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Essay on Team Decision Making and Problem Solving | Bartleby
art essay assignment This is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Problem Making! Click on them to boys read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the problem and decision making essays Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on boys wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to problem making represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on learning from the Baroque period in problem solving making the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and the hardy essay, interior design of the time displayed a sense of rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about problem solving and decision essays their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the punctuation Enlightenment period that had preceded it.
3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech and of taste. 4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and imagination. 5 Works in problem making essays the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the hardy boys the context of their performing environment. Problem Making! In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the of the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to and decision depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work. The writer#039;s choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations.
The colours are used to punctuation compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in solving and decision making essays the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of these examples of the essays on lady macbeth use of colour show how the clever composition of the painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the difference between the problem making essays Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to gis thesis colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of problem solving and decision making essays, balance and melody . Essay Grammar! This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . Solving And Decision! The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer.
The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for line. Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and macbeth sleepwalking, possibly even restricted the essays emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of phd thesis, line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. And Decision Making Essays! The composition in Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene.
Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the boys world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Problem Solving And Decision Making! Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. The Hardy Boys Essay! Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the problem solving making essays ages , 11th ed. Boys! Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and solving and decision, culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the boys free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06.
1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. And Decision Essays! Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Macbeth Sleepwalking! Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863.
6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Problem Solving Making! Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. Boys Essay! 870. Problems? Questions? Comments?
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Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Essay - 508 Words | Bartleby
resume usa model Aly est la fille de Thorne et de Darla, qui est décédée après avoir été renversée par Taylor, ivre. Solving And Decision? La haine d’Aly envers cette dernière commence alors. Of The? Des années plus tard, Eric fait de la jeune fille l’assistante de Hope au sein de Forrester Creations. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays? Aly développe alors une vénération sans borne pour sa cousine, jusqu’au jour où celle-ci quitte Liam pour Wyatt.
Une décision qu’Aly ne peut comprendre, ayant elle-même un faible pour Liam tandis qu’elle déteste Wyatt et sa mère, en qui elle est certaine que l’on ne peut avoir confiance. The Hardy Essay? Aly commence alors à avoir des visions de Darla. And Decision Essays? En parallèle, elle entame sa toute-première relation amoureuse avec Oliver, qui se sert d’elle car elle est une Forrester, mais qui finit par éprouver de vrais sentiments pour elle. Amber est un personnage désorienté, qui sème généralement la zizanie sur son passage. Essays Macbeth? La jeune femme aspire à trouver un homme riche et séduisant afin de passer le restant de sa vie avec lui mais ses méthodes de séduction sont pour le moins controversées. Solving Essays? Elle a eu une relation avec Rick dont elle était la baby-sitter lorsqu’il était adolescent, puis avec Deacon avec qui elle a un enfant : Eric Jr. Essays? Elle est la cible des attaques de Sheila et sa fille, Erica, mais Taylor lui vient en aide. Solving And Decision Essays? Plus tard, elle kidnappe son propre enfant dont Deacon a la garde et divorce de Rick. Gis Thesis? Elle a une relation avec Thomas avant de quitter la ville, puis fait diverses apparitions à Los Angeles au cours desquelles elle séduit Oliver, Liam et Marcus, avec qui elle a un enfant.
Hélas, aucun d’entre eux ne reste avec elle et Rick, son ex-mari refuse à son tour de lui donner une nouvelle chance lorsqu’il apprend qu’elle a drogué Hope. Bill est le fils illégitime de Bill Spencer Sr, un magnat de la presse dont il hérite la moitié de Spencer Publications, en collaboration avec sa demi-sœur, Karen. Solving Essays? Manipulateur et sournois, il épouse Katie au grand dam de Brooke et Donna, persuadées qu’il l’utilise. Writing Abstract? Il tente en effet de prendre la tête de Forrester Creations mais Steffy use de ses charmes pour l’en empêcher. Solving? Il met ensuite tout en œuvre pour séparer son fils aîné, Liam, de Hope, la fille de Brooke, dont il finit par tomber amoureux. An Extended Essay Abstract? Il est également le père de Will, qu’il a eu avec Katie, et de Wyatt, avec Quinn Fuller. Brooke est la femme fatale de la série. And Decision Making? Elle fait partie des personnages principaux présents dès les tout débuts du soap et est connue pour avoir été la grande rivale de Taylor et de Stéphanie. An Extended Abstract? Brooke n’est pas seulement une dangereuse séductrice, c’est également une femme d’affaires accomplie et une véritable passionnée. Problem And Decision Making Essays? C’est la sœur de Donna et de Katie et elle détient un record en terme de mariages : avec Grant Chambers, Thorne Forrester, Whipple Jones, Nick Marone, 2 fois avec Eric et pas moins de 6 fois avec Ridge, son grand amour Elle est la mère de Rick, Bridget, Hope, R.J. The Masque Thesis? et Jack. Caroline est la fille de Karen Spencer.
Elle a été élevée par sa mère ainsi que la compagne de cette dernière et n’a fait connaissance avec les Forrester que tardivement. Problem And Decision Making Essays? Ridge et Brooke proposent rapidement un poste à la jeune femme au sein de l’entreprise familiale afin de distraire Rick d’Amber. In Malaysia? Ce qui fonctionne très bien pour Rick mais Caroline, quant à elle, tombe sous le charme de Thomas. Problem Essays? Lorsque Ridge donne une promotion à ce dernier au lieu de Rick, Caroline constate des changements chez Thomas et se tourne vers Rick. Gis Thesis In Malaysia? Plus tard, ce dernier la quitte pour Maya. And Decision? Caroline se révèle très ingénieuse et met tout en œuvre pour le récupérer. An Extended Essay Abstract? Elle parvient à ses fins et se marie finalement avec Rick. Carter est le frère adoptif de Marcus. Solving? Il est arrivé à Los Angeles pour lui rendre visite mais a fini par accepter un travail chez Forrester Creations.
Immédiatement attiré par Maya, il rejoint le casting d’une web série pour se rapprocher d’elle. Gis Thesis? Ils finissent par sortir ensemble mais après de multiples trahisons de la jeune femme, avec Oliver et Rick, il la laisse tomber et prend sa revanche le jour où l’on apprend qu’elle est en réalité transgenre. Donna est la sœur cadette de Brooke et l’aînée de Katie. Problem Solving? Après une relation tumultueuse avec Thorne, elle quitte Los Angeles pour ne revenir que des années plus tard. An Extended? Elle tombe alors amoureuse de Ridge mais comprend rapidement que celui-ci sera toujours lié à Brooke. Problem And Decision? Pour se venger, elle s’engage alors dans une nouvelle relation avec Thorne, qui échoue à nouveau, puis avec Eric, qui divorce de Stephanie pour l’épouser.
C’est ainsi que commence sa longue guerre avec Pam, la sœur de Stephanie. Macbeth? Le mariage se solde par un divorce et Donna épouse Justin Barber avec qui elle a un fils : Marcus. Solving Making? Peu de temps après, Donna se sépare également de Justin, mais tous deux décident de rester amis. Of The? Après le décès de Stephanie, elle réconforte Eric et se fait une ennemie en la personne de Quinn Eric est le patriarche de la famille Forrester et le fondateur de l’empire haute-couture Forrester Creations . Problem Solving And Decision? Présent depuis le début du soap, en 1987, il est l’époux de Stéphanie depuis le tout premier épisode jusqu’au décès de cette dernière, en 2013. Essays Macbeth Sleepwalking? Ce qui ne l’empêche pas de commettre de nombreuses incartades au fil des années dont Brooke et Taylor ne sont que les plus renommées ! Il est le père de Thorne, Kristen, Felicia, Angela, Rick et Bridget, et le père adoptif de Ridge. Hope est la fille de Brooke et de Deacon Sharpe, qui n’est autre que l’ex beau-fils de cette dernière.
Il s’agit d’une jeune femme douce, raisonnable et un brin conservative, à l’inverse de sa mère. Solving Making? Après avoir de justesse échappé à un viol, elle se promet d’attendre avant de se donner à l’homme qu’elle aime. Essays Macbeth Sleepwalking? Elle fait alors la connaissance d’Oliver mais Steffy ne tarde pas à se dresser en travers de leur chemin. Problem And Decision Making? Sans parvenir à le séduire, elle s’arrange pour détruire leur relation et fait tout pour humilier la jeune femme. In Malaysia? Par la suite, Hope rencontre Liam et tous deux tombent amoureux. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays? Hélas, une fois encore, l’ombre de Steffy jette un voile sur leur relation. Learning? Hope désire se préserver jusqu’au mariage et Steffy en profite pour séduire Liam. Making? Au départ, il ne s’agit que de manipulation de la part de cette dernière, mais par la suite, elle développe de vrais sentiments pour Liam et un long triangle amoureux se met en place.
Après bien des souffrances de part et d’autre, des unions et des séparations, Liam retrouve Hope et Steffy s’envole pour Paris. The Masque Of The Red Death Thesis? Mais l’arrivée de Wyatt, le demi-frère caché de Liam, vient une nouvelle fois tout perturber. Solving? Fou amoureux de Hope, il fera tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour la séparer de Liam et parvient à ses fins avec le concours de Steffy, revenue de Paris. Essay Checker Grammar? Mais Liam n’a aucune intention de laisser tomber et continue à tout faire pour regagner le cœur de Hope, qui éprouve de son côté des sentiments pour les deux garçons. Problem Making Essays? Sans compter que Wyatt et sa mère, Quinn, ont de nombreux secrets et sont également des as de la manipulation
Katie est la plus jeune des sœurs Logan. Gis Thesis In Malaysia? Elle a fait des apparitions récurrentes dans le soap jusqu’en 2007, où elle devient l’un des personnages principaux. Problem Solving And Decision Essays? Depuis que Storm, son frère, lui a tiré dessus avant de se suicider pour lui offrir son cœur, elle a une santé fragile. Learning? Après une relation mouvementée avec Nick, elle tombe amoureuse de Bill. Problem Solving Essays? Mais elle n’est pas au bout de ses peines car il s’avère terriblement manipulateur et infidèle. Gis Thesis In Malaysia? Malgré tout, lorsque la vie de la jeune femme se trouve en danger, il comprend qu’il éprouve des sentiments profonds et sincères pour elle. Problem Solving? La jeune femme a également eu une relation avec Ridge, le mari de Brooke, après la trahison de cette dernière avec Bill. Essays On Lady Macbeth? Katie est la mère de Will. Après la mort de sa mère (Kelly Hopkins), Liam emménage à L.A. Problem And Decision Essays? pour retrouver son père biologique, Bill. Essay? Avec le soutien de Hope, qui est rapidement devenue son amie, il se rapproche de ce dernier. Problem And Decision? Plus tard, Amber tente de lui faire croire qu’il est le père de son enfant mais Liam, profondément amoureux de Hope, refuse ses avances.
Il se rapproche également de Steffy qui exerce sur lui une tentation constante tandis que sa fiancée désire se préserver jusqu’au mariage, ignorant que la jeune femme le manipule pour les séparer. Essays Sleepwalking? C’est ainsi que commence un dangereux triangle amoureux. Solving And Decision Making? En effet, Liam va s’apercevoir qu’il est amoureux des deux jeunes femmes et ces dernières vont s’arracher sa préférence sans merci. The Hardy? Finalement, Steffy part pour Paris lorsqu’elle apprend qu’elle est stérile et Liam retrouve Hope. Problem Making Essays? Pour peu de temps car son demi-frère, Wyatt, qui vient de faire son apparition, va lui aussi tout tenter pour gagner le cœur de la jeune femme, ce qui va donner lieu à une guerre entre les deux garçons.
Liam perd alors Hope mais refuse de se résigner Maya est une jeune femme très mystérieuse. The Masque Red Death? Elle débarque à Los Angeles à sa sortie de prison pour un crime qu’elle n’a pas commis, pour retrouver Dayzee, qui l’a aidée avant son incarcération à faire adopter son bébé. Solving Essays? Elles apprennent rapidement que celui-ci est mort dans un accident. Learning? Maya fait connaissance avec Rick et commence à travailler pour Forrester Creations. Solving And Decision Making Essays? Ils entament une relation mais Caroline va tout faire pour y mettre un terme avec l’aide de Bill. Gis Thesis In Malaysia? Ils parviennent à leurs fins lorsque Maya trompe Rick avec Carter, son partenaire dans la série qu’elle tourne. Problem Making Essays? Plus tard, tous deux se fiancent mais Maya est toujours amoureuse de Rick, à présent marié à Caroline. Writing An Extended Abstract? Elle est également très attirée par Oliver. Problem Essays? Plus tard, elle retrouve Rick, son grand amour, mais elle a une confession de taille à lui faire : elle est en réalité transgenre Dominick Nick est le fils de Massimo et de Jackie Marone, et donc le demi-frère de Ridge.
Ancien capitaine de bateau, il est directeur de Jackie M Designs. Grammar Punctuation? Dès son apparition dans la série, il développe des sentiments pour Brooke qui vont créer une rivalité entre Ridge et lui. And Decision Making? Malgré tout, il finit par épouser Bridget, la fille de Brooke, Brooke elle-même assez brièvement, puis Taylor, avec qui il a un enfant : Jack. Essay Checker Grammar Punctuation? Mais ce dernier est en réalité le fils biologique de Brooke Pam est la sœur de Stephanie. Problem And Decision Making Essays? Toutes deux ont passé des années sans contact car, suite aux abus de son père, Stephanie avait coupé les ponts avec sa famille.
Elle invite pourtant Pam à s’installer à Los Angeles et lui demande de garder un œil sur Eric, qui est alors dans la ligne de mire de Jackie Marone. The Masque? Malgré quelques ressentiments, Pam va apporter un soutien indéfectible à Stephanie tout au long de sa maladie ou de ses problèmes avec Eric, notamment lorsque ce dernier a une relation avec Donna, son ennemie, avec qui elle va pourtant devoir travailler, à l’accueil de Forrester Creations ! Récemment, Pam et Charlie, un agent de la sécurité, ont débuté une relation. Quinn est une femme mystérieuse et secrète. And Decision? Elle est à la tête de Quinn Artisans Jewelry, une entreprise qui créé des bijoux et qui est associée à Forrester Creations. Essays On Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking? C’est également la mère de Wyatt, qu’elle a eu avec Bill à qui elle a jusqu’ici caché l’existence de son fils. Solving? Manipulatrice, Quinn va faire tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour séparer Liam et Hope avant de se mettre en tête de conquérir Eric, puis Bill. An Extended Abstract? Elle épousera finalement Deacon Sharpe. Rick Forrester est le fils aîné de Brooke et d’Eric. Problem And Decision Making Essays? Depuis toujours, il est jaloux de Ridge et de sa relation avec son père ainsi que de sa position au sein de Forrester Creations. Learning? C’est pourquoi il a toujours mal vécu la relation de ce dernier avec sa mère et n’a pas n’hésité à séduire ses filles, Phoebe puis Steffy, et enfin Taylor, leur mère.
Par la suite, il fait la connaissance de Caroline Spencer avec qui il débute un long chassé-croisé amoureux. Making? Suite au départ de Ridge à Paris, Eric lui confie la présidence de la société au grand dam de Thomas et lui en laisse les rennes, même après le retour de son aîné. Of The Red Death? Il tombe également amoureux de la mystérieuse Maya, ce qui va attiser la jalousie de Caroline. Problem Essays? Après une brève relation avec la première, il épouse finalement la deuxième. In Malaysia? Mais ses sentiments pour Maya ne sont pas tout à fait éteints Ridge est un personnage incontournable de Top Models.
Pendant très longtemps incarné par Ron Moss, il apparaît aujourd’hui dans la série sous les traits de Thosten Kaye. Problem Solving? Il est l’aîné des enfants d’Eric et Stéphanie et le petit favori de son père, jusqu’à ce qu’il découvre, assez tardivement, qu’il est en réalité le fils de Massimo Marone et donc le demi-frère de Nick ! Designer de talent, le playboy travaille lui aussi pour Forrester Creations. The Masque Red Death Thesis? Son cœur a longtemps balancé entre Taylor et Brooke, le grand amour de sa vie. Solving And Decision Making Essays? Il est le père de Thomas, Steffy, Phoebe, R.J. Boys Essay? et le beau-père de Hope. Steffy est la fille de Ridge et de Taylor, la sœur de Thomas et la sœur jumelle de Phoebe. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays? Elle apparaît comme un personnage fort et provocant mais très souvent aussi vindicatif et cruel. Mobile? Sa personnalité de garce s’explique par une jeunesse difficile : en effet, elle a été kidnappée par l’ex de son père, sa mère a été laissée pour morte pendant des années et sa sœur jumelle est décédée dans un accident de voiture.
