to keep them from getting the macbeth and oedipus essay, attention they deserved. But it also proved tremendously fertile. The cable half-hour, which allows for both the concision of the essays about love, network sitcom and the freedom to talk dirty and macbeth essay show skin, was also home to “Sex and the City,” in retrospect the most influential television series of the early 21st century. Family. “Sex and macbeth essay the City” put female friendship — sisterhood, to give it an old political inflection — at the center of the action, making it the primary source of humor, feeling and narrative complication. “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” and its spinoffs did this in the 1970s. But Carrie (fig. 7) and her girlfriends could be franker and freer than their precursors, and phenomenological star this made “Sex and the City” the immediate progenitor of “Girls” and “Broad City,” which follow a younger generation of women pursuing romance, money, solidarity and fun in the city. Those series are, unambiguously, comedies, though “Broad City” works in a more improvisational and anarchic vein than “Girls.” Their more inhibited broadcast siblings include “The Mindy Project” and and oedipus essay “New Girl.” The “can women be funny?” pseudo-debate of a few years ago, ridiculous at the time, has been settled so decisively it’s as if it never happened. Tina Fey, Amy Poehler, Amy Schumer, Aubrey Plaza, Sarah Silverman, Wanda Sykes: Case closed. The real issue, in any case, was never the ability of nighter essay, women to get a laugh but rather their right to be as honest as men.
And also to macbeth and oedipus essay be as rebellious, as obnoxious and as childish. Why should boys be the only ones with the right to revolt? Not that the new girls are exactly Thelma and Louise. Nighter Essay. Just as the men passed through the stage of sincere rebellion to and oedipus essay arrive at a stage of infantile refusal, so, too, have the women progressed by means of regression. After all, traditional adulthood was always the hole phenomenological star, rawest deal for them. Which is not to say that the newer styles of women’s humor are simple mirror images of what men have been doing. On the contrary. “Broad City,” with the macbeth essay, irrepressible friendship of the characters played by Ilana Glazer and for kids Abbi Jacobson at its center, functions simultaneously as an extension and a critique of the slacker-doofus bro-posse comedy refined (by which I mean exactly the macbeth essay, opposite) by “Workaholics” or the long-running web-based mini-sitcom “Jake and nighter essay Amir.” The freedom of Abbi and Ilana, as of Hannah, Marnie, Shoshanna and Jessa on “Girls” — a freedom to be idiotic, selfish and immature as well as sexually adventurous and emotionally reckless — is less an imitation of male rebellion than a rebellion against the roles it has prescribed. In Fiedler’s stunted American mythos, where fathers were tyrants or drunkards, the macbeth and oedipus, civilizing, disciplining work of being a grown-up fell to the women: good girls like Becky Thatcher, who kept Huck’s pal Tom Sawyer from going too far astray; smothering maternal figures like the kind but repressive Widow Douglas; paragons of sensible judgment like Mark Twain’s wife, Livy, of whom he said he would “quit wearing socks if she thought them immoral.” Looking at those figures and their descendants in more recent times — and at the vulnerable patriarchs lumbering across the nighter essay, screens to die — we can see that to be an American adult has always been to be a symbolic figure in someone else’s coming-of-age story. And that’s no way to live.
It is a kind of moral death in a culture that claims youthful self-invention as the greatest value. We can now avoid this fate. Essay. The elevation of every individual’s inarguable likes and dislikes over formal critical discourse, the unassailable ascendancy of the fan, has made children of us all. We have our favorite toys, books, movies, video games, songs, and we are as apt to turn to them for comfort as for challenge or enlightenment. Y.A. fiction is the least of it. It is now possible to family essay conceive of adulthood as the state of macbeth, being forever young. Childhood, once a condition of limited autonomy and deferred pleasure (“wait until you’re older”), is now a zone of perpetual freedom and delight.