Depuis sa tendre enfance, elle voue une haine immense à Brooke et sa fille, Hope. Problem And Decision? Diaboliquement intelligente, elle fait tout ce qui est en son pouvoir pour les pousser hors de Forrester Creations en séduisant Bill, pour réunir Ridge et Taylor, et enfin, pour voler le petit-ami de Hope, qu’il s’agisse d’Oliver ou de Liam, dont elle va finalement tomber amoureuse. Boys? Elle n’aura de cesse d’interférer dans la relation sentimentale de ce dernier avec Hope et finira par épouser le jeune homme, mais suite à un accident qui la laisse stérile, elle part pour Paris et le laisse à Hope. Making Essays? Pour quelques temps en tous cas Stephanie est l’un des piliers de Top Models. The Masque Of The? Elle a partagé la vie d’Eric pendant la plus grande partie de la série et a eu cinq enfants avec lui : Thorne, Kristen, Felicia, Angela, décédée très jeune, et enfin Ridge, dont le père biologique est en réalité Massimo Marone.
Mais la relation la plus tumultueuse vécue par Stephanie est sans doute celle qu’elle a entretenue avec Brooke, son ennemie jurée des années durant et l’épouse de ses deux fils, Thorne et Ridge, qui va pourtant devenir une véritable amie à la fin de sa vie. Problem Solving Essays? En vraie matriarche, elle a mené sa famille d’une main de fer, sans hésiter à passer sous silence tout ce qui aurait pu la détruire : la maladie d’Angela, l’identité du vrai père de Ridge, ou encore son propre cancer des poumons À présent décédée, elle a néanmoins marqué de manière indélébile l’esprit de tout son entourage. Thorne est le plus jeune des fils d’Eric et Stephanie. Essay? Souvent jaloux de Ridge, il parvient d’ailleurs à épouser Caroline, le premier amour de ce dernier. Solving And Decision? Plus tard, il épouse Brooke puis Macy et Darla avec qui il a une fille : Alexandria Aly . Mobile? Il occupe une place importante au sein de Forrester Creations mais suite à une confrontation avec Ridge, Eric lui retire la présidence de la société. And Decision? Plus tard, lorsque Steffy partage les parts de la société, Thorne est à nouveau mis à l’écart et il part à l’étranger. Essay Checker? À son retour, il est nommé directeur de Forrester International. Wyatt est le fils de Quinn Fuller et de Bill Spencer, et donc le demi-frère de Liam, son grand rival.
Il a été élevé par sa mère et n’a fait connaissance avec Bill qu’à l’âge adulte, grâce à Hope. And Decision? Compétiteur et sûr de lui, il ne reculera devant rien pour gagner le cœur de cette dernière, quitte à partir en guerre contre son frère. The Hardy Essay? Mais il est sincèrement et profondément amoureux de Hope, qui fait ressurgir le meilleur en lui. Oliver est le jeune frère d’Agnès. Making? À son arrivée à L.A., il trouve un travail de DJ et fait connaissance avec Hope qui lui plait beaucoup. The Hardy Boys? Mais Steffy est déterminée à s’immiscer dans leur relation afin d’avoir le dessus sur la famille Logan. Problem Making Essays? Elle ne parvient pas à gagner le cœur d’Oliver mais apprend qu’il a eu, par mégarde, une aventure avec Brooke et se met à faire chanter cette dernière. Gis Thesis In Malaysia? Il perd finalement la jeune femme au profit de Liam, son grand amour.
Il a par la suite une relation avec Amber, pour rendre Hope jalouse, sans succès. And Decision? Il est embauché au sein de Forrester Creations en tant que photographe et fait ainsi connaissance avec Maya et Aly. Punctuation? Il utilise tout d’abord cette dernière pour son nom mais finit par éprouver des sentiments pour elle. Ivy est la nièce d’Eric et la fille de John et Claire, sa seconde épouse. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays? Elle est donc la demi-sœur de Jessica Forrester. Macbeth Sleepwalking? Elle a grandi en Australie (à l’instar de l’actrice), auprès de sa mère. Problem Solving Making Essays? Créatrice de bijoux de talent, elle est très rapidement embauchée chez Forrester Créations par Rick et Eric, afin de remplacer Quinn, alors qu’elle rendait simplement visite à sa famille.
Elle s’installe donc à Los Angeles et commence à travailler aux côtés de Wyatt, avec qui elle entretient de très bons rapports. Grammar? Elle devient également l’amie de Liam et le soutient lorsque Hope épouse finalement son demi-frère, suite à un épisode clef à Paris, au cours duquel la jeune femme a fait une chute dans la Seine. Problem Solving Making? Elle entame ainsi une relation avec Liam et devient la grande rivale de Hope dans le cœur du jeune homme. Learning? Mais Hope, à présent mariée à Wyatt, décide de lui rester fidèle. Problem Essays? Suite à une fausse couche, elle part pour Milan, laissant ainsi le champ libre à Ivy pour mener une vie heureuse auprès de Liam. The Hardy Boys Essay? À moins qu’une certaine Steffy ne fasse justement son grand retour, bien déterminée elle aussi à le reconquérir Nicole est la petite sœur de Maya. Making Essays? Elle a grandi avec ses parents dans l’Illinois, avant de débarquer à Los Angeles.
Elle se présente chez Forrester Créations et prétend être étudiante à UCLA, alors qu’en réalité elle a laissé tomber ses études et rêve de devenir mannequin. Writing Essay Abstract? Inspirée par le succès de Maya depuis qu’elle a quitté le domicile familial, elle souhaite tenter sa chance à son tour dans l’industrie de la mode et nouer des liens avec sa sœur. Problem And Decision Making Essays? Celle-ci, cependant, se montre sur la réserve et ne semble guère enthousiaste à l’idée de passer du temps avec Nicole. Learning? Pensant bien faire, Rick propose à la jeune fille de s’installer dans la maison Forrester. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays? Il ne se doute pas à ce moment-là que Nicole détient un secret sur Maya qui pourrait bien chambouler leur vie Elle n’hésite pas, d’ailleurs, à s’en servir pour forcer sa grande sœur à lui offrir un travail chez Forrester. Deacon est le père biologique du Petit Eric , le bébé élevé par Amber et Rick. Of The Thesis? Il tombe d’ailleurs amoureux de la jeune femme, mais ne parvient pas à gagner son cœur.
Il entame ensuite une relation sentimentale avec Bridget, qu’il finit par épouser. Problem Solving Making? Hélas, leur relation ne dure pas car il éprouve toujours des sentiments pour Amber et qu’il finit par trouver du réconfort entre les bras de Brooke, la mère de la jeune femme. Red Death Thesis? C’est de leur union que naît alors Hope. Problem Solving And Decision Essays? Deacon épouse ensuite Macy Alexander qui décède un peu plus tard, avant d’avoir une aventure avec Jackie Marone. An Extended? Suite à un nouvel échec sentimental, il quitte la ville. Problem Making Essays? Quelques années plus tard, il réapparait à Genoa City, où il tente une nouvelle fois de conquérir Amber en faisant chanter son petit-ami. On Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking? Il finit en prison et, une fois libéré, il flirte avec Nikki, Phyllis et Victoria Newman.
Il épouse Nikki à Las Vegas, après une relation tumultueuse. Problem Solving And Decision Making? Suite à une énième rupture douloureuse, il écope d'une nouvelle peine de prison. Checker Grammar Punctuation? C’est là que, quelques années plus tard, Bill vient le trouver afin de passer un marché avec lui : sa liberté en échange de son aide dans son plan pour séparer Hope et Liam. Problem And Decision? En dépit de ses hésitations, Deacon finit par accepter et provoque alors l’échec du mariage en Italie. In Malaysia? Il disparaît de nouveau avant de faire sa réapparition dans le bar où Quinn, qui vient d’être mise à la porte de chez Forrester Creations, noie son chagrin. Problem Making? Il accepte de l’aider dans son plan pour réunir Wyatt et Hope en échange d’un lieu où habiter. The Hardy Boys Essay? Plus tard, il regrette d’avoir voulu intercéder dans la vie sentimentale de sa fille, d’autant que celle-ci le prévient que s’il poursuit une relation sentimentale avec Quinn, elle pourrait ne plus jamais vouloir le revoir. Problem And Decision Making? Après une tentative de suicide de la mère de Wyatt, leur relation devient plus sérieuse.
Mais le retour de Brooke, à qui Deacon apporte son soutien dans son combat contre son alcoolisme, menace leur bonheur. Essays? En dépit de la tentation de cette dernière, Deacon demande Quinn en mariage.
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9 11 5 Paragraph Essay Essays and Research Papers. 11 /16/ 11 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts: Essay Writing Prompts for problem solving and decision making, . Practicing College Writing | Suite10… 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing Ads by Google 0 IELTS Writing Writing Story Free Writing Writing Paper Like Oct 5 , 2009 Kristina Bjoran 5 Paragraph Essays are Easy with Practice - Clipart.com, by Subscription The first and checker grammar second semesters of college demand a lot of problem solving and decision making writing from new students. Here are essay writing prompts for. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 969 Words | 4 Pages. statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Sleepwalking! Develops, expands, and/or supports the thesis statementB. Essays! Includes a topic sentence for each . Gis Thesis! paragraphC. Includes supporting details which reinforce the topic sentence.Concluding paragraphA.
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Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Osama bin Laden 1602 Words | 5 Pages. World Trade Center Attack September 11 , 2001 was not just any ordinary day for the citizens of the United States and the city of New York, . Learning! but a devastating attack that has put us all in shock and fear. Making Essays! As all of you know, the Tuesday that this country was ambushed and attacked destructively by terrorists, was one of the saddest days America has ever seen. Not only did it affect the macbeth people that were in and decision essays, the World Trade Center Towers and the loved ones who unfortunately passed away, but it affected. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Lower Manhattan 1453 Words | 4 Pages. ?PAAGRAPH WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH ? Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers.
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Sample Persuasive Essay Prompt: The South Kitsap School District is instituting a no-tolerance ban on student cell phones and personal . Problem Making Essays! electronics while on on lady sleepwalking, campus during school hours. Write a persuasive essay supporting or opposing this new policy. Introductory paragraph Attention Grabber: Currently, over 90% of all American middle and high school students own either a cell phone or a personal MP3 player and problem and decision making essays a recent USA Today survey found that 98% of teenagers admit to using their cell. Education , Electronics , High school 1610 Words | 5 Pages. Example Of A 5 Paragraph Critical Analysis. HOW TO WRITE A 5 PARAGRAPH CRITICAL ANALYSIS . The following is an of the red death essay from bookrags.com which gives you a great example of making essays how to write your essay . You should rely on the format only and not the words or transitions as they are lacking. Read the following essay and essay then discuss and type answers to the questions that follow. INTRODUCTION Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. Problem Solving And Decision Essays! They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for . Gis Thesis In Malaysia! 22 , Debut albums 1014 Words | 4 Pages. taught and students are to apply them in their writing. Writing will focus on the development of coherent paragraphs . Reading skills will . cover such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Solving! Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in the masque red death, writing 3. Essays! answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral.
Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. ?Zach Betten The Impact of 9 - 11 On September 11 , 2001 America woke up expecting a normal day. What America did not . expect was that this day was going to change history forever. An Extended Essay Abstract! On that day Islamic extremist high-jacked four U.S. Solving Making Essays! airplanes with the intent of the hardy boys essay crashing them into problem making the twin towers, the Pentagon and the White House. Two of the planes did indeed crash into the twin towers in New York City and another was used to hit the pentagon. The passengers on of the thesis, the last plane however, fought back, and. Al-Qaeda , Democratic Party , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1360 Words | 5 Pages.
Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the problem solving making prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. for college level courses. The course integrates reading, writing, speaking, listening comprehension, and grammar as well as the writing process, . organization, grammar and mechanics, and sentence structure.
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Unfortunately, many Americans were introduced to Islam, after the 9 / 11 attack, thus even till today, Islam is associated with terrorism. For the the masque red death past. Al-Qaeda , Islam , Islamic terrorism 2712 Words | 7 Pages. Stand Although people say, “every picture tells a story,” a picture cannot exemplify every detail about the solving event involved in that event. Boys Essay! The attack on making, . September, 11 2001 was a turning point in American history. The Masque Of The! There are many visual representations and written testimonies that lead us to have different feelings about the attack on September 11 , 2001; more specifically, the making essays reason behind these different emotions is boys because there is a vast difference in a testimony of the event, and simply a photo of the. Problem Essays! American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 , Boeing 767 1237 Words | 3 Pages. with the mobile phd thesis necessary skills to problem think, write, read, listen and the hardy essay speak critically as well as meaningfully for academic purposes. Solving And Decision Making Essays! Learning Outcomes: At the . end of the course, students will be able to: 1. In Malaysia! write a discursive and argumentative essay . 2. edit for various sentence-skill errors. Problem Making! 3. write a term paper with proper APA style documentation and give an oral presentation on the same topic. 4. comprehend academic readings.
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2001 , American Airlines Flight 11 , New York City 923 Words | 4 Pages. Commenting on Essay /Article Plan and Questionnaire |I. The Hardy Essay! Subject Matter. |1. Problem Making Essays! What is the . overall topic/theme of the essay /article? | | | |2. What is the main contention/point/idea? | | |II. Type of Writing. |3.
Is it scholarly or publicistic writing? . Critical thinking , Debut albums , Logic 388 Words | 3 Pages. Five- Paragraph Essay Project: Thesis, Supporting Points, Outline To do well on a project you should be prepared to spend time . over several days to do your best work. You should plan to apply yourself to writing an extended essay abstract your project, take a break from it, and come back several times to polish and refine your work. Your goal for problem solving, this project is to essay complete some exercises about and decision making essays a prompt for a five- paragraph essay . The essay will. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Rhetoric 1291 Words | 5 Pages. COMPOSITION Themes for essays , short stories, and poetry may be evangelistic, inspirational, Biblical, Christian growth, patriotic, or . historical.
Please write the macbeth THEME of the essay , short story, and poetry on the Judge’s Forms where indicated. ESSAY WRITING NONPERFORMANCE EVENT Refer to the HINTS FROM THE ESSAY WRITING JUDGES before beginning your essay . A contestant chooses a topic and writes a paper. (Suggested topics are listed on problem making, page II-25.) 1. A good essay will use facts, arguments. Essay , Essays , Judge 1091 Words | 3 Pages. ? ESSAY – What impacts did 9 / 11 have on writing abstract, America? September 11 , 2001, also known as . Solving Making Essays! 9 / 11 , was the day that changed America, and made the the hardy boys essay world stand still. Problem Solving And Decision Essays! It was the most extreme attack that America had ever witnessed, far surpassing any other attempted terrorist attack. There were great impacts following 9 / 11 , including the effects on the psychology of the American public and gis thesis their perceptions of the world and other races. Problem Making Essays! There was a significant impact on essay checker grammar punctuation, the economy. The government expended massive. Al-Qaeda , Osama bin Laden , September 11 attacks 1873 Words | 5 Pages.
Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to provide examples about problem something. Writing an exemplification essay typically . involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of essay , examples act as supporting material to essay checker punctuation explain or clarify the generalization. Problem Solving! An exemplification essay (or illustrative essay ) uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point or argument (the essay thesis). The key to a good exemplification essay is to use enough detailed.
Automobile , Essay , Essays 1268 Words | 6 Pages. Post- 9 / 11 Islamophobia Islamophobia denotes prejudice against, hatred for, or irrational fear of Muslims. Such fear and . hostility leads to discriminations against mobile, Muslims, exclusion of Muslims from problem solving and decision essays, mainstream political or social process, stereotyping, the presumption of guilt by association, and most frequently, hate crimes. In post 9 / 11 America, Islamophobia has resulted in the general and unquestioned acceptance that Islam does not share common values with other major faiths, that Islam is. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Islam 823 Words | 3 Pages. Trade Center and the Pentagon were an the masque of the thesis attack on problem and decision making essays, the heart of America” (Newman). Thesis! For every cause there is an effect, and unfortunately the problem effects of essay grammar . 9 / 11 are disturbing.
I like to say that everything happens for a reason, and the reasons of solving 9 / 11 still continue to puzzle the people today. The attacks on world trade center and pentagon on September 11 2001 were tragic and devastating not only for the victims, but all the people of the hardy United States of America. And Decision Making! The tragic losses will forever haunt the mind. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Osama bin Laden 1295 Words | 4 Pages. ?Darryl Vick Dennis Phillips Eng. Of The Thesis! 111, 4301 25 April 2014 The Effects of 9 / 11 The attacks that took place in New York’s . Manhattan city, on September, 11th, 2001 had rippling effects that caused a great deal of controversy. The chaos of the making two planes soaring through the two towers crippled the American economy. It also created numerous health issues. Social issues were at essay checker another alarming effect that the effects of 9 / 11 had on the U.S.A. The attack was felt globally. The damage that was done to.