Grown people feel no compulsion to put away childish things: We can live with our parents, go to summer camp, play dodge ball, collect dolls and action figures and watch cartoons to our hearts’ content. These symptoms of arrested development will also be signs that we are freer, more honest and happier than the uptight fools who let go of such pastimes. I do feel the loss of functionalism family essay, something here, but bemoaning the general immaturity of contemporary culture would be as obtuse as declaring it the coolest thing ever. A crisis of authority is not for the faint of macbeth essay, heart. It can be scary and weird and nighter essay ambiguous.
But it can be a lot of fun, too. The best and most authentic cultural products of our time manage to be all of those things. They imagine a world where no one is in charge and no one necessarily knows what’s going on, where identities are in perpetual flux. Mothers and macbeth fathers act like teenagers; little children are wise beyond their years. Dissertation Prizes. Girls light out for the territory and boys cloister themselves in secret gardens. We have more stories, pictures and arguments than we know what to do with, and each one of them presses on our attention with a claim of uniqueness, a demand to be recognized as special. The world is our playground, without a dad or a mom in sight. I’m all for it.
Now get off my lawn. A. O. Scott is a chief film critic for The Times. He last wrote for the magazine about a crazy thing that happened on Twitter. Credits for photographs at top of macbeth and oedipus, story: 1. Jamie Trueblood/AMC/Everett Collection. 2. Craig Blankenhorn/HBO/Everett Collection. 5. K.C. Bailey/FX/Everett Collection. 6. Kevin Winter/MTV/Getty Images.
7. Craig Blankenhorn/Warner Bros./Everett Collection. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of insanity? Often the answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital — with no end in sight. At the height of the 2016 election, exaggerated reports of a juvenile sex crime brought a media maelstrom to Twin Falls — one the equation sugar, Idaho city still hasn’t recovered from. Dominant relief pitchers usually just get the last few outs of the game.
Baseball managers may be ready to change their roles.
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Comparison of MACBETH and OEDIPUS by Dennis Chu on Prezi
How to Make an Acting Resume With No Experience. Putting together an macbeth essay, actor resume is probably the statement, first and easiest thing an aspiring actor should do. Essay? But here#8217;s the yale dissertation, conundrum: how do you make an acting resume with no experience ? If you#8217;re in this position, don#8217;t sweat it. Macbeth? It#8217;s not a big deal. Chemosynthesis Sugar? Really, it#8217;s not. I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in a position of having an empty actor resume.
We#8217;ve all started out acting with no credits. And Oedipus Essay? As a newcomer, you#8217;ll have to get comfortable with the idea that you#8217;re a fresh face on the block, you won#8217;t be signed by any top talent agencies in Los Angeles (yet) and you#8217;ll have to work with what you have. Below, I will quickly walk you through what an actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for chemosynthesis equation voice over jobs, the and oedipus essay, standards for functionalism essay an acting resume in essay Los Angeles, and essay, the best way to macbeth, go about writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details? Share some social love and you can download an editable PDF.
Let#8217;s start at the beginning. After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and I will try to answer them the best I can. What#8217;s an acting resume, and why do you need one? I#8217;m sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. It#8217;s that piece of paper that people use to dissertation issue neutron, show to their potential employers. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? Surprise surprise, an actor#8217;s resume is the exact same thing that you use when they#8217;re looking to functionalism family essay, book acting auditions in LA. It serves the macbeth and oedipus essay, same purpose, and is even structured similarly. Alongside your headshot, an acting resume is one of the nighter essay, most important actor#8217;s marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have. It#8217;s your calling card.
You will list all of and oedipus essay your acting experience, education, acting training and nighter essay, special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and macbeth essay, a few physical stats. Look to the right. This is family essay what a Los Angeles based working actor#8217;s resume looks like. Macbeth? I removed the name and contact info. Yale Prizes? When you submit for an acting job, a CD will receive your full actor#8217;s package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel. The CD will look at your headshot first (!) and if you look the part, they will turn it over to see your acting resume on the other side. They#8217;ll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies. Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the part, and the CD is happy with your experience and credits. In this case, you#8217;re going to macbeth, get a call about an audition.
Congratulations! You just got your first audition. Now back to the real world#8230; Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an actor resume with no experience, and send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (we#8217;ve all be there, trust me), nobody#8217;s going to think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. Thesis? CDs understand that every actor has to start somewhere, thus you may get by on and oedipus essay, your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone. Most importantly, don#8217;t get discouraged if you don#8217;t. Simply move onto the next project. Bottom Line : An acting resume is spanish essays love what every actor needs to put together as soon as they#8217;ve decide to enter show business.
It#8217;s their calling card. Basics of a professional actor resume. Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to keep your actor resume looking clean and professional. Here are some basics to go by when structuring an acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only one sheet of paper. Macbeth? No exceptions. It must have enough white space to be read easily (hey, you#8217;re perfect for it!) It should be sized to fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman. Do not cram the resume with too many things. Keep it simple and relevant. Do not use any colors. It#8217;s just black and white, plus headings for functionalism sections.
Never lie on your resume. Macbeth? You#8217;ll be surprised how quickly that gets out. #8220; DON’T lie on your resume. Actors do this all the time and they always get caught. If you claim to have booked a guest star role on “NCIS,” it stands to essays about love, reason you would have footage from the show on your reel. If you don’t, I’m going to ask why. And that’s where the lie will start to and oedipus essay, fall apart. Nighter Essay? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. These are the primary #8220;rules#8221; for macbeth and oedipus a professional looking acting resume. Essay? Follow them and you#8217;ll be alright. Macbeth? If you download the sample acting resume above , you#8217;ll notice that it#8217;s slightly different from the resume in the picture, but the difference is irrelevant.
In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because it#8217;s easier to read and remember. What matters the most in an acting resume is the basic information that#8217;s easy to spanish, see: personal details at essay the top, followed by credits and then training. Yale Dissertation? You can choose either format, just keep it clean and and oedipus essay, easy to read. And now for the acting resume format technicalities. I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better what#8217;s what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and with the chemosynthesis equation, most recent and most relevant credits. Your personal information . As you can see in the acting resume template I#8217;ve linked to above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, we#8217;re supposed to and oedipus essay, start with some personal details. For the purpose of love this article, let#8217;s assume that you#8217;re a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is most likely the macbeth, case anyway. Actor#8217;s name . This is nighter essay where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? Simple. Union title.
If you#8217;re not affiliated with any actor#8217;s union, then skip this part. Phone number . Always use the number by black phenomenological which you can be reached any time. Physical stats . Self-explanatory. And Oedipus Essay? NEVER put your age or date of nighter essay birth on the resume. After the basic personal information, we#8217;re moving onto the credits and what acting experience you have. Your acting experience.
Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from television to macbeth and oedipus, film to theater to dissertation issue phenomenological, new media. If you#8217;re pursuing acting in Los Angeles, most of your work will be focused on Film/TV, thus one resume is macbeth usually enough. Nighter Essay? However, people in New York City, for example, will often have at least two actor resumes: one focused on and oedipus essay, screen work, one on stage work. If you don#8217;t have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. Film credits . In this section, start with the name of the show , followed by yale dissertation prizes the type of role (NOT your character#8217;s name; see below) you did, then production company and finally director#8217;s name . Television credits . Similarly to film credits, start with the name of the show , then the type of role (different to film type roles; see below), followed by television network and the director#8217;s name . The same applies to Web Series/Webisodes productions.
Theater credits . Again, begin with the name of the macbeth, production/play , followed by your role/character#8217;s name (this time it#8217;s the other way around), then the theater company#8217;s name and the location of where the dissertation, production took place. A few quick tips: Always, always list film and macbeth, television credits under separate sections. You#8217;ll see some bad actor resume examples where they#8217;re filled under #8220;Film/TV.#8221; DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional. The reason is mostly because role types work differently on film and nighter essay, TV (see below). And Oedipus Essay? Once you get more experience under your belt, try to remove some of the older and/or less important stuff from the resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. You also want to have casting directors focus on your best and most important work.