7 World Trade Center , Al-Qaeda , Lower Manhattan 1693 Words | 7 Pages. 9 / 11 and solving Nine Eleven redirect here. Gis Thesis! For the date, see September 11 or 9 November. For other . uses, see September 11 attacks (disambiguation). Problem And Decision Essays! Page semi-protected September 11 attacks A montage of eight images depicting, from top to boys essay bottom, the problem and decision essays World Trade Center towers burning, the essay checker grammar punctuation collapsed section of the problem solving making essays Pentagon, the impact explosion in the south tower, a rescue worker standing in front of phd thesis rubble of the collapsed towers, an excavator unearthing a smashed jet engine, three frames of video. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 19316 Words | 55 Pages. 5 . In this course I have assigned a conspiracy debunking book on problem and decision, widespread conspiracy allegations concerning the events of . Essay Punctuation! 9 / 11 /01. That book, compiled by the journal POPULAR MECHANICS: Debunking 9 / 11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can’t Stand Up, attempts to silence the avalanche of suspicion triggered by attacks that day.
You can obtain the essence of those suspicions by consulting the many Truther sites on the Web. To a general reader, explain what we ought to think about 9 / 11 in the. Problem Solving! 9/11 Truth movement , Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 77 2784 Words | 7 Pages. Chapter 6: Cause/Effect Essays 1-1 Organization for Cause/Effect Order First discuss all the in malaysia causes as a block Then discuss all the effects . together as a block Discuss either causes or effects first Discuss only problem and decision essays causes or only effects. 1-2 Block Organization Introduction 1st cause 2nd cause 3rd cause Transition paragraph 1st effect 2nd effect Conclusion Introduction 1st cause Transition paragraph 2nd cause 3rd cause 4th cause Effects Conclusion 1-3 Block Organization Introduction Effect. Affect , Causality , Chernobyl disaster 673 Words | 12 Pages.
Essay Writing By: Agha Zohaib Khan Introduction to Essay Writing ? What is Essay ? The Word . Essay means to Attempt. ? Definition Essay is an essays macbeth sleepwalking attempt to compose the relevant ideas in correct, concise, comprehensive and solving essays concrete way. ? ? Essay is just a literary composition of any given Topic Essay cannot be attractive unless you do not give lightness, grace and ease. 2 Agha Zohaib Khan . www.css.theazkp.com Selecting The Topic for Essay ? There will be two types of. Essays On Lady Sleepwalking! 2005 albums , Essay , Foreign policy 974 Words | 7 Pages. Writing Essays Attacking the Question 1. Topic is? 2. Date range?
3. Problem Solving And Decision Making! Key concepts or specific factors in the question? 4. . Mobile Phd Thesis! Command words used in question? Command Words Account for and decision making essays, | Present a reasoned case for this. | Analyse | Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. The essay needs to essay abstract be closely argued and detailed. | Assess | Estimate the problem magnitude or quality of phd thesis something supported by reasons. Problem And Decision Making! | Comment | Give a judgement. | | | . Essay! Argument , Logic , Paragraph 1610 Words | 7 Pages. SAMPLE SPEECH OUTLINE INTRODUCTION Attention Getter: How many of problem and decision essays you still remember September 11 , 2001? Connect/Relate with the Audience: . Many of us were around the age of 9 or 10 when these attacks occurred and didn't have a clue of what was going on. We just knew it wasn't normal. Thesis: The World Trade Center attacks were part of a strategic plan of a terrorist group al-Qaeda. And I will be mapping out the attacks as they unfolded.
Preview of Main Points: Four planes were hijacked, each. American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 , Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System 821 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Plan of Water Management and in malaysia Policy in Canada and and decision essays Uk. and United Kingdom. Checker! Paragraph 1: This essay is going to compare fresh water management and solving and decision policy between Canada and United . Phd Thesis! Kingdom. This essay will argue the United Kingdom willing accepts different voice of citizens and carried out efficient regulation against pollution, climate change factor and wastage to reach more supply and less demand of water. Their citizens have higher living standard and problem and decision more protection under its policy. Paragraph 2 amp; 3: In this paragraph will describe the gis thesis in malaysia government-business. Hydrology , Millennium Development Goals , UNESCO 786 Words | 4 Pages. by skimming through the problem and decision making essay and finding an interesting sentence.
The title appealing because it is simple about myself. Boys Essay! The new title could . be “Jessica's Life” or “How Jessica Is”, the sentence would just simply be about me. Essays! 2) How effective is the first paragraph at of the getting the reader’s attention? Will it make them want to read more? The first paragraph is effective because it will make readers want to read more about me and what I do in problem solving, my life.
The second paragraph gets into more detail. Gis Thesis! 2002 albums , Lebanon, Tennessee , Need 829 Words | 3 Pages. The Truth Behind 9 / 11 September 11 , 2001 is a time in solving making, U.S. history that everyone will remember, it holds a . special place in almost every American’s heart, as well as the families in other countries who lost a loved one that day. Several groups of people within our own country and abroad believe that knowledge of this attack was held prior to the actual event. The U.S. government made the citizens believe that two airplanes crashed into the Twin Towers in mobile learning phd thesis, New York City, and one airplane into the. 9/11 conspiracy theories , Al-Qaeda , Collapse of the World Trade Center 1741 Words | 5 Pages. ?Bright Lights, Big City Writing Prompts *Please circle the prompt you are addressing in your essay : 1. Problem And Decision Making! What is the of the red death rhetorical purpose . behind this novel’s second person perspective? Explain the effect of this unique perspective and how it contributes to making the underlying purpose or message of the novel as a whole.
2. Essay Grammar Punctuation! What kind of “American Dream” does this novel portray? Does the problem and decision making novel glamorize or criticize this dream (or both)? Explore the underlying message behind the novel’s depiction of the. Ancient Greece , Argument , Character 666 Words | 2 Pages. An Analysis of the 9 / 11 Terrorist Attack On September 11 , 2001, 19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four United . Of The! States commercial airliners travelling from the east coast to California.
The hijackers forcibly took control of problem solving making four planes. Two planes were purposefully crashed into the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. The third aircraft was flown into the Pentagon building in Washington DC. The fourth plane landed in a Pennsylvania field. All of the people on board the aircrafts were killed.
Al-Qaeda , Central Intelligence Agency , Federal government of the United States 1462 Words | 4 Pages. The Academic Essay : Rough Draft Sitting down and thinking about how to write an academic essay ? This essay will . discuss all the things one should know in on lady, regard to problem and decision making essays writing an academic essay . Firstly this essay will discuss how to conduct research for essay checker punctuation, an academic essay , and explain in detail what research should be considered. Secondly this essay will also discuss the planning and and decision essays drafting of an academic essay , the exact format will be assessed. Thirdly this essay will also discuss plagiarism and. Academia , Citation , Essay 2520 Words | 7 Pages. Affects on gis thesis in malaysia, Tourism after 9 / 11 New York City is one of the most populated cities in solving and decision essays, the world. The terrorist attack of . September 11th in 2001 affected the whole city, shutting down transportation, affecting business revenue, police and the public’s safety. The emotions of New Yorkers were horrified. This was one of three terrorists attacks that impacted America on that day, but also not the first terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. That morning of 9 / 11 was a regular day in New York.
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This attack was followed by United Airlines Flight 175, which hit the South Tower at 9 :03 a.m. between floors 77 and 85 going 590 mph. Checker Grammar Punctuation! Firefighters were dispersed immediately and went inside to try and. Problem Solving! Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 1727 Words | 5 Pages. Gis Thesis In Malaysia! The coverage of 9/11 - Finkelstein and Filkins. Ethics in problem making, the Media Paper #1: Reporters report?Analyse, Compare and Contrast9/ 11 /14 1. What perspective and context on the event does each . author offer?
Give examples. The two texts, “Third World” by Dexter Filkins and ”40 Hours in Hell” by Katherine E. In Malaysia! Finkelstein, both relate to the attack of the and decision essays 9 / 11 in which the two authors were confronted with different realities in this catastrophic event. The first author, Dexter Filkins is a well-known war journalist and published this text as part of. Al-Qaeda , Beijing Subway , Emotion 2517 Words | 3 Pages. ? Groupthink and 9 / 11 Group decision making can be very helpful in getting different thoughts and of the red death opinions out of . discussion, but also can be dangerous because of groupthink. Groupthink occurs when people avoid individually testing, analyzing, and evaluating facts in and decision, order to avoid upsetting the consensus of learning a group. In effect a conflict occurs whereby some topics are okay to discuss while others are closed often without the group being consciously aware of it. Those who violate the.
Al-Qaeda , Bill Clinton , Central Intelligence Agency 1073 Words | 3 Pages. NAME: AMDG ESSAY WRITING QUIZ AP US HISTORY ELMORE Circle the letter that “most correctly” answers the question with regard to . writing an essay on the following topic: “Belief in the freedom of religion was central to the development of some colonies, while in other colonies such freedom was denied.” Assess the validity of this statement. 1. All of the following should appear in an introductory paragraph on problem solving, this essay topic EXCEPT a. definitions of important concepts like. Connecticut , Freedom of religion , Massachusetts 1043 Words | 5 Pages. Macbeth! 9 - 11 Conspiracy Theory. Introduction. September 11th, 2001; two planes crash into each tower of the World Trade Center, one in to . the problem making Pentagon, and one “crashes” in Pennsylvania. The government tells us that the attacks were committed by Al Qaeda, a Muslim extremist terrorist group. That it was a “cowardly surprise attack.” They do not offer any proof, except, a likely fake, video tape, of Bin Laden; translated by government translators. Boys! A pattern? We took the government’s word for it.
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Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of problem solving view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an phd thesis article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of problem solving a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of sleepwalking daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Solving And Decision! Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. : Common Mistakes in Essay Writing and in malaysia How to Avoid Them. dozen: common mistakes in essay writing and how to avoid them Undergraduate research essays generally suffer from . particular problems. This brief document highlights the most common problems and problem solving and decision what can be done to avoid such problems. If your essays ends up being afflicted with any of these problems, we will put a number (with a circle around it) that pertains back to the listed problems in this document. For example if you find the number ‘3’ written on your essay , it pertains to problem ‘3’.
Essay , Essay mill , Essays 1921 Words | 6 Pages. The Masque Red Death! Karlee McBride Mrs. Bushard English 11 Period 3 21 November 2013 The Day that Changed Everything . “I’ve dealt with my ghosts and solving making essays I’ve faced all my demons… finally content with the past I regret . ” ‘I’m Movin’ On’ by Rascal Flatts would be the gis thesis in malaysia last song I would hear before my career changed forever. I was Sergeant Eli Horne with Engine Company 10, Ladder 10. Solving And Decision! I woke up every day to do the job I wanted. Gis Thesis! Ever since I was a little boy, I wanted to be a. Rascal Flatts 1179 Words | 4 Pages. 9 / 11 …A Turning Point There have been many turning points in problem, American history; however none have had the same effects as . September 11 , 2001, and many people relate the day to the country’s loss of innocence. As a result of an extended essay abstract 9 / 11 many civil liberties were taken away, security was heightened, and there have been numerous effects on Americans.
Although the attack happened on American soil, it can really be characterized as an attack on civilization itself, because people from more than 80 nationalities. Aircraft hijacking , Airport security , Attack 1415 Words | 4 Pages. accident of September 11 , 2001 (How Many People Died in 9 / 11 ). Many people died because of two airplanes that got . hijacked and problem solving making hit the well known Twin Towers in New York. New York’s horrible accident caused a lot of of the chaos, disaster and problem solving making essays broken families, yet many ask these questions “What was 9 / 11 ? What happened in 9 / 11 ? Who was Osama bin Laden? How did it happen? Why did it happen? And what were the red death thesis consequences or results of and decision essays this tragedy?” Therefore, the tragedy of September 11 , 2001 had many causes. Al-Qaeda , Ayman al-Zawahiri , Islamic terrorism 2867 Words | 7 Pages.
Summary and Review of the Essay Let Them Eat Dog. ?Journal # 9 and 10 “Inner climate” pg. 693 Paragraph 1- Implies change is a constant and therefore inevitable. . Paragraph 2- Describes two types of “heat”. Environmental and social-political. Links the emotions of the individual to outward disorder and violence. Paragraph 3- Inner peace would be the most important of all. Accept what can’t be changed.
Positive outward change is only possible after your inner emotional problems have been tended to. Essay Abstract! Warns to think before.
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Feeding the World Today and Tomorrow: The Importance of Food Science and solving and decision making, Technology. An IFT Scientific Review. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Abstract! Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: email@example.com). Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Search for more papers by this author. First published: 26 August 2010 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00127.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 61 articles Check for updates. by Philip E. Nelson, 2007 World Food Prize Laureate; Professor Emeritus, Food Science Dept., Purdue Univ.
Just as society has evolved over time, our food system has also evolved over centuries into a global system of immense size and complexity. The commitment of writing an extended essay food science and technology professionals to advancing the and decision making essays, science of food, ensuring a safe and abundant food supply, and contributing to healthier people everywhere is integral to that evolution. Food scientists and technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and collaborative practitioners in a profession at the crossroads of scientific and technological developments. As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on individual farms and home food preservation to the modern system of in malaysia today, most people are not connected to and decision, their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Institute of Food Technologistsa nonprofit scientific society of of the thesis individual members engaged in food science, food technology, and related professions in industry, academia, and governmenthas the mission to advance the science of food and the long-range vision to ensure a safe and abundant food supply contributing to solving and decision, healthier people everywhere. IFT convened a task force and called on contributing authors to develop this scientific review to inform the the hardy, general public about the importance and benefits of making essays food science and technology in IFT's efforts to feed a growing world. The main objective of mobile learning phd thesis this review is to serve as a foundational resource for public outreach and education and to address misperceptions and misinformation about processed foods.
The intended audience includes those who desire to know more about the application of science and problem solving and decision making essays, technology to red death, meet society's food needs and those involved in problem and decision public education and outreach. It is IFT's hope that the reader will gain a better understanding of the goals or purposes for various applications of science and technology in the food system, and an appreciation for the complexity of the modern food supply. Abstract: This Institute of checker grammar punctuation Food Technologists scientific review describes the scientific and technological achievements that made possible the modern production-to-consumption food system capable of feeding nearly 7 billion people, and it also discusses the problem solving, promising potential of ongoing technological advancements to enhance the food supply even further and to increase the health and wellness of the growing global population. This review begins with a historical perspective that summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food technology, from the beginnings of of the modern society to the present. Problem Solving Making! A section on food manufacturing explains why food is on lady sleepwalking, processed and details various food processing methods that ensure food safety and solving and decision essays, preserve the quality of gis thesis in malaysia products. A section about potential solutions to solving making essays, future challenges briefly discusses ways in which scientists, the food industry, and boys, policy makers are striving to and decision essays, improve the food supply for a healthier population and feed the future. Essay! Applications of science and solving and decision making essays, technology within the red death thesis, food system have allowed production of foods in adequate quantities to meet the needs of society, as it has evolved. Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before.
Scientific and technological advancements must be accelerated and applied in developed and developing nations alike, if we are to feed a growing world population. The world has progressed through huntergatherer, agricultural, and industrial stages to provider of goods and services. Problem Making Essays! This progression has been catalyzed by the cultural and writing an extended abstract, social evolution of mankind and problem solving making essays, the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the need for preservation to free people from foraging for food, and the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. These forces led to the development of the food industry, which has contributed immensely to writing an extended essay, the basis for a healthy human civilization and and decision making essays, helped society prosper and flourish (Lund 1989). Development of food science and technology. According to Harvard Univ. biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham, food processing was launched about the hardy boys essay 2 million years ago by a distant ancestor who discovered cooking, the original form of problem solving and decision essays food processing (Wrangham 2009).
Later, but still during prehistoric times, cooking was augmented by fermenting, drying, preserving with salt, and other primitive forms of food processing, which allowed groups and communities to checker grammar, form and survive. Humans thus first learned how to cook food, then how to transform, preserve, and store it safely. And Decision Making Essays! This experience-based technology led to modern food processing (Hall 1989; Floros 2008). Much later, the the masque of the, domestication of plants and land cultivation became widespread, and at the end of the last Ice Age, humans revolutionized eating meat by domesticating animals for food. Thus, plant and animal agriculture also contributed to improving the human condition. Study of every ancient civilization clearly shows that throughout history humans overcame hunger and disease, not only by harvesting food from a cultivated land but also by processing it with sophisticated methods. For example, the problem solving and decision, 3 most important foods in Ancient Greecebread, olive oil, and winewere all products of the masque red death thesis complicated processing that transformed perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible raw materials into problem solving and decision making, safe, flavorful, nutritious, stable, and of the thesis, enjoyable foods (Floros 2004).
Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before. This vast food system includes agricultural production and harvesting, holding and storing of solving making essays raw materials, food manufacturing (formulation, food processing, and packaging), transportation and distribution, retailing, foodservice, and food preparation in the home. Contemporary food science and technology contributed greatly to writing an extended essay, the success of this modern food system by integrating biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science, microbiology, nutrition, toxicology, biotechnology, genomics, computer science, and many other disciplines to solve difficult problems, such as resolving nutritional deficiencies and enhancing food safety. The impact of modern food manufacturing methods is evident in today's food supply. Solving Essays! Food quality can be maintained or even improved, and food safety can be enhanced. Sensitive nutrients can be preserved, important vitamins and minerals can be added, toxins and antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit bioavailability of the masque of the thesis nutrients) can be removed, and foods can be designed to optimize health and problem solving and decision making essays, reduce the risk of essay abstract disease. Problem! Waste and product loss can be reduced, and distribution around the world can be facilitated to essays, allow seasonal availability of problem and decision many foods. Modern food manufacturing also often improves the writing essay abstract, quality of life for individuals with specific health conditions, offering modified foods to meet their needs (for example, sugar-free foods sweetened with an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes). Controversies about processed foods. Although today the public generally embraces and enjoys key benefits of the food supplyvalue, consistency, and conveniencesome suggest that the making, cost to society of obtaining these benefits is too high.
Negative perceptions about “processed foods” also exist, especially among consumers in the United States. Gis Thesis! A range of factors contributes to essays, these perceptions. These include uneasiness with technology, low level of science literacy, labeling, and advertising that have at times taken advantage of food additive or ingredient controversies, influence on perception of voluntary compared with involuntary nature of risk, and high level of food availability (Slovic 1987; Clydesdale 1989; Hall 1989). Other factors contributing to negative public perceptions about processed foods include the gis thesis in malaysia, increasing prevalence of obesity in many industrialized or developed countries, use of chemicals in production or additives in foods, little personal contact between consumers and the agricultural and food manufacturing sectors, food safety issues, and concern that specific ingredients (particularly salt), may contribute to solving and decision making essays, illnesses or impact childhood development (Schmidt 2009). Some books on food in the popular press have implied that the food industry has incorrectly applied the knowledge of food science and the masque of the thesis, technology to problem and decision making essays, develop processed foods that result in checker punctuation poor dietary habits. The premise of some critics of processed foods is that knowledge of chemistry and the physical properties of problem making essays food constituents allow the food industry to make processed foods that result in essay abstract overeating and cause the problem solving and decision essays, general population to abandon whole foods. The argument is stretched further to suggest that the development of processed foods is responsible for essays sleepwalking promoting bad eating habits and is the cause of chronic disease. Such an argument is specious, because personal preferences, choice, will power, and lifestyle factor into the decision of problem solving making what and how much to eat. The challenge surrounding the connection between lifestyles and health (that is, diet and chronic disease) is discussed in the next section of of the red death this review. During the 2009 World Summit on Food Security, it was recognized that by 2050 food production must increase by about 70%34% higher than it is todayto feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a).
This projected population increase is expected to involve an additional annual consumption of nearly 1 billion metric tons of cereals for food and feed and 200 million metric tons of meat. Another challenge is the large, growing food security gap in certain places around the world. As much as half of the food grown and harvested in underdeveloped and developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and distribution methods are lacking. Starvation and nutritional deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, protein, and solving, calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world, including the United States. As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and food distribution systems are critically important to decreasing this gap.
In addition, energy and resource conservation is gis thesis, becoming increasingly critical. To provide sufficient food for everyone in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner, without compromising our precious natural resources, agricultural production must increase significantly from today's levels and food manufacturing systems must become more efficient, use less energy, generate less waste, and produce food with extended shelf life. Although scientific and technological achievements in the 20th century made it possible to problem and decision making essays, solve nutritional deficiencies, address food safety and quality, and feed nearly 7 billion people, further advancements are needed to resolve the challenges of in malaysia sustainably feeding the growing future population in industrialized and developing nations alike. In fact, to meet the food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and technological advancements be accelerated and problem solving and decision making essays, applied in both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. The next section of grammar punctuation this review, “Evolution of the problem, Production-to-Consumption Food System,” summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food manufacturing from the beginnings of modern society (the Neolithic revolution) to the present; it also addresses the essays on lady macbeth sleepwalking, current diet and chronic disease challenge. The subsequent section, “Food Processing: A Critical Element,” explains why food is processed and details the various types of food processing operations that are important for different food manufacturing purposes. Problem Solving Making Essays! Then the following section, “Looking to the Future,” outlines suggestions to improve our food supply for a healthier population, and briefly discusses the various roles that researchers, consumers, the food industry, and policy makers play in improving the essays sleepwalking, food supply for problem solving better health; it also addresses the promises that further advancements and of the red death, application of technologies in the food system hold for the future. Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System. The life of the problem solving making, huntergatherer was generally uncertain, dangerous, and the masque of the red death, hardscrabble. Thomas Hobbes, in his Leviathan (I561), described life in those times as “the life of man in a state of nature, that is, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Agriculture transformed that existence by making available a far larger and solving and decision making essays, generally more reliable source of food, in large part through domestication and sleepwalking, improvement of plants and animals. Domestication leads to civilization.
Domestication is the process of bringing a species under the control of humans and making essays, gradually changing it through careful selection, mating, and handling so that it is more useful to people. Domesticated species are renewable sources that provide humans with food and other benefits. At the end of the last Ice Age, humans domesticated plants and animals, permitting the development of agriculture, producing food more efficiently than in hunter-gatherer societies, and improving the human condition. Domestication did not appear all at once, but rather over a substantial period of the hardy time, perhaps hundreds of years. For some species, domestication occurred independently in more than one location.
For animals, the process may have begun almost accidentally, as by raising a captured young animal after its mother had been killed and observing its behavior and response to various treatments. Domesticated plants and animals spread from their sites of origin through trade and war. The domestication of plants and animals occurred primarily on the Eurasian continent (Smith 1998). A prominent early site was in the Middle East, the so-called Fertile Crescent, stretching from Palestine to southern Turkey, and problem solving essays, down the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where barley, wheat, and lentils were domesticated as early as 10000 y ago and learning, sheep, goats, cattle, and and decision, pigs were domesticated around 8000 y ago. Rice, millet, and soy were domesticated in East Asia; millet, sorghum, and African rice in sub-Saharan Africa; potato, sweet potato, corn (maize), squash, and beans in the Americas; Asiatic (water) buffaloes, chickens, ducks, cattle, and pigs in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia; pigs, rabbits, and the masque of the red death, geese in Europe; and llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, and turkeys in the Americas. The introduction of herding and farming was followed by attempts to improve the problem and decision essays, wild varieties of plants and animals that had just been domesticated. The Indian corn found by the first European colonists was a far cry from its ancestor, the grass teosinte. While few successful new domestications have occurred in the past 1000 y, various aquaculture species, such as tilapia, catfish, salmon, and shrimp, are currently on their way to being domesticated. Although the primary goal of domestication (ensuring a more stable, reliable source of animal and plant foods) has not fundamentally changed, the specific goals have become highly specialized over time. For example, we now breed cattle for either beef or dairy production, and of the red death thesis, cattle and hogs for leaner meat.
We breed chickens as either egg layers or broilers. In addition, selection for increased efficiency of producing meat, milk, and eggs is prominent in today's agriculture, as discussed later in this section. Agriculture, built on the domestication of plants and animals, freed people from the all-consuming task of finding food and led to problem making essays, the establishment of gis thesis permanent settlements. What we know as civilizationcities, governments, written languages, an expanding base of knowledge, improved health and life span, the problem solving and decision, artswas only possible because of agriculture. Essay Abstract! Along with domestication of plants and problem essays, animals, people began the journey of discovery of methods to extend the useful life of plant and animal food items so that nourishment could be sustained throughout the year. Gis Thesis! With a fixed (nonnomadic) population also came primitive food storage and, with that, improvements in food safety and solving making, quality. In July 2009, an important discovery and conjecture was made about the recognition that food security was of paramount importance. Kuijt and Finlayson (2009) reported that they believe they have discovered several granaries in Jordan dating to about 11000 y ago. This would suggest that populations knew the importance of in malaysia having a dependable food supply before the problem essays, domestication of plants. The authors further suggested that “Evidence for PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age) food storage illustrates a major transition in the economic and social organization of mobile learning phd thesis human communities.
The transition from economic systems based on collecting and foraging of problem solving and decision making wild food resources before this point to cultivation and red death, foraging of mixed wild and managed resources in the PPNA illustrates a major intensification of human-plant relationships.” Today, the survival of problem essays civilization depends on a handful of domesticated crops. Of the roughly 400000 plant species existing today (Pitman and Jorgensen 2002), fewer than 500 are considered to be domesticated. Selecting for desirable crop traits. The primary force in learning crop domestication and subsequent breeding is selection, both artificial and solving making essays, natural, described below. Charles Darwin, in developing the theory of natural selection, relied heavily on an extended, the knowledge and experiences of solving plant and on lady, animal breeders (Darwin 1859). Crops were domesticated from wild ancestors’ gene pools that had been altered by selection imposed by early agriculturalists and by problem making essays, natural selection imposed by in malaysia, biotic and problem solving and decision, abiotic environmental factors (Harlan and others 1973; Purugganan and on lady macbeth, Fuller 2010). Selection changes gene pools by increasing the frequency of alleles (genes encoded by a place in the genome and problem solving and decision making, that may vary between individuals and mutant/parent strains) that cause desirable traits and decreasing the frequency of alleles that cause undesirable traits. Modern crop varieties are still shaped by the same forces. The causes of the bursts of the hardy domestication activity have been the subject of much speculation (Smith 1998), but the changes symptomatic of domestication are well established for and decision essays many species (Harlan and others 1973; Doebley and others 2006).
Legumes and the large-seeded grasses collectively known as cereals (for example, maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum) contribute most of the calories and plant protein in the human diet. For these and other annual crops such as sunflower and squash, the initial changes during domestication involved ease of harvesting and the ability to checker, compete with weeds. Initially, selection for these traits was most likely not planned but serendipitous and more a matter of chance by random mutations. The most significant problem confronting most agriculturalists, both early and modern, is weed competition. Early agriculturalists scattered seeds on problem solving making essays, ground that had been prepared, most likely by burning or some other disruption of the soil surface. Those seeds that passed their genes onto the next generation (natural selection) were those that best competed with weeds. Selection pressure due to weed competition results in a number of the masque thesis changes, including the reduction or elimination of seed dormancy and larger seeds (Harlan and others 1973; Smith 1998). Dormancy is very undesirable in annual crops, and problem solving and decision essays, most domesticated species germinate rapidly upon planting. Selection against dormancy has been so extreme, however, that under certain weather conditions, seeds of modern wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) sprout while still in the seed head, destroying the value of the grain crop. Larger seeds generally give rise to larger and more vigorous seedlings that compete better with weeds (Purugganan and Fuller 2010). In the grasses, selection for larger seed size is essay, associated with increased starch and decreased protein in the endosperm.
For example, the protein content of teosinte ( Zea mays parviglumis )the wild ancestor of maize ( Zea mays mays ), which is referred to as corn in North Americais approximately 30%, while the protein content of modern maize is 11% (Flint-Garcia and others 2009). While the problem making essays, goal of selection is to alter the the masque, targeted trait (appearance and/or performance) and the genetic variation underlying the selected trait will be reduced over time, unselected traits will also often change, and these changes may be negative (for example, reduced endosperm protein in grasses that have been selected for larger seeds). For example, in the United States, the major selection criterion for maize is problem solving essays, increased grain yield (Tracy and others 2004), and strong selection pressure for increased grain yield leads to increased starch content and decreased protein content (Dudley and others 2007). Gis Thesis! Critics focus on such changes as evidence that the quality of our food supply has been “damaged” by modern plant breeding and agricultural practices. But has it? In United States agriculture, maize is grown for its prodigious ability to convert the sun's energy into problem and decision making essays, chemical energy (carbohydrates), while we have abundant sources of plant and animal protein. In other parts of the world, maize is a staple crop, and diets of many people are deficient in protein.
To improve the nutrition of the the masque of the red death thesis, poor whose staple is maize, plant breeders at the Intl. Center for Maize and problem solving and decision essays, Wheat Improvement ( Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo , CIMMYT) developed quality protein maize (QPM) that has an improved protein content and amino acid profile (Prasanna and others 2001). It is the selection of the breeding objective that determines the outcome. Clearly, different populations and cultures have differing food needs and require different breeding objectives. But, to be sustainable, all cultures need a nutritionally well-balanced diet. Changes in food animal agriculture and fisheries. Animal food products are good sources of high-quality protein, minerals (for example, iron), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, which is not available in plant materials. Writing An Extended Abstract! Livestock production is a dynamic and integral part of the food system today, contributing 40% of the global value of agricultural output, 15% of and decision essays total food energy, and 25% of dietary protein and writing an extended, supporting the problem solving and decision, livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people (FAO 2009b). Seafood, including products from a growing aquaculture segment, provides at gis thesis in malaysia least 15% of the average animal protein consumption to 2.9 billion people, with consumption higher in developed and island countries than in some developing countries (Smith and others 2010).
Except for most of sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia, production and consumption of meat, milk, and problem solving and decision, eggs is increasing around the world, driven by population and income growth and urbanization (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The Hardy Boys! The rapidly increasing demand for solving making essays meat and dairy products has led during the past 50 y to essay checker grammar, an approximately 1.5-fold increase in the global numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; 2.5-fold increase in pigs; and and decision, 4.5-fold increase in chickens (Godfray and of the red death thesis, others 2010). The nutritional impact of animal products varies tremendously around the world (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The structure of the livestock sector is complex, differs by location and making essays, species, and is being transformed by globalization of supply chains for feed, genetic stock, and other technologies (FAO 2009b). The current livestock sector has shifted from pasture-based ruminant species (cattle, sheep, goats, and others having a multichamber stomach, one of which is the rumen) to feed-dependent monogastric species (for example, poultry) and is marked by essay grammar punctuation, intensification and increasing globalization (Steinfeld and others 2010). A substantial proportion of livestock, however, is grass-fed (Godfray and others 2010) and small-holder farmers and herders feed 1 billion people living on problem solving making, less than $1 a day (Herrero and others 2010). The rates of conversion of grains to meat, milk, and eggs from food animals have improved significantly in developed and the masque red death, developing countries (CAST 1999).
Technological improvements have taken place most rapidly and effectively in poultry production, with broiler growth rates nearly doubled and feed conversion ratios halved since the early 1960s. In addition to these productivity gains, bird health and product quality and safety have improved through applications of breeding, feeding, disease control, housing, and processing technologies (FAO 2009b). In addition, transgenic technology is used to produce fish with faster, more efficient growth rates. Meeting the needs of a growing population. As a result of improved public health measures and essays, modern medicine, the population has mushroomed from an the hardy boys essay, estimated 1 to solving making, 10 million in 10000 BC to an estimated 600 to 900 million in AD 1750 and of the, an estimated 6.8 billion today. Thomas Malthus (1803) predicted that population growth would inevitably outpace resource production, and therefore that misery (hunger and starvation) would endure. Undoubtedly, application of science and making, technology in agriculture and food and beverage manufacturing has negated these predictions and fed population growth (Figure 1).
From Foraging and abstract, Farming to and decision making, Food Science and Engineering. Adapted from Henry (1997) Nutrition Society 1997. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press. The application of science to agriculture has dramatically increased productivity, but until the Green Revolution of the writing an extended, 1960s and 1970s, productivity was not keeping pace with population growth. Large areas of the world, including the problem essays, 2 most populous nations, China and India, were experiencing severe food shortages and anticipating worse. The improved plant breeding techniques of the essay checker, Green Revolution have dramatically improved that situation.
However, the and decision, Green Revolution's remarkable advances have been acquired at substantial cost. The vastly improved varieties resulting from improved plant-breeding techniques require much larger inputs of fertilizer and water. Poor farmers often cannot afford the fertilizer, and adequate water supplies are becoming an increasing problem in many areas. Thus, the Green Revolution, for all its enormous benefits, has primarily helped larger farmers much more than smaller, poorer ones. In addition, pesticide applications in the developing world are too often inappropriate or excessivein some cases because the farmer is unable to read the gis thesis in malaysia, labeland there is no structure (for example, a regulatory agency such as the Environmental Protection Agency) to regulate their use. Problems are not, however, confined to the developing world. Nutrient run off in the United States and other countries leads to algal blooms in lakes and estuaries and to “dead zones” completely lacking in oxygen in lakes and solving essays, oceans. Soil erosion by wind and water continues to be a problem in many producing areas. Sleepwalking! Soil quality thus suffers. The world's known resources of high-grade phosphate ore are limited, and the essential plant nutrient phosphorus will consequently become more expensive (Vaccari 2009). These problems are certainly capable of solution, through a number of practices.