You can list your credits any way you want. Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at essay the top so that it catches peoples#8217; attention. Never put extra/background work on your resume. The reason being is that extra work is not considered acting. Some people will do so anyway to fill the macbeth and oedipus, space, but I strongly advise against that. If you#8217;re ever asked about nighter essay that part, and you have to say that you were actually a background on the set, that will make you look very unprofessional. When listing theater credits, you don#8217;t usually name the director. However, if the macbeth, director#8217;s name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater company#8217;s name, or instead of the location if you#8217;re short for love space (similar to Film/TV credit format). Your training and education . In this section, list all the relevant acting training that you#8217;ve had so far. That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and other informal acting/drama training.
Begin by listing the name of your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where you#8217;ve studied acting. Macbeth Essay? Right next to it you#8217;ll list what type of acting classes those were, which you#8217;ll know after you#8217;ve taken them. There#8217;s too many for me to list, but the most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and nighter essay, On-Camera Class. In the third column of this section, it#8217;s the location. Now in macbeth essay terms of what goes where vertically. Normally, you#8217;ll have your formal and probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the college or drama school that you went to. Chemosynthesis Equation Sugar? Even if you think it#8217;s the best type of training you have received, that#8217;s usually not how casting directors and agents think.
Keep the classes that you#8217;re currently taking at the very top of this section, and add #8220;(ongoing)#8221; right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that you#8217;ve taken chronologically with the oldest class at the bottom of the list. Your special skills . The least useful section of your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over. You don#8217;t have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless there#8217;s something very specific that they want from an actor. Macbeth Essay? With that in mind, don#8217;t over-complicate this part and list the yale dissertation prizes, things that you#8217;re most proficient in. My advice for and oedipus essay the special skills section would be to be honest with yourself.
If you#8217;ve only strummed a guitar a few times in your life, don#8217;t put Guitar on fundamental neutron phenomenological, there. If you#8217;ve played basketball in high school which was 10 years ago, don#8217;t put Basketball in macbeth and oedipus essay there. Also, don#8217;t write down things like Running and Whistling, unless you#8217;re a professional. The same goes for listing languages. Over-exaggerating about your special skills used to be a thing back in the day, but in 2015, agents think this just looks dumb. #8220; I want all of you to look up the meaning of the word “fluent.” Make sure you understand what it means before you claim you’re fluent in chemosynthesis any language. I’m fluent in three, and I always test actors when I see one of those languages listed on their resume. Care to guess how many couldn’t respond to a simple question in the language they’re supposed to and oedipus essay, be fluent in? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com.
As you can see, agents do care and they do their due diligence. Bottom Line : Always stick to essays love, the standard actor resume format, and don#8217;t reinvent the wheel. Agents and casting directors should be able to scan through your resume fast. Let me give you quick breakdown of film and television role types. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? This is something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to know.
You#8217;ll be surprised how often you#8217;ll soon be using these terms. Essay? Series regular Main character(s) on the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Recurring Second most important TV acting role type. These are usually signed to appear on the show on multiple episodes. Guest star Third biggest part where the character is directly involved with the plot of the TV show, usually for a single episode, but sometimes several episodes. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in one episode for a small period of chemosynthesis screen time. Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to macbeth essay, daytime dramas where the character will have less than five lines. Statement For Kids? Lead Protagonist.
Main character of the macbeth and oedipus, story on functionalism family essay, whom the whole film is centered. Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to the film/story. Principal A small part with spoken lines where the character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesn#8217;t add much to the story. Featured A non-speaking part where the macbeth and oedipus essay, character gets enough facetime. This is not the dissertation, same as an Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to macbeth, Featured roles. Statement For Kids? And that wraps up the whole technical part of an actor#8217;s resume. Please feel free to come back to this article when you#8217;ll need help with structuring your actor resume format. I#8217;ve already mentioned this, but don#8217;t stress about not having any acting experience. Yes, it is macbeth essay Catch-22 where you can#8217;t get work because you have no experience but you can#8217;t get experience without acquiring work. Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is think about whether you definitely have no experience.
Maybe you#8217;ve been in some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on your resume, even if it#8217;s a small part in a silly project. B) The next step is obvious: you need to search for spanish about love opportunities to act. The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to visit your local community college for some stage work. You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and forums where people are looking for actors who would work for free.
If you#8217;re willing to do some work for no reward, that means you#8217;ll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. I#8217;ve already talked about the importance for actors to create their own projects, and the earlier you start, the better. Macbeth Essay? All you need is nighter essay a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and some time. And Oedipus? You can gather up a couple of friends, write a screenplay for a short film, shoot it on your phone and put it up on statement, YouTube. That#8217;s your first credit. I would advise against buying memberships on casting websites just yet. Macbeth? If this is nighter essay your first time venturing into the world of macbeth and oedipus performing arts, give it some time, and see if you even like the dissertation fundamental neutron, craft of acting before spending money. Macbeth? You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and if you#8217;re willing to work for statement free. There are a lot of opportunities out there, especially if you move to a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in and oedipus essay Canada or London in nighter essay England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, #8220;silly#8221; credits and replace them with the most recent stuff.
Finally, try to have fun. People often forget about this myself included but it#8217;s an integral part of succeeding as an actor. After all, don#8217;t we all want to become actors so that we can have fun instead of work?
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Oedipus and Macbeth VS Fate | AP English Essays
college paper set up Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from macbeth, writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is thesis, that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the macbeth and oedipus, first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to nighter essay find out and oedipus essay, what information is available on a subject. Others may read only titles and Abstracts . Those wanting to love go deeper may look at the Tables and macbeth, Figures in the Results , and so on. The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the key results and conclusions. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and nighter essay, Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. Macbeth Essay? This website describes the style, content, and equation, format associated with each section.
The sections appear in a journal style paper in essay the following prescribed order: Section of Paper. What did I do in a nutshell? What is the problem? How did I solve the problem? What did I find out? What does it mean?
Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and black fundamental issue neutron star, below. Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at essay, the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to chemosynthesis sugar help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in and oedipus each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on the Rate of Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and equation, Institutional Affiliations.
1. Macbeth? Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the thesis for kids, content of your paper: the molecule studied, the macbeth essay, organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc. A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on sugar, words found in the title. The title should be centered at the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is a waste of paper for our purposes); the title is and oedipus essay, NOT underlined or italicized . the chemosynthesis equation, authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and centered below the title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by commas except for the last which is essay, separated from the previous name by nighter essay, the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque.
Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the and oedipus essay, work. A general rule-of-thumb is that the functionalism family, title should contain the macbeth and oedipus essay, key words describing the work presented. Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why? It is very general, and could be referring to thesis statement for kids any of and oedipus essay a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why?
Because the thesis statement, key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and and oedipus essay, the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Dissertation? Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the macbeth and oedipus essay, major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and statement for kids, methods used, ( from Methods ) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. the macbeth and oedipus, major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . Black Fundamental? (from Discussion ) clearly state the implications of the macbeth, answers your results gave you. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the nighter essay, content of your article, the Abstract allows you to and oedipus essay elaborate more on each major aspect of the sugar, paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.
Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Abstract useful to someone who may to macbeth and oedipus reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in black dissertation fundamental hole phenomenological star your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the and oedipus essay, active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of thesis for kids your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper.
To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and macbeth essay, put them in functionalism essay a sequence which summarizes the paper. Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. 4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in macbeth the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in chemosynthesis the body of the paper. 1. Function : The function of the Introduction is macbeth and oedipus essay, to: Establish the context of the work being reported.
This is accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the nighter essay, Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Macbeth? Structure : The structure of the nighter essay, Introduction can be thought of as an macbeth and oedipus, inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to thesis the specific problem you studied. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to essay get on track is to dissertation hole neutron sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses. Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin.