Beneficial options include “no-till” agriculture (which leaves the root systems of previous crops undisturbed, thereby retaining organic matter and greatly discouraging erosion), integrated pest management, IPM (which focuses pesticide use where needed, substantially decreasing the amount used), precision agriculture (which site-specifically targets production inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides where and when needed), drip irrigation (controlled trickling of water), and use of problem solving essays new technology for recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from processing wastewater for use as fertilizer (Bongiovanni and Lowenberg-Deboer 2004; Frog Capital 2009; Gebbers and writing essay abstract, Adamchuk 2010). Measures such as those just discussed are useful primarily in problem and decision essays the economically more developed areas. Developing countries require other steps adapted to their local areas and focused particularly on improvements for the many millions of small, poor farmers. Grammar! Improved plant varieties, produced both by conventional breeding and through biotechnology are necessary, as are improved varieties of fish and livestock. There is little doubt that improvements in problem solving and decision essays plant breeding, both conventional and transgenic, can significantly improve productivity. Technological improvements, such as automated plant monitoring via robotics, are “helping plant breeders trim years off the process of essays developing crop varieties tailored to problem making, local conditions” (Pennisi 2010). The list of such needs is mobile phd thesis, far too long to explore here, but it also must include public health measures. A major problem yet to be addressed is the subsidization of agricultural products in developed nations. Problem! Products from small, unsubsidized farmers in developing nations cannot compete in of the red death the world market with subsidized products from advanced nations.
This problem was the problem solving essays, cause of a recent breakdown in World Trade Organization talks. Some see organic agriculture as an answer to boys essay, these problems. Organic farming has some clear merits, particularly those practices, such as crop rotation and and decision making, the use of green or natural biocontrol agents and animal manure, which have been used by gis thesis, farmers for millennia (King 1949). The use of degraded plant and animal residues increases the friability (tendency to crumble, as opposed to caking) and water-holding capacity of soil, and solving making essays, nutrients from decaying plants and animal manure are more slowly available than those from most commercial fertilizers. Both of these factorsfriability and slow nutrient availabilitydiminish nutrient runoff. While organic agriculture continues to grow in response to consumer preferences in red death thesis the developed world, there are limitations to widespread use of problem solving organic practices. Organic agriculture requires substantially more land and labor than conventional practices to produce food, and the resulting yields are not great enough and too expensive to red death, address the needs of the growing population. The supply of composted animal manure is limited and relatively expensive compared to commercial fertilizers.
Organic agriculture excludes the use of problem and decision making essays synthetic pesticides, and the few “natural” ones that are permitted are seldom used (Lotter 2003). Herbicides are not permitted in organic agriculture, even though some, such as glyphosate, are rapidly degraded in the soil. These exclusions require more manual labor for weed and pest control. All of these factors result in an extended essay abstract higher costs and higher prices for organic foods. Reports on productivity vary widely, but some credible sources place organic food production as low as 50% of that of conventional agriculture (Bichel Committee 1999). Yield differences may be attributable to problem essays, a number of factors such as agro-ecological zone (for example, temperate and irrigated compared with humid and perhumid), crop type, high-input compared with low-input level of an extended essay comparable conventional crop, and management experience (Zundel and Kilcher 2007). Problem Solving And Decision Making! In addition, current organic methods exclude the use of the products of the masque of the red death modern biotechnologyrecombinant DNA technologyessential to future increases in agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, the more useful practices of organic agriculture must be part of the agriculture of the future.
Although poverty and problem essays, malnutrition exist in learning all countries, by far the most severe problems in achieving availability, safety, and nutritive value of food and beverages occur in problem and decision making essays the developing world (IFPRI 2009). Water shortages and contaminated water, poor soil, destruction of the hardy boys forest for fuel, use of animal manure for fuel, the spread of plant and animal diseases, and problem and decision essays, the complete lack of a sound food safety infrastructure are among the most vexing problems. Continued food scarcity invites chaos, disease, and terrorism (Brown 2009). The gap between developing and developed nations is not only in mobile phd thesis economics but also in problem solving and decision making science, governance, and public information. Thus, to address these issues, the food system must be considered in essay abstract its totality. Eighty percent of problem solving and decision agricultural land is used for the hardy boys essay grain fed to meat animals and problem solving essays, yields only 15% of our calorie intake. Many have suggested that world food shortages could be greatly alleviated by consuming less meat and using the mobile, grain supplies now consumed by animals more directly. Reduction in meat intake, particularly red meats, would confer some health benefits, but the potential effects on world food supplies are less clear and quite possibly much less than many presume. Solving And Decision Essays! If developed nations consume much less meat, the price of boys essay meat will fall and poorer nations will consume more.
If more grain is consumed, grain prices will rise, to problem and decision making, the detriment of populations that already rely heavily on mobile, grain. The global food system is problem solving essays, extremely complex, and any single change causes many others, often in unexpected ways (Stokstad 2010). Clearly, the the masque, solution to the challenge of meeting the food demands of our future world population lies in these principal thrusts: • Increased agricultural productivity everywhere, but particularly among poor farmers, of whom there are hundreds of millions. • Increased economic development and making essays, education, both for their own merits and because they will promote infrastructure gains in transportation and water management. • Much-increased efforts in environmental and water conservation and improvement. • Continued improvements in food and beverage processing and packaging to deliver safe, nutritious, and affordable food. The Masque Red Death Thesis! • Reduction of postharvest losses, particularly in developing countries. We must achieve all of these goals. To maintain, as some do, that we cannot have both vastly increased productivity and good environmental practices is a “false choice” (Gates 2009). Meeting these goals will require the effective use of scienceboth the science now within reach and that still to problem and decision essays, be developed. Postharvest losses occur between harvest and consumption as a result of spoilage of raw agricultural commodities, primarily during storage and transportation, before they can be stabilized for longer-term storage. The granaries mentioned earlier were the first crude efforts to learning, attack this problem, but it still persists. Postharvest losses due to rodents, insects, and microbial spoilage in some areas amount to 30% or more of the problem solving, harvested crop. This results in wasted seed, water, fertilizer, and labor.
Postharvest losses must be attacked with locally appropriate improvements in available technology (Normile 2010). It is not enough merely to increase and the hardy boys, conserve the supply of raw food; it must be conserved against problem solving further loss by processing and be packaged, distributed to where it is needed, and the hardy boys essay, guaranteed in its safety, nutritional value, and cultural relevance. Problem And Decision! That is the role of science and technology and writing essay, engineering applied to the processing of foods and solving, beverages. A widely understood and accepted definition of food processing does not exist, and perceptions of “processed foods” vary widely. From the broadest perspective, food processing may be considered to include any deliberate change in a food occurring between the point of the hardy essay origin and availability for problem essays consumption. The change could be as simple as rinsing and packaging by a food manufacturer to ensure that the food is not damaged before consumer accessibility, or as complex as formulating the product with specific additives for controlling microorganisms, maintaining desired quality attributes, or providing a specific health benefit, followed by packaging that may itself play a role in microbial control or quality preservation.
Some people process their own foods in phd thesis the home, by canning produce from a garden, microwave cooking, or dehydrating food, for example. Following recipes to bake cakes, cookies, and casseroles or to make chili are examples of formulating foods in the home (Shewfelt 2009). In general, food processing is applied for one or more of the following reasons: preservation, extending the harvest in solving making essays a safe and stable form; safety; quality; availability; convenience; innovation; health and wellness; and checker, sustainability. Although the private sector carries out these processes and delivers the final product to the consumer, public investment in generating the science and engineering base necessary to continue the creativity and ultimate application of new technologies is clearly warranted. Many writings from antiquity refer to food and its preservation and preparation. Problem Solving Making Essays! Major advances in on lady food preservation accelerated with the development of canning, which proceeded from the investigations of problem essays Nicolas Appert in France and the subsequent activities of Peter Durand in essay checker punctuation England in solving the early 19th century. Appert used corked glass bottles to preserve food, and Durand introduced the concept of metal cans. This led to increased emphasis from scientists on the quantity and quality of food, although the reason for canning's effectiveness for the hardy boys food preservation was not discovered until nearly 50 y later. Louis Pasteur reported to problem and decision, the French Academy of Sciences in 1864 on the lethal effect of heat on microorganisms. W. Russel of the Univ. of writing an extended abstract Wisconsin and Samuel Cate Prescott and William Lyman Underwood of the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology described in 1895 to 1896 the need for time and temperature control (Labuza and problem and decision, Sloan 1981). No period of boys time has seen such rapid advances in and decision essays food and beverage processing as the 20th century (Welch and Mitchell 2000).
Modern food science and technology has extended, expanded, and refined these traditional methods and added new ones. In Malaysia! Simple cooking, though still the most common process, evolved into canning. Dehydration, once restricted to problem solving making essays, less sanitary sun drying, now is usually a highly mechanized and sanitized process. Refrigeration has evolved from cool storage to sophisticated refrigerators and freezers, and the industrial techniques of the hardy essay blast freezing and individual quick freezing (IQF) are less detrimental to nutritional quality and sensory quality (for example, taste, texture). All of problem these developments contributed to increased nutritional quality, safety, variety, acceptability, and availability of gis thesis in malaysia foods and beverages. Many of these techniques are now combined into more effective preservation technologies through the solving, concept of “hurdle technology,” combining techniques to create conditions that bacteria cannot overcome, such as combining drying with chemical preservatives and packaging, or mild heat treatment followed by packaging and refrigerated storage (Leistner and Gould 2002). Still another notable evolution is the long history of the use of food additivessubstances added in small quantities to produce a desired effect.
Of the 32 “technical effects” (functional purposes) listed by essay punctuation, the Food and making, Drug Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations , 24 can be recognized in the few cookbooks and recipe compilations that have survived from more than 150 y ago. Among the additives that were once used to produce these technical effects (Hall 1978) are. • Pearl ash (from wood ashes) and vinegar as leavening agents. • Sodium silicate (water glass) for dipping eggs to preserve them. • Lye for writing an extended essay hulling corn. • Sulfur dioxide from burning sulfur as a fumigant and preservative. • Unlined copper utensils for making pickles greener. • Saltpeter and roach alum as curing and pickling agents. • Grass, marigold flowers, and indigo stone (copper sulfate) as sources of green, yellow, and blue colors. Before the days of widespread industrial production of solving and decision essays food and phd thesis, before the advent of modern chemistry and toxicology, these and many other crude additives were used confidently within the family without any knowledge of the risks they presented. In the 20th century, the development of the science of toxicology permitted the careful evaluation of the safety of substances added to food. The advent of modern chemistry permitted the detection of problem making intentional adulteration of foods by purveyors using deceitful practices, and led to the passage and enforcement of modern food laws. Frederick Accum's “Treatise on the Adulteration of Food,” published in 1820, marked the beginning of this effort. In the in malaysia, United States, the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 prohibited adulteration and misbranding of food, issues that continued to be addressed in the United States via federal statutes.
Prior to 1958, the burden of proving that a substance posed an solving essays, unacceptable risk rested with the government. In that year, the Food Additives Amendment to checker grammar punctuation, the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act changed that by problem making essays, advancing the concept of gis thesis in malaysia “adulteration” and imposing on food manufacturers the problem solving, task of proving prior to marketing that an gis thesis in malaysia, additive is safe under the conditions of its intended use. The change in the use of food additives in the past 100 y has been dramatic. We have moved from the use of crude, unidentified, often hazardous substances to purified, publicly identified food ingredients that are well evaluated for safety. Now high standards and solving and decision, margins of safety are applied to food additives (ACS 1968; NAS 1973; Hall 1977). Today, because of in malaysia modern means of detection, intentional food adulteration in industrialized countries is considered uncommon, occurring more often in foods imported from countries without effective food safety infrastructure.
Except for solving essays rare cases of individual sensitivity, human harm from approved food additives in the United States is virtually unknown. Advances in the hardy essay food science and technology. Drying, canning, chemical preservation, refrigeration (including chilling and freezing), and problem, nutrient conservation and fortification were the significant advances of the 19th and 20th centuries and the hardy boys essay, permitted population growth in more developed countries. Such population growth could only occur if there was sufficient food. The industrial revolution could not have occurred without a food delivery system that allowed people to leave the problem essays, farms, migrate to the cities, and engage in useful production of writing goods and services for society. Among the important developments during the problem solving making essays, early part of the 20th century were the discovery of vitamins and the realization of the importance of other micronutrients such as iodine, iron, and in malaysia, calcium. Those with memories of that earlier period recall the bowed legs associated with rickets (from vitamin D deficiency) and the swollen thyroids related to goiter (from iodine deficiency). With the introduction of the draft just before World War II, the essays, army discovered widespread malnutrition among young American males. This led to writing an extended abstract, the foundation of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Inst. of Medicine of the Natl. Academies and also the and decision making, development in 1941 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential nutrients.
The difficulty of achieving these RDAs from available foods, especially among the poor, led manufacturers to fortify common foods with vitamins and other micronutrients, beginning with iodized salt in 1924. Today, fortified foods, defined by federal Standards of Identity, include such staples as pasta, milk, butter, salt, and writing essay, flour. Technological innovations in food preservation were dependent on advances in the sciences, especially chemistry and microbiology. Problem And Decision Making Essays! How these sciences and technologies are applied within each society depends on the economic, biological, cultural, and political contexts for each society. For example, vegetarian groups require certain technologies, but not others; rice-eating societies may reject, sometimes strongly, foods based on other grains; and slaughtering procedures vary with religious backgrounds. Advances in agriculture and essay, food science and technology have led to reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; a generally safe food supply with consistent high quality available independent of seasons; food choices that do not require preparation time; a wide range of delicious foods; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; convenience foods requiring much less preparation time than before, a benefit for working families; and efficient global food distribution that can be exploited in problem solving and decision essays times of natural and man-made disasters. Food is central to human health, not only in boys terms of solving and decision making essays quantity, but also quality as well. The past few decades have seen alarming rates of increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and autism. A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and basic research shows that food and diet are important factors involved in the etiology of these and other chronic diseases, and of the red death thesis, that dietary patterns have a profound effect on problem solving essays, the risk for chronic diseases. Anand and others (2008), for example, describe the substantial role of environment lifestyle risk factors (such as sun exposure, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) for cancer and gis thesis, provide evidence that cancer could be preventable for some people but that this would require major lifestyle changes.
Hence, whether it is food safety and security, or nutrient deficiency and disease prevention, food is intricately connected to problem solving essays, human health and well-being. Dietary guidelines are produced to provide advice on good dietary habits that will promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for mobile phd thesis Americans includes recommendations to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and problem solving and decision making, low-fat milk, and to limit consumption of trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. Many food companies have responded to these recommendations. For example, more bread and cereal products are now available that are made from whole grains and essays, have higher fiber contents. The introduction of baby carrots doubled intake of solving and decision carrots. Introducing milk packaging that appeals to teens has increased milk consumption in boys that population group. Product reformulation has greatly reduced the trans fat content of many foods, and several companies have made commitments to reduce the sodium content of food products. Convenient and innovative toddler foods made from a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy are now available.
To help control portion size, limited-calorie packaging has entered the market for a variety of categories. Overweight and obesity have become the dominant health problem in making essays the United States and writing, many developed countries. In children, the prevalence has almost tripled in problem solving and decision making the past 3 decades (Ogden and others 2000). This is of particular concern because overweight children have a high likelihood of becoming overweight adults, with all the associated diseases such as metabolic syndrome and the hardy boys essay, diabetes. Recent research suggests that childhood obesity is determined by essays, age 2 (Harrington and others 2010), which supports the earlier set-point theory that body weight is regulated at a predetermined or preferred level by a feedback-control mechanism (Harris 1990).
The obesity issue is a scientifically complex issue of behavior and may be economically driven; some of the lowest priced foods are the essays on lady sleepwalking, more calorie-dense and palatable products (Drewnowski 2004; MacAulay and Newsome 2004). Diabetes mellitus is expected to skyrocket to epidemic proportions in problem and decision making essays the next quarter-century (Bonow and Gheorghiade 2004). Lifestyle interventions are the 1st step in the management of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (Stone 2008). Even in the midst of an on lady, abundance of energy from food, however, many people do not meet their nutrient requirements, sometimes because of the types of problem making essays foods available to them, other times because of the kinds of foods they select. The report of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC 2010) recommended focus on red death, achieving energy balance through the current nutrition and physical activity guidelines.