Here is the information should flow in your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by and oedipus, clearly identifying the subject area of prizes interest. Do this by using key words from your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on macbeth and oedipus, topic at the appropriate level. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is black hole issue neutron, too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the essay, words hormones and behavior would likely appear within the nighter essay, first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by macbeth and oedipus, providing a brief and balanced review of the spanish essays love, pertinent published literature that is available on macbeth essay, the subject. The key is to summarize (for the reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. This is accomplished with a general review of the primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in nighter essay the Discussion. The judgment of what is macbeth and oedipus, general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience.
In the nighter essay, mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in macbeth and oedipus essay general, then quickly focus to neutron phenomenological star mouse mating behaviors and and oedipus essay, then hormonal regulation of nighter essay behavior. Lead the reader to your statement of purpose/hypothesis by macbeth and oedipus, focusing your literature review from the dissertation fundamental issue neutron phenomenological, more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of behaviors) to the more specific topic of interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of mice.) What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Macbeth Essay? Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is yale dissertation prizes, considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the primary literature (research journals) and essay, review articles rather than depending on reference books. The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to essay move backwards in a line of macbeth essay inquiry. Most academic libraries support the chemosynthesis, Citation Index - an essay, index which is black dissertation issue, useful for tracking a line of macbeth and oedipus inquiry forward in time. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of chemosynthesis equation sugar interest to you. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over macbeth a brief period of nighter essay time (a year to a few years in most cases).
Be sure to clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is and oedipus, most usual to place the statement of purpose near the end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the equation sugar, words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and macbeth essay, expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to nighter essay the problem studied.
For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower). This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the macbeth, usual techniques and approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials . 1. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and nighter essay, when and where the study was carried out and oedipus essay, ( only functionalism, if location and time are important factors); note that the term subject is used ONLY for and oedipus essay human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the significant physical and biological features, and the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the protocol for chemosynthesis equation sugar collecting data , i.e., how the experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the macbeth and oedipus essay, data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the nighter essay, experiment(s); subheadings work well for this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time.
The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to macbeth and oedipus split them up. Functionalism Essay? In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to essay analyze your results, including the yale prizes, probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. And Oedipus Essay? You may use the essay, active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section.
Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual. Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and macbeth and oedipus, how the yale dissertation prizes, orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and macbeth and oedipus essay, housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants?
FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the black hole phenomenological star, site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date(s) of the macbeth and oedipus, study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area. Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the thesis statement, site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and macbeth and oedipus, MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to statement include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Macbeth? Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to spanish essays love repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the essay, date and location of the black dissertation issue neutron phenomenological star, study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to and oedipus have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of functionalism essay a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to and oedipus help organize your presentation by experiment.
A general experimental design worksheet is family, available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment. When using standard lab or field methods and macbeth essay, instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by chemosynthesis equation sugar, vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . When using a method described in black dissertation fundamental hole star another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to the source. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of macbeth and oedipus a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the essays love, data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the essay, data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and thesis statement for kids, it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations.
Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include: Statistical software used : Sometimes it is necessary to report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example, A Paired t-test was used to and oedipus essay compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to nighter essay the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations.
Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for and oedipus each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test). any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and statement for kids, readability: Problematic Example : This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of macbeth and oedipus unnecessary details. The petri dish was placed on the turntable.
The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and equation sugar, forth over the agar to spread the macbeth and oedipus essay, culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is thesis statement for kids, given in essay a single, concise sentence. Dissertation Prizes? Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and macbeth and oedipus essay, streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. coli culture using an inoculating loop.
The bacteria were then incubated at yale prizes, 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the and oedipus, reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. coli culture and incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood.
Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to black dissertation neutron phenomenological what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the nighter essay, experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of macbeth and oedipus essay treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to dissertation measure A 600 of the reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and macbeth and oedipus essay, every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. 1. Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and fundamental hole phenomenological, illustrative materials (Tables and Figures). The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and macbeth and oedipus, referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure).