Food Processing: A Critical Element. As indicated above, food processing has evolved from merely a need to and decision making essays, preserve foods from the time and location of harvest or assembly until the mobile learning, product reaches the solving and decision making, consumer, to possibly complex activities that may include sourcing raw materials and ingredients from different parts of the world that can improve nutritional and other desirable qualities for checker grammar better overall health and wellness of consumers. Food processing frequently serves multiple objectives. For example, freezing or cooking and freezing both preserve and provide convenience. Heating or fermentation of soy is problem solving making, necessary both to achieve edibility and to learning, remove the solving and decision, hemagglutinens that would be mildly toxic. Thesis! Processing operations are conducted under controlled conditions to ensure that the process is completed in the most effective and solving, efficient manner. The resulting products include ingredients delivered to food manufacturers to be used in mobile phd thesis producing foods for consumers, as well as ingredients (for example, flour) for consumers to use in food preparation.
The development and implementation of new technologies enhances food quality and safety. New and innovative products, some with unique product attributes, have been developed through the use of new processing technologies. The formulation, processing, and essays, packaging of a food or beverage is accomplished for red death several clearly definable purposes, with numerous benefits to the consumer and society: • Preservation. This is the problem solving and decision making, oldest and on lady macbeth sleepwalking, perhaps still the most common purpose, and the one most familiar to consumers. The purpose of preservation is to and decision, extend the shelf life of phd thesis a food or beverage. • Safety. The processing of food is problem making, designed to remove health hazards associated with microbial pathogens.
Processing operations dealing with raw food materials or ingredients carrying pathogens have significant controls and regulations to detect and inactivate food-borne microorganisms that can cause illness. Pasteurization of milk is just one of of the many examples of processes that eliminate a health hazard for the consumer and extend the life of the product. Managing food safety, however, goes beyond microbiological risks. Good agricultural and manufacturing practices and other principles address chemical and physical hazards as well. In addition, plant breeding has contributed to reduction of solving essays some of the toxicants that occur naturally in foods in small amounts (ACS 1968; Hall 1977) and gis thesis in malaysia, have been the source of common and sometimes widespread human illness and occasionally death. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays! Processing is, however, still necessary in some instances. For example, manioc must be crushed and soakedor crushed, heated, and treated with acidto remove hydrogen cyanide from cyanogenic glycosides before the resulting starch (tapioca) is safe to consume. • Quality.
Processes to the hardy boys essay, ensure the delivery of foods and beverages of the highest quality to problem and decision, the consumer continue to evolve. Quality attributes include taste, aroma, texture, color, and nutrient content. In most cases, these attributes begin to decline as soon as a raw food material or ingredient is harvested or collected. The goal of the processes is to in malaysia, ensure that the decline in quality attributes is minimized. For example, blanching and freezing vegetables immediately after harvesting ensures that the nutrients remain at their peak level. In some cases, the quality attributes are enhanced by processing. And Decision! For example, processing of the hardy boys essay soybeans greatly improves their flavor.
• Availability. Food processing helps to ensure that the consumer has access to a wide variety of solving and decision foods and food ingredients at any time, including those that help to improve the retention of quality attributes for the period of time required for delivery of the product to the consumer. For example, controlling the composition of the atmosphere surrounding apples and other fruits leads to extended freshness. • Sustainability. Food processing ensures that the resources required to learning, produce raw food materials and ingredients for food manufacturing are used most efficiently. Responding to the goals of sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials produced and integration of activities throughout all the problem solving and decision essays, production-to-consumption stages. Mobile Phd Thesis! To maximize the conversion of raw materials into problem solving and decision making essays, consumer products, efforts begin at writing an extended abstract the production stage, with activities to reduce postharvest losses and increase use of by-products. Efforts continue, through food manufacturing and beyond, to ensure that energy, water, and other resources are used most efficiently and environmental impacts are minimized.
Refrigeration of fresh produce is an problem essays, example of an action that reduces loss and increases the edible life of the product. • Convenience. An Extended Essay! Many processed foods and beverages are developed to and decision making, allow them to be consumed after limited amounts of preparation. For example, a frozen or refrigerated entree is delivered to essay grammar punctuation, the consumer in and decision essays a form ready for microwave heating. Snack foods are ready to essays sleepwalking, eat when delivered to the consumer. • Health and Wellness. At a fundamental level, food is viewed as a source of nutrition to and decision, meet at least the the masque thesis, minimum daily requirements for survival, but there is an ever-greater focus on the desire for health optimization from food. Processing can enhance the nutritional value of foods in a number of ways.
For example, refiningseparation of the problem solving essays, antinutritional componentsis the best means of improving the nutritional quality of many foodstuffs of vegetable origin, and processing of fresh tomatoes (for example, into catsup) improves the bioavailability of the carotenoid lycopene. Some products are specifically designed to enhance individual health and essay, wellnessthe focus of many current trendsrequiring specific unique ingredients and an array of processes to ensure desired product attributes. Solving Essays! Many products are fortified or enriched with vitamins and minerals (for example, orange juice fortified with calcium for bone health) and other nutrients (for example, margarine enriched with plant stanols and sterols for the masque heart health) in response to defined nutritional needs of consumers. The success of these productsoften referred to as “functional foods”requires that flavor and problem making, texture also meet consumer expectations. Typical technologies, processes, and operations. The mechanical operations, processes, and technologies typically used to achieve these benefits in gis thesis preparing and using raw materials in manufacturing foods and beverages (Potter and Hotchkiss 1995) are briefly described below: • Mechanical Operations. There are many mechanical operations used throughout the food system, including simple conveying of raw materials from one location to another, as well as more intense operations to change the physical structure of the material.
All or most of these operations are larger scale versions of operations that have been used to prepare foods for problem essays centuries. The cracking and grinding of cereal grains to manufacture the flour used in bakery products is a very visible example. Most often these operations are designed to produce one or more of the ingredients to be used in consumer food products. Essay Grammar Punctuation! The extraction of oil from essays, soybeans and the masque of the red death thesis, other oilseeds requires a mechanical operation before efficient separation of the oil can be accomplished. In most cases, these operations are a component of series of steps needed to ensure the problem solving, most efficient use of the raw material, often including the manufacturing of an mobile learning phd thesis, array of by-products for consumers to utilize. Another typical mechanical operation is dry mixing, involving the solving essays, blending of various ingredients to ensure homogeneous and uniform distribution of the various ingredients before a final stage of manufacturing. • Heating . The use of thermal energy to on lady macbeth, increase the temperature of a raw food or ingredient is the most recognized and widely used approach to preservation of food. By increasing the temperature to appropriate levels and holding for an appropriate time that is dependent on both the nature of the food and the objective of the and decision making, process, pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms are significantly decreased in number or eliminated. Thermal processes applied to the masque, foods in food manufacturing are based on the same principles as those governing traditional cooking of problem solving and decision foods during preparation. Grammar! The impact of heatingthermal processingon components of the food is the same as that during cooking and often results in the enhancement of flavors and texture, as well as some modest losses of heat-sensitive nutrients. Many shelf-stable foods are available to consumers as a result of thermal processing.
Less-intense thermal processes, such as pasteurization, also ensure that dairy products and fruit juices are safe. Heating food to extend its shelf life probably dates back to antiquity, when people observed that food that had been cooked kept longer without spoiling. Problem Solving And Decision Making Essays! However, it was not until Appert and others investigated heating foods in containers that it was discovered that immediate recontamination of heated food from the environment did not occur. Since those meager beginnings, advances in mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, coupled with their application to food science and technology, have resulted in development of equipment and the hardy boys essay, procedures to optimize the application of heat to foods for the purpose of extending their shelf life and enhancing their edibility (texture, flavor, and visual appearance). There are basically 3 types of problem and decision heat processes that are applied to food, other than cooking: blanching, pasteurization, and canning. The latter 2 are tightly regulated by federaland in some cases, stateagencies to an extended essay, ensure proper application of the problem, technology and prevention of food-borne illness.
Blanching is a mild heat treatment (usually accomplished at temperatures below 212F for less than 2 to the hardy boys essay, 3 min) applied to foods that are to be subsequently canned, frozen, or dried. The purpose is to eliminate or reduce activity of and decision making enzymes in the foods that catalyze changes in flavor, texture, or color. Other benefits include removal of air from the food tissue to reduce oxidation, softening of the plant tissue to facilitate packing into packages, and the hardy essay, inactivation of problem solving and decision antinutritional properties (such as trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, a naturally occurring chemical that reduces dietary protein breakdown in the human gastrointestinal tract). The process is usually carried out in hot water or steam, although there are processes based on hot air or microwave heating. Essays On Lady Sleepwalking! Since the making, process is relatively mild, there is mobile learning, relatively little effect on nutrients, although when hot water is used as the heating medium some nutrients, especially water-soluble nutrients, are leached into the water. “ Pasteurization ” is named after Pasteur, who demonstrated that wine spoiled because of the presence of microorganisms and that a mild heat treatment could be used to inactivate the problem solving and decision making, microorganisms and thereby extend the shelf life. Checker! Pasteurization is most well known for its application to and decision, milk, which is strictly regulated through the U.S. Public Health Service/FDA's Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Pasteurization is most generally applied to essay checker grammar punctuation, liquids, although it is also applied to semisolid and solid foods. As applied to liquids, the temperature is elevated to 140 to 212F for a short period of problem and decision essays time (usually less than 1 min) to inactivate microorganisms that can cause illness (pathogens).
As originally applied, the liquid was heated after it was put into the container; but by applying advances in food engineering, such as the understanding of flow dynamics and heat transfer to flowing liquids, continuous processes were developed using heat exchangers, machines used to transfer heat from a hot fluid to in malaysia, a colder one. Modern processes are almost exclusively continuous processes, with the pasteurized liquid being deposited into sterile packages. Most pasteurized foods are subsequently kept in problem solving refrigerated storage to extend the shelf life because not all spoilage organisms present have been inactivated. “ Canning ” is an extended abstract, primarily used to problem making essays, inactivate microorganisms that cause food-borne disease such as botulism, but it also inactivates microorganisms that cause food spoilage. Of The! This thermal process is commonly accomplished by holding the solving making, product at temperatures well above 230F for writing an extended several minutes. Canned food is not absolutely sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms) but rather is commercially sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms that could grow under normal storage conditions). There are 2 major methods: heating the food after it has been sealed in a container (referred to as canning ) and problem making, sterilizing the gis thesis in malaysia, food, then depositing it in a sterile container within a sterile environment and and decision essays, sealing the container (referred to as aseptic processing ). These processes can also be optimized for retention of nutrients and quality factors such as taste, flavor, and color. The success of this method of preserving foods in eliminating food-related deficiency diseases cannot be understated, with canned fruits and vegetables being a source of vitamin C independent of seasons, for example. • Refrigeration and Freezing. The use of low temperatures to the hardy essay, extend the problem solving making, shelf life of food and beverage products has a long history. The use of ice to reduce the temperature of foods and prevent spoilage has been recognized for centuries.
Refrigerators are now found in almost every home in industrialized countries. Although the reduction of abstract temperature does not eliminate microbial populations, it reduces the rate of problem making microbial growth enough to prevent product spoilage and extend the shelf life of most food products. Most fruits and red death thesis, vegetables are refrigerated to extend their freshness. In addition, refrigeration also reduces the reaction rates of enzymes that cause deterioration of most quality attributes of problem a food or beverage, making high-quality products available to in malaysia, the consumer for extended periods of time (Heldman and Hartel 1997). Some foods and beverages receive a mild heat treatment to inactivate enzymes and eliminate microorganisms that can cause disease but still require refrigeration to control the growth of surviving microorganisms that can cause spoilage. Pasteurized milk is probably the best example, but many other foods and beverages are also pasteurized and then refrigerated.
In general, holding a food or beverage at refrigeration or freezing temperature has no negative impact on the quality attributes of the food but extends consumable product life. “ Freezing ” is a more intense use of refrigeration to reduce the temperature of a product to levels below the freezing temperature of water in the product. And Decision Making Essays! Lower temperatures cause the essay, liquid water to change phase to ice. Solving And Decision Making! At these reduced temperatures (−0.4 to −14F), the deterioration rates for product quality attributes are reduced to below those at refrigeration temperature, and red death thesis, microbial growth is reduced to negligible levels. It is not unusual for and decision essays frozen fruits, vegetables, and some meat products to maintain high quality for an extended essay as much as 1 y while frozen. Many favorite desserts, such as ice cream, have been created by the freezing process.
Most nutrients are not affected by freezing; however, it is difficult to freeze a food product without impact on the some of its more evident quality attributes. The formation of ice crystals within the structure of a plant or animal food results in solving and decision making essays a series of reactions with potential impact on essay, texture and flavor. Thus, careful control of the time to freeze the product and the temperature of the frozen product during distribution and storage is important to minimize such reactions and ensure the best possible quality attributes over time (Erickson and Hung 1997). The size of ice crystals created during the freezing process can be controlled, but this is not possible with all products or freezing facilities. For example, small pieces of fruits or vegetables can be frozen very rapidly, and the product structure is preserved with uniform distribution of small ice crystals. In contrast, a large portion of beef or any product in a large package will require a longer time to freeze and will result in solving a less-uniform distribution of larger ice crystals. The Masque Of The Red Death! The extent of the impact on product quality depends on solving and decision essays, an array of on lady sleepwalking factors occurring after freezing, including control of temperature during storage and distribution and final preparation of the food. For many foods, the quality attributes of refrigerated and frozen foods compare favorably to those of the fresh counterparts (Mallet 1993). • Dehydration. Drying is intended to halt or slow the growth of microorganisms and rate of chemical reactions.
The removal of water provides food processors excellent opportunities to reduce volume and problem solving and decision, weight, extend shelf life, and convert liquids to powdery products, such as instant coffee or a vegetable soup base mix. This process is one of the the masque of the, oldest techniques used to preserve foods, one of the most utilized, and the most energy intensive (von Loesecke 1943; Saravacos 1965; King 1968; Thijssen 1979). Water removal is usually performed via evaporation, vaporization, or sublimation (drying while frozen) by means of a simultaneous heat, mass, and solving making essays, momentum transfer mechanism (Whitaker 1977). Essays On Lady Sleepwalking! This transfer occurs within the food itself and between the food and the drying medium, resulting in the reduction of moisture, a key variable in all drying operations. In addition to water removal, chemical reactions occur, such as Maillard browning (nonenzymatic browning) of amino acids/reducing sugars such as glucose, caramelization of and decision making essays sugar, denaturation/degradation of cross-linking proteins, and pyrolysis (decomposition or transformation of a compound caused by heat) of the various organic constituents. In addition, loss of volatile compounds, gelatinization of starches, and modification of the masque food material structure change the characteristics of the original product significantly (Viollaz and Alzamora 2005). Many types of dryers, dehydration methods, and associated equipment are applied to problem making essays, a very wide range of foods.
Sun drying on trays, mats, or platforms is the traditional method and essay checker grammar, is still used today. Modern equipment includes cabinet, bed, conveyor, fluidized bed, drum, vacuum, and spray dryers. Freeze drying (lyophilization), osmotic dehydration, microwave, and and decision, innovative light-driven refractance-window dryers are also in use. With continuous technological advances in different fields, drying is constantly evolving to offer better quality and novel products. Mathematical modeling and essays on lady sleepwalking, process simulation have significantly contributed to the understanding of the intricacies of this very complex process and the design of new dryers and drying systems. One trend is to combine 2 or more dehydration techniquesor a dehydration method with other processing approachesfor treatments that optimize cost, food quality, and safety. Examples of these combinations include microwavevacuum drying, ultrasound-assisted air drying, and encapsulation and flavor impregnation to solving making essays, add value. • Acidification. Raw foods and beverages vary significantly in levels of acid they contain. Foods with lower levels of acid are more susceptible to microbial growth and are thus more perishable. The intentional adjustment in the level of acid in a food has been a preservation method for centuries, in red death making pickles, for example.
This approach to preservation is problem and decision, based on the inability of many spoilage microorganisms and pathogens to gis thesis in malaysia, grow at high levels of acid. Increasing the acidity prevents growth of many microorganisms and problem solving and decision, extends the essays sleepwalking, shelf life of the solving and decision making essays, product, while maintaining many of its attributes. This preservation method can be accomplished by addition of acid to on lady, adjust the overall acidity level of the product, or biologically through fermentation. Problem And Decision Making! Since acid alone may not be sufficient to fully protect the product, adjustments in gis thesis acidity are frequently used in combination with other techniques such as heat, additives, or refrigeration to accomplish preservation and safety. • Fermentation. The use of microorganisms to change a perishable food into a less-perishable product is another very old way of preservation that has been used around the world by societies without access to refrigeration to extend the edible life of solving essays a fresh food.
Many of these products, such as blue cheese, salami, sauerkraut, and yogurt, have become so popular that societies with ready access to refrigeration continue to enjoy fermented foods but still frequently use refrigeration to maintain safety and extend shelf life of these modern versions. Although some microorganisms lead to food spoilage and others cause food poisoning, specific microorganisms that can induce desirable changes in foods are used to overpower those that can lead to unappealing or unsafe foods. Fermentation microorganisms primarily work to change the chemical makeup of a product, making it less likely that undesirable microorganisms will reproduce and compromise product safety or quality. Beneficial microorganisms synthesize natural preservatives, such as lactic acid and other acids (increasing the acidity of the food), carbon dioxide (lowering the oxygen content), and of the, ethanol (discouraging growth of solving and decision essays undesirable microorganisms). Yeasts produce carbon dioxide to expand the structure, such as dough for bread baking.
They are also responsible for mobile learning phd thesis the production of ethanol to problem solving making, produce beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Fermented dairy products include yogurt and in malaysia, a host of ripened cheeses. Fermented cucumbers are called pickles in Western countries, but pickling is another word for fermenting and is used to produce pickled eggs, pig's feet, and even snakes in certain countries. Making Essays! Many countries and cultures have their own favorite types of fermented products, such as injera from Ethiopia, kimchi (fermented cabbage) from Korea, salami and other fermented sausages from gis thesis, Italy and Germany, and sauerkraut from northern Europe. Harvested cacao beans are fermented before cleaning and solving and decision making, roasting, making all chocolate products the result of at least one fermentation step. • Water Activity. A very important and useful tool in boys the control of food quality attributes and food safety is water activity (a W ). Defined as an equilibrium property (free energy) of water at problem solving and decision essays a given temperature and moisture content, the concept of a W was first suggested in the 1950s when it became obvious that water content could not adequately account for microbial growth limitations. During the 1960s, researchers demonstrated that a W is also important in controlling the rates of chemical deterioration in foods, and then in the 1980s it was also found to relate to the texture of crisp dry foods and caking of powders such as instant coffee. a W is not the same as water content, or the quantitative amount of water in a sample, nor is it a measure of free compared with bound water in a food, an early misconception that is now abandoned. Through the research of hundreds of food scientists, a number of a W paradigms have been established and used by food manufacturers to create safe, tasty, and writing an extended, nutritious dry and semimoist foods such as crispy snacks and making essays, breakfast cereals, semimoist cookies, and the masque red death thesis, creamy confections. Problem Solving And Decision Essays! For example, it is known that at a W values between about 0.3 and 0.65, changes in product texture occur (for example, loss of boys crispness and solving and decision making essays, onset of stickiness, caking, or hardening), and gis thesis in malaysia, that at a W values around 0.85 and problem solving making essays, greater, significant growth of microorganisms, including illness-causing bacteria, occurs.
In fact, the concept of a W is used in regulation of food processing to ensure food safety. The Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 110.80 [b]) requires that “Foods such as but not limited to dry mixes, nuts, intermediate moisture foods, and dehydrated foods that rely on the control of learning a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms shall be processed to and maintained at problem solving and decision making a safe moisture level. Compliance may be accomplished by any effective means including (i) monitoring the essays, a W of ingredients and finished product, (ii) controlling the soluble solids-water ratio, (iii) protecting finished foods from moisture pickup so that the a W does not increase to an unsafe level .” In addition, a W is the key to problem and decision, control of enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and many other reactions that have an impact on food quality, such as degradation of vitamins and the masque of the, changes in color, flavor, and aroma (Labuza and others 1970). Figure 2 depicts the water content and a W of a few common foods. Moisture sorption isotherm relating water activity to moisture content at solving and decision making a specific temperature. Specific knowledge of the relationship of a W to the masque thesis, moisture content, such as that shown in Figure 2, is useful to food manufacturers for problem and decision choosing specific ingredients, such as in making a high- or intermediate-moisture food that will maintain a safe a W level (generally below 0.85). This information is also important in predicting and controlling textural changes and ingredient stability. Foods such as dry mixes, nuts, and dehydrated foods rely on control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms.
This can be accomplished by adding food-grade acids such as citric or lactic, by adding a microbial growth inhibitor such as sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate, or by also including a smoking step, as has been done with hams and fish. The systematic control of a W through product formulation ensures the maximum quality and shelf life for dry and intermediate-moisture foods (Labuza and others 1970), such as beef jerky, gummies, dried raisins and macbeth, cranberries, or chewy granola bars. Many of these foods are traditional foods, but are available with improved quality attributes and convenience. Our ancestors used this method of preservation centuries ago by simply adding salt or sugar to meat or plant foods. The best examples are cured hams, semidry smoked salted fish, and sugared fruit slices. • Smoking. The application of smoke to food products, primarily meats, is a very traditional process that was probably discovered by accident. It has been speculated that when ancient cave dwellers learned to cook food over open fires, it quickly became obvious to them that the smoke from the fire helped reduce the problem, spoilage of perishable food products such as meat and also imparted a very distinctive, desirable flavor. Over time, the smoke process was expanded to mobile learning, include not only meat, fish, and poultry but also, more recently, sausage products, ham, bacon, cheeses, and many other foods for which a unique smoked flavor and increased shelf life are desired. Classic survival foods, such as meat jerky, are produced by problem solving and decision, a combination of smoking and dehydration and of the red death, have now evolved into a wide variety of problem solving and decision essays savory snack foods.
The smoke application process has evolved dramatically from open campfires to a highly controlled, scientific process, but the benefits have remained the same. The Hardy Boys Essay! Smoke achieves 4 different functions when applied to problem solving essays, food, all of the hardy boys essay which contribute to safer, more palatable products: Food safety. Problem Making Essays! Smoke kills some of the bacteria that are present on the product surface and prevents or slows the growth of essays on lady others. Problem Solving! While this has been one of the most important roles of smoke for food preservation in writing the past, this effect is less critical today because several other antimicrobial processes are available. Nevertheless, smoke is still an important contributor to bacterial control in smoked foods. Solving Making Essays! The antibacterial effect of smoke is essays, due to several components of wood smoke, specifically acids and solving making essays, alcohol, which are formed during combustion of wood and deposited on the product surface.
Furthermore, most smoke processes are done with application of heat at mobile the same time, and the combination of solving making smoke with mild heating increases the control of writing abstract both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Smoke application usually results in some surface drying of the product as well, and this helps to problem making essays, prevent bacterial growth during subsequent storage. Qualityflavor and aroma. Smoke imparts a very pleasant and desirable aroma and flavor to of the thesis, smoked foods, a role that has become more important today as consumers seek a greater variety of solving and decision essays flavors and eating experiences. Wood smoke can be derived from a variety of the hardy essay wood sources, including hickory, apple, mesquite, and problem solving and decision making, others, to essay, add to the variety of flavors that can be achieved. Qualityvisual appeal. Smoke provides a highly attractive surface color, especially for smoked meats. The deep, rich mahogany color of a smoked ham is easily recognized by consumers and communicates assurance that the associated aroma and flavor expected of problem solving making a smoked ham will be delivered.
Preservation. Smoke functions as an antioxidant or flavor protector. Several of the compounds in wood smoke, most notably complex phenols, will dramatically slow the flavor deterioration that typically occurs with development of rancidity following cooking. Despite the advantages, 3 criticisms have occasionally been leveled at the use of smoke for food preservation. First is that atmospheric emissions result from combustion of wood to generate smoke. Second is that it degrades some food nutrients; this has been demonstrated to be of very minor importancesmoke has been shown to not significantly alter the nutrient value of food under normal circumstances. Third is writing an extended essay, that combustion of wood can generate undesirable compounds (polycyclic hydrocarbons) shown to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Of note is that this process results in smoke deposition almost exclusively on the surface of the problem solving making essays, product, with relatively little penetration below the surfacesmoke deposition is limited to the outer ¼ to ½ inch of the product. However, smoke application can also be achieved with “liquid smoke,” a concentrated extract of natural wood smoke. Liquid smoke contains all of the important functional components of natural smoke and results in the same effects on color, flavor, and bacterial control, but it is much more consistent in composition than natural smoke and therefore more reproducible in effect.
Other significant advantages to liquid smoke are that no atmospheric emissions are generated during smoke application, the undesirable toxic/carcinogenic components of natural smoke are not included in the extract, and the liquid smoke can be mixed into a product during manufacturing for a more uniform smoked flavor. Meat products with liquid smoke added can usually be identified by a term such as “smoke flavoring” in the ingredients list on gis thesis, the product label. Problem! Liquid smoke can also be applied by drenching or dipping, spraying or atomization, or use of smoke-impregnated sausage casings. These application methods result in surface deposition of smoke components with product effects that are very similar to mobile learning phd thesis, those produced by the surface application of natural smoke. • Irradiation.
For more than 40 y, ionizing radiation has been used commercially to problem and decision, destroy bacterial and phd thesis, insect contamination of food. Solving And Decision Essays! Common sources of ionizing radiation today are electron beams, X-rays, and, more often, gamma rays (with the radioactive isotope cobalt-60, the same source used for radiation therapy in hospitals). Elaborate physical safeguards assure worker safety. Irradiation is the masque thesis, particularly effective in reducing microbial contamination of hamburger meat and poultry, which can be contaminated by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Campylobacter and result in food-borne illness. Irradiation also may be applied to eliminate insects in a wide variety of foods, for problem solving and decision making example, flour, spices, fruits, vegetables, and grains (IFT 2004), to prevent seeds from sprouting, and to control pathogens in fresh shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, fresh or frozen molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops), and the hardy boys essay, fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach (Morehouse and solving making essays, Komolprasert 2004, FDA 2008). Low doses permit fruit to be harvested when ripe or nearly so, thus increasing nutritional and flavor quality, while still extending shelf life well beyond that of nonirradiated produce. Irradiation works by damaging the DNA of living organisms; the targets are typically bacteria and insects, but the DNA of the plant or animal food is writing abstract, of course also affected. This poses no human risk, since normal digestion completely breaks down and metabolizes the DNA, whether that damage is minimal, as with irradiation, or extensive, as with cooking. Solving Making Essays! Low doses of irradiation can achieve sprout inhibition and insect de-infestation; medium doses are required for reduction of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria; and high doses are required for sterilization. Irradiated foods must be labeled as such (21 CFR 179.26[c]). Irradiation is also used at high doses and in gis thesis far higher volume to sterilize joint implants, bandages, sutures, drugs, cosmetics, and wine and bottle corks (Crawford and Ruff 1996; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010).
The effects of irradiation on nutritional quality vary depending on nutrient, food, and irradiation conditions (for example, dosage, temperature, and atmospheric conditions). Nutrient losses are similar to those occurring with heat and other processes (IFT 2004). Thiamin (vitamin B1) is sensitive to irradiation, but loss can be minimized with packaging techniques (Thayer 1990; Fox and solving making essays, others 1995, 1997). Irradiation does not in any way replace existing procedures for safe handling of food. Instead, it is a tool to the masque thesis, achieve what normal safe handling cannot (CDC 2010). Irradiation cannot make food safe that is already spoiled (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Because of the usefulness of irradiation in dealing with microbial risks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other public health authorities have endorsed its use (CDC 2010).
The same conclusions on safety and effectiveness have been reached by international agencies (WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). Codex Alimentarius, the international food standard-setting agency, has published a General Standard for Irradiated Foods (CAC 2003a) and a Recommended International Code of problem solving essays Practice (CAC 2003b). Although regulations of irradiation of food vary from boys essay, country to country, regulations in several countries have been or are being harmonized through compliance with the Codex General Standard (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). In the United States, food irradiation is regulated as a food additive, because in the Food Additives Amendment of the Federal Food, Drug, and problem solving making, Cosmetic Act of 1958 Congress defined radiation sources as food additives. The safety of irradiated food, which has been tested extensively, has been clearly demonstrated (Diehl 1995; Crawford and Ruff 1996; WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; CDC 2010). Foods made sterile by irradiation to mobile phd thesis, inactivate bacterial spores (at the problem solving and decision making, highest doses) have been fed for years to patients with reduced immunity and to astronauts (CDC 2010; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Consumer concern over the safety of irradiated food was initially high, in part because of the misconceptions that come with the gis thesis in malaysia, introduction of any new technology. Arguments against irradiation are similar to those voiced against pasteurization of milk, when it was introduced 100 y ago (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Concern still exists but has gradually declined as information on irradiation and its advantages have become more widely known (Conley 1992; Bruhn 1995; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; IFIC 2009). The world volume of irradiated food is estimated to exceed 400000 tons annually, with the largest increase occurring in Asia (Kume and others 2009).
The food industry has been slow to adopt food irradiation in the more developed nations because of the large capital investment required; there is problem and decision making, little incentive to invest in irradiation equipment because of funds already allocated for refrigeration, canning, and other major processes. The situation is very different in developing areas, where existing processes are much less extensive and postharvest losses and the risks of food-borne illness are far greater. Some argue that this is in malaysia, where the need for and decision making irradiation is greatest and the ability to afford it is the lowest. In the United States, irradiation could reduce E. Boys Essay! coli in ground beef and Salmonella in poultry should products be contaminated, and problem making, could provide a needed pathogen kill step for fresh greens eaten raw. • Extrusion. This process pushes a material through a specially engineered opening to give a desired shape and texture through increases in temperature, pressure, and shear forces. The pushing force is applied by using either a piston or a screw. In food applications, screw extrusion is writing an extended abstract, predominant. Solving And Decision Making Essays! Examples of on lady macbeth traditional extruded foods are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and breakfast cereals. Other extruded foods include flat bread and snack foods such as corn curls, chips, crackers, chewing gum, chocolate, and soft/chewy candy.
Extrusion is also used to create flavors and encapsulate them for heat stability in processing. Solving Making! Thus, this process gives a desired shape, texture, functionality, and the hardy essay, flavor. Depending on the product, an extruder can simply be a screw press or it can be a continuous cooker. In the case of a screw press, the product is usually further processed extensively, such as by frying, baking, flaking, coating, or drying, as in the extrusion process to produce cornflakes. A continuous cooker extruder can make products that are almost ready-to-eat (for example, puffed rice), requiring very little further processing. Inside an extruder, several processes may occur, including fluid flow, heat transfer, mixing, shearing, particle size reduction, and melting. In pasta manufacturing, for example, the main objective of the extrusion process is to making essays, partially gelatinize starch, compact the dough, and give it the desired shape. In the case of chocolate manufacturing, however, the the hardy boys essay, extruder is used as a reactor to generate key flavor attributes.
And, in the case of flat bread, an extruder is used to develop the desired expanded and porous structure. Food extrusion is generally considered a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process. The food components are exposed to temperatures above 284F for a very short time, generally a few seconds. This gives a distinct advantage over conventional pressure cooking, in which the exposure could be several minutes at temperatures near 212 to 248F. Any cooking process causes loss of heat-sensitive nutrients, flavors, and colors. A combination of higher temperature and and decision making essays, shorter time is desirable because it retains nutrients better than a combination of lower temperature and longer time. It has been found that vitamins A, C, E, B1, and folic acid are very sensitive to extrusion, whereas the B-complex vitamins B2, B6, B12, niacin, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are stable during extrusion. Extrusion offers a good method for essays reducing antinutritional factors in legumes. Essays! For example, in peas, extrusion has been found to be more effective than germination for reducing tannins, polyphenols, and trypsin inhibitors. Extruders have been used as bioreactors for pretreatment of mobile learning phd thesis cereal grains for solving and decision making subsequent ethanol fermentation, enzymatic conversion of starch to glucose and gis thesis in malaysia, maltose, and sterilization of ground spices such as black pepper, white pepper, and paprika. Extrusion has been shown to reduce the deleterious microorganisms in essays spices to writing an extended essay abstract, well below maximum allowable levels.
Extrusion is an environmentally friendly process that uses heat and problem and decision, power efficiently and does not produce effluents. In addition, the same equipment can be used to gis thesis, make a variety of products. Extruded products are safe to consume, with no known harmful effects. • Modified/Controlled Atmosphere. The shelf life of many fresh foods has been extended by controlling the composition of the gas environment in direct contact with the product. For products with shelf life limited by and decision making essays, chemical or enzymatic reactions involving oxygen, reducing or eliminating the oxygen content of the essays on lady macbeth sleepwalking, environment provides significant extension of the product shelf life (Floros 1990). The shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is problem and decision essays, extended by controlling both the mobile learning phd thesis, oxygen and problem and decision making, carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere surrounding the products, which are still actively undergoing respiration and continue to convert oxygen to carbon dioxide. Large-scale controlled-atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables has become a standard approach to maintaining the gis thesis, highest product quality between the time of harvest and delivery to the consumer.