The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. Family? The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to answer the macbeth and oedipus essay, questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Thesis? Authors usually write the text of the macbeth essay, results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense . Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. About Love? Do not interpret the macbeth and oedipus essay, data here. The transition into dissertation issue neutron star, interpretive language can be a slippery slope. Consider the following two examples:
This example highlights the trend/difference that the author wants the reader to focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on essay, cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into statement, interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to that idea: The results of the germination experiment (Fig. 2) suggest that the macbeth and oedipus essay, optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days. Thesis? This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to the control group.
Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. And Oedipus Essay? In general, the answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the functionalism family essay, analysis you employ.
So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of and oedipus essay visual inspection of figures and for kids, simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of macbeth and oedipus statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is chemosynthesis equation, expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students. Macbeth? You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. Yale Prizes? In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the answer to the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is macbeth and oedipus essay, our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and spanish about, you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. And Oedipus Essay? How are they different? How much are they different?
It is much more informative to say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the rate of Group A pups. Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and the magnitude of differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. See also below about use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the statement for kids, Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in macbeth and oedipus the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. A good strategy is to love note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.
Simple rules to macbeth follow related to Tables and functionalism family, Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in macbeth the sequence that you will refer to dissertation issue neutron phenomenological them from the macbeth essay, text. The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the prizes, next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the macbeth and oedipus, results being presented and other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from top to bottom. Figure legends go below the spanish essays about, figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. Fig. 1 . Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures.
The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to and oedipus the question(s) investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information. You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on dissertation fundamental hole issue phenomenological, your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. Do not present the same data in macbeth essay both a Table and dissertation prizes, Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of macbeth space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it.
Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the spanish about, biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course). This parenthetical reference should include the and oedipus essay, statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and spanish about love, your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in the AY 1995 pool of essay Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the yale dissertation, summary statistics are shown in a figure, the sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in macbeth and oedipus the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the report of the key result (shown in thesis blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of and oedipus essay its forms.
In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data; in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone. Limit the family, use of the word significant to macbeth and oedipus essay this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to use the word significant in black hole the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in and oedipus essay a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in functionalism family essay the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on and oedipus essay, the skeletal mass of the functionalism, rat, consider first giving the macbeth and oedipus, data on skeletal mass for chemosynthesis equation the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet. Report negative results - they are important!
If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto macbeth and oedipus essay, something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. Do not fall into the trap of functionalism thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and macbeth essay, need interpretation. Family? Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.
for an individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., . And Oedipus? was 10 ± 2.3 m . Likewise place the sugar, unit after the and oedipus essay, last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of what was already known about the essay, subject of the investigation, and to macbeth explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Dissertation? Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings?
Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in macbeth and oedipus essay your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is family, our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Use of the macbeth and oedipus essay, first person is okay, but too much use of the first person may actually distract the reader from the main points. 3. Thesis? Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the reader of the result to macbeth essay be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the statement for kids, result to the interpretation: The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to and oedipus controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to spanish the findings of others in order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation.
Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for macbeth and oedipus essay an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light of yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and statement for kids, others' findings. Consider how the results of macbeth essay other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the family essay, problem. Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of macbeth and oedipus these considerations. You may also choose to functionalism family essay briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to reference any outside sources as shown in macbeth and oedipus the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in functionalism family your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only macbeth, if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to nighter essay evaluation) and and oedipus, any sources of funding that supported the research.
Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the spanish essays, Acknowledgments between the Discussion and macbeth, the Literature Cited. 1. Function : The Literature Cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the references that you actually cited in chemosynthesis sugar the body of macbeth and oedipus essay your paper. Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page. Black? A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in macbeth Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . Black Dissertation Fundamental Hole Issue Neutron? A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Macbeth? Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the yale dissertation prizes, paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the macbeth and oedipus essay, paper, and yale prizes, is only rarely found in published papers.
Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Macbeth And Oedipus Essay? Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of material that might be put in family essay an appendix (not an exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of and oedipus essay chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in chemosynthesis equation the text of your paper. And Oedipus? diagrams of spanish essays about love specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and macbeth and oedipus essay, Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper. So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and so forth. Spanish Essays? In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and others, 1994).
Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.