More recently, controlled-atmosphere packaging has also become very common. Solving And Decision! This approach has evolved with the development of shipping containers and packaging films that allow for selective transmission or removal of different respiratory gases or the natural fruit-ripening gas ethylene (Floros and Matsos 2005). The modification of product atmosphere must be approached with caution, because of the response of certain microbial populations. The most serious concerns are with anaerobic pathogens, such as Clostridium botulinum , that have the potential to grow and essay abstract, produce toxins in problem making an oxygen-free environment. Several packaging systems have been developed based on these concepts, but are limited in application.
• Additives. Food additives are adjuncts to food processing. They extend the writing, range and flexibility of the relatively few food processes available, and they improve the problem solving essays, economics of the processes. For example, without stabilizers, ice cream would quickly become “grainy,” as small ice crystals grow into the hardy, large ones. Without fumigants, flour and other grain products and spices would be wormy, as they once were years ago. Without fortification of milk and flour and the addition of iodine (in the form of iodate) to salt, rickets and and decision making essays, goiter would still occur. Without artificial colors, many foods, such as gelatin, would be unattractive because natural colors lack the stability and coloring power of the synthetics. Without nonnutritive sweeteners, a great many sweetened beverages, desserts, and confections would have unacceptable calorie contents or contain levels of sugar that cannot be consumed by mobile, certain individuals, such as people with diabetes and many others.
Anticaking agents, enzymes, preservatives, emulsifiers (which allow immiscible liquids such as oil and water to form a stable mixture), humectants (which affect moisture retention through their affinity to water and stabilizing action on problem and decision essays, water content), and many other additives add significantly to the safety, nutritive value, attractiveness, convenience, and economy of our modern food supply. The practical definition of a food additivenot the far longer, involved legal definitionis “Any substance added to food in writing essay abstract small amounts to problem and decision, achieve a particular technical effect.” The Code of Federal Regulations (21.170) recognizes 32 categories of additives allowed for their technical or functional effects. Among them are acidifiers, antioxidants, emulsifiers, leavening agents, micronutrients, and nonnutritive sweeteners. There is no formal distinction between “food ingredient” and checker punctuation, “food additive.” Common usage would suggest that an ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of solving making essays a food would be an “additive.” In a hard candy, for example, sugar is the food itself; color and flavor are the additives. In a lightly sweetened beverage, however, sugar could be an “additive.” There are more than 2200 additives in use, the majority of which are flavoring ingredients. Figure 3 displays the distribution of additives in essay checker punctuation use during the recent decade, ranked by per capita annual consumption in the United States food supply. Problem And Decision Essays! The figure identifies only a few examples in gis thesis in malaysia the different ingredient categories.
The graph shows use , the problem making, amount that disappears into the food supply. Actual consumption is significantly lower because of plate waste and, in the case of volatile additives such as flavors, volatilization. Thus, the essay checker grammar, amounts in a similar graph of actual consumption would be lower than those shown here. The median additive, with half of the total used in larger amount and half in lesser amount, is slightly more than 1 mg/person/y. Problem Solving Making! The per capita consumption of a heavily used substance, such as a nutritive sweetener, frequently exceeds the per capita consumption of an ingredient in a much less used category. The Masque! For example, a flavoring ingredient that because of its potency is making essays, used at very low levels will have a per capita consumption much lower than almost all other ingredients added to food. Substances intentionally added to food in grammar decreasing order of per capita annual use.
• Packaging. Many different types of food packages are used for problem making essays several different reasons. Food is packaged primarily to contain the product, protect the product from contamination, enable convenience, and provide information (Paine 1991; Robertson 1993; Yam and others 2005; IFT 2008). Most food products are delivered to the consumer in some type of package. The Hardy Essay! Foods that have received some type of preservation process are placed in solving making a package to ensure that the on lady macbeth sleepwalking, product attributes enhanced by the process are maintained. Even fresh produce is packaged after receiving a washing and cleaning process. Packaging offers a critical component of solving making food safety by preventing contamination from pathogens. The Hardy Boys! In addition, packaging extends the shelf life of the product by providing a physical barrier to or protection from atmospheric oxygen and moisture, light, and other agents that would accelerate deterioration of the product. Solving Making Essays! Finally, packaging is the vehicle by which legally required information is presented to the consumer in the form of the label bearing information about the product identity, quantity, ingredients, nutrient content, expiration date, and commercial source. Packaging has advanced from glass bottles, paperboard cartons, tin-plated soldered side-seam steel cans, and aluminum foil to 2-piece aluminum cans with “pop tops;” plastic, flexible, rigid, semirigid, and multilayer containers; microwave safe packages; and active and intelligent packaging (Floros and others 1997, 1998; Suppakul and others 2003; Ozdemir and Floros 2004; Yam and others 2005; Han and Floros 2007; IFT 2008). The Masque Of The Red Death Thesis! Innovations were driven by problem solving, a number of forces, including convenience, consumer desire for minimally processed foods, changes in retail and distribution practices; foodservice needs; trend toward more sustainable packaging; and boys, demands for global and fast transport of solving essays food (Suppakul and others 2003; IFT 2008).
Aseptic packaging is a major area of food packaging that has significantly increased the safety, quality, availability, and convenience of certain foods around the world, while reducing the amount of energy needed to preserve and store such foods. The major difference between aseptic packaging and traditional methods of food packaging is that in aseptic packaging the product and the packaging material are continuously sterilized separately. Then, under aseptic conditions that prevent recontamination of the product, the sterile package is filled with the cooled sterile product and hermetically sealed to produce a shelf-stable final product with extended shelf life and no need for refrigerated storage. This technique has allowed for substantial improvements in the quality of the final product, mainly due to essay, the much milder heat treatment that the product undergoes compared to the traditional thermal process (Floros 1993). Large-scale aseptic bulk processing and packaging, combined with aseptic storage and transportation, contributes significantly to reduction of postharvest fruit and vegetable losses and problem solving making essays, greater availability of these food products around the world. Many advances in the packaging of food took place in the past 20 to boys essay, 30 y, producing a wide variety of new materials and processing technologies. The steady accumulation of research developments indicates that food packaging will continue to essays, evolve and learning phd thesis, respond to the changing needs of the food system and the increased demands of consumers. To meet consumers’ growing demands for fresh-like and solving making essays, highly nutritious foods with guaranteed safety, several alternative preservation technologies have been developed during the past 15 to 25 y for application to food products. These technologies include both (1) novel thermal processes such as microwave and ohmic heating, which are much faster than the currently widespread canning method to produce shelf-stable foods and (2) other physical methods that do not use heat as a primary mode of inactivating microorganisms in foods, such as ultra-high pressure (UHP), pulsed electric fields, ultrasonic waves, high-intensity pulsed light, and others. Each of these alternative technologies has unique characteristics and potential for on lady expanded applications in problem and decision different categories of food products.
The goal of all the new processes is to reduce the overall time and temperature exposures of the essays on lady macbeth, foods so that they are safe and problem making essays, more like fresh or freshly cooked items. The nonthermal methods are primarily being used to replace traditional thermal pasteurization of foods. • Microwave Heating. Essay Checker Punctuation! This method of heating prepared foods and beverages and cooking raw foods is well known and accepted by consumers, but applications for food preservation are still evolving. Some microwave-processed foods are marketed in Europe and Japan. In the past year, FDA accepted applications under the low-acid canned food regulations for microwave sterilization, both in a continuous mode for a sweet potato puree that is aseptically packaged in solving and decision making sterile flexible pouches, and for mobile learning phd thesis a semicontinuous process for prepackaged food in limited batches. • Ohmic Heating. This process, also called electrical resistance heating, Joule heating, or electroheating, involves passing electricity through the food via contact with charged electrodes. The electrical energy results in rapid, uniform heating, in problem solving essays contrast to the slow conduction and convection heating of essays macbeth sleepwalking conventional thermal processing, thereby allowing for greater quality than canned counterparts.
It is particularly useful for heat-sensitive proteinaceous foods (Ramaswamy and others 2005). Ohmic heating has been applied in limited situations to such foods as cut and whole fruit and liquid eggs, but applications may expand to soups and similar items in the future. • High-Pressure Processing. Solving And Decision Essays! This process, also known as high-hydrostatic-pressure processing and UHP processing, seems to have a promising future for food preservation, since reductions in microbial populations can be accomplished without significant elevation of product temperature. Gis Thesis! The use of pressures approaching 100000 pounds per square inch for holding times of a few minutes produces a processed food with the solving and decision making, taste, color, and texture similar to fresh. Boys Essay! Following the successful introduction of a pressure-treated guacamole product in solving and decision 1997, a growing number of ready-to-eat meats and other refrigerated items, including raw oysters, have been treated by high pressure to meet food safety standards for such products and have increased their high-quality shelf life. When elevated temperatures are used in mobile phd thesis combination with UHP, the microbial spores in the food can be inactivated. In 2009, a pressure-assisted thermal sterilization process developed by problem, a consortium of Army and industrial researchers at checker punctuation the Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology was accepted under the low-acid canned food regulations by FDA (NCFST 2009). This process is more rapid and less damaging to several food quality attributes than traditional thermal sterilization because application of pressure rapidly and uniformly heats packaged food in the pressure vessel to the desired end temperature, and then, when pressure is released after a few minutes the product returns to the original temperature.
• Pulsed Electric Fields. Use of very high voltage (20 kV) and very short, microsecond, electric pulses has potential as a nonthermal method for pasteurization of fruit juices and other fluid or pumpable products. The process is being optimized, but more information needs to be evaluated on the impact of the process on food components, first to assure microbiological safety and then to determine the problem and decision, impact on sensory quality as well as content of writing an extended essay key nutrients (Sanchez-Moreno and problem solving essays, others 2009). Recent research has shown not only macbeth sleepwalking, that some of these alternative novel processes allow production of very high quality items, but also that those items may have a higher nutritive value than similar items produced by traditional thermal processes because the novel processes result in less chemical damage of key micronutrients. To achieve acceptance first by making, the regulatory authorities and then by consumers will require an overall evaluation of each of these novel processes. Approximately 30 to of the, 40% of raw food materials and ingredients are lost between the points of production and consumption. The magnitude of these losses, and the contributing factors, are different in developing countries compared to industrialized countries (Godfray and others 2010). Solving And Decision Essays! For example, food losses in the developing world are primarily due to the lack of an infrastructure, as well as lack of knowledge of or investment in the means to protect from losses arising from damage and spoilage attributable to mobile learning, rodents, insects, molds, and other microorganisms. Significant losses occur during production, harvesting, and on-farm storage. In contrast, in industrialized countries, food losses are more significant in retail and foodservice establishments and in problem solving making essays the home. The losses in essays developed countries are attributable to several factors, including the solving and decision making, relatively low costs of food and writing an extended essay, the lack of incentives to avoid wastes (Godfray and others 2010).
Commercial food manufacturing operations are more efficient in the conversion of raw materials into consumer products than home processing and preparation. Moreover, there are significant economic incentives for food manufacturing operations to minimize waste streams, resulting in the use of new or modified processing methods, in-plant treatment, and reuse (Hang 2004). Many food processing waste streams are used for animal feed (Hudson 1971), and processes have been developed for converting waste materials into biofuels, food ingredients, and other edible, valuable bioproducts (Hang 2004). These waste-management practices are being refined as part of the trends in life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact of the entire food chain (Ohlsson 2004). Solving And Decision Making! Through such assessments, the food industry is essay grammar, identifying the steps in the food chain that have the greatest environmental impact. The assessments become the problem and decision making, basis for essay grammar punctuation selection of alternative raw materials, packaging materials, and other inputs, and an overall improvement in waste-management strategies (Ohlsson 2004). Life-cycle assessments provide a much more accurate understanding of energy consumption and waste production than popular concepts such as food miles (Mattsson and Sonesson 2003). An example of essays life-cycle assessments is the comparison of high value added products, such as pork, with a highly productive crop, such as potatoes. The analysis indicates that for the high value added product, the largest energy consumption and production of emissions and other wastes is in mobile learning the agricultural sector (that is, on the farm). In contrast, the major part of energy use for a highly productive crop is by the consumer (in the home) (Ohlsson 2004).
Thus, to reduce energy contributions to global warming and generation of problem pollutants, it would be appropriate to the masque of the thesis, target reductions where they would have the greatest effect (for example, on the farm for items such as pork and in the home for solving essays items such as potatoes) rather than simply focusing on food miles or food processing. In summary, the processing of a food or beverage includes an array of technologies and boys essay, processes to transform raw food materials and ingredients into problem and decision essays, consumer food products. The primary purpose of these processes is for preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world) and to essay checker, ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality attributes of the product. In some cases, these changes are intentional and provide improvements in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the product. In other cases, the changes may simply make the product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the raw or home-prepared product. Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar, timing of harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen, and water solubility), and processing method. Depending on these variables, processed foods may have more nutritional value (due to greater bioavailability of beta-carotene or lycopene, for example) than the problem making, fresh product (Rickman and others 2007a, 2007b). In addition, some processed products (for example, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables) are often a better value for the consumer than the “fresh” or raw product. Food expenditures, as a percentage of household expenditures, in mobile the United States are the essays, lowest in the world: 5.6% compared to 9.1% in Canada, 11.4% in Germany, 24.1% in Mexico, and 44.1% in Indonesia (ERS 2008).
Cost is an extremely important variable to most consumers in making food and other purchases, particularly to those with low incomes. Macbeth! Many of the most economical foodsprocessed meats, snack foods, caloric soft drinkshave high-calorie contents. People purchase them because they like the taste and consistency, and because they are good value. They have a legitimate role in our food supply, but that role should not be excessively large. The future of the agriculture and food system will be largely determined by the trajectory of 3 major trends: the problem, population and its associated demographics; availability and type of energy resources; and climate as it influences available land, water, and air quality. Population is the most important by far, since it drives the others (given the impact on demand for arable land, for in malaysia example) through its multiplier, the solving and decision making essays, standard of living (consumption rate). However, the technologies deployed will also be a matter of scientific understanding, public policy, consumer attitudes, and essays macbeth sleepwalking, fiscal resources. Historical perspectives and future development. Assuming that the goal is a sustainable future, Warren Belasco (2006) considered in his book Meals to Come: A History of the and decision making essays, Future of Food the perspectives of 3 people living in the 1790s: Thomas Malthus, who was concerned about population growth; the enlightenment philosopher Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet; and William Godwin, who believed that inequitable distribution was the problem. From these historical perspectives, Belasco proposed 3 possible cornucopian futures: (1) the the hardy essay, classical, based on problem solving and decision making essays, expansion into new areas (for example, expand food production and processing); (2) the essays on lady, modern, the belief in scientific and technological solutions; and (3) the recombinant, a blend of the radical modern with the familiar classical (for example, share resources more efficiently). Wrangham (2009) called for increased research into food physics, or what has recently been termed “food materials science,” especially the relationships between food structure and problem solving and decision making essays, nutritional value.
While Michael Pollan (2008), in his book In Defense of an extended Food: An Eater's Manifesto , laments modern “nutritionism,” he points to the need for more science as well. Foreshadowing today's “molecular gastronomy” (study of the physical and chemical processes occurring during cooking), Gerald Wendt, science director of the 1939 World's Fair, wrote that foods “will abandon all pretense of imitating nature” (Belasco 2006). In reality, this has always been the case; for example, bread, cheese, and tofu are all foods that are created from the raw substances of nature but have no natural analogs. Food culture evolves, albeit slowly. In his classic dystopic 1973 novel Make Room, Make Room , on which the movie Soylent Green was based, Harry Harrison envisioned a meager and unappetizing diet of soybean and lentil steaks, tilapia, soymilk, seaweed, and energy drinks (Harrison 1973). Today, however, some people seek out these products (quite a change in 2 generations). Harrison mentioned chlorella (algae) oil as the problem making, lowest of food ingredients, but chlorella is now taken by some as a supplement or added to foods or animal feeds to essays macbeth sleepwalking, boost omega-3 intake. Surimi is an example of technology applied to increase both stability and distribution of a raw commodity (fish) but that also increases the value of the product, as in surimi-based imitation crab. In the future, many other new products from fish may be seen, just as has been the case with numerous meat sausages.
Not only can the conversion of macronutrients (for example, proteins and carbohydrate polysaccharides) to calories be modulated by processing (such as the effect of high-pressure processing on protein conformation and hence conversion to making essays, calories), but also micronutrients bound up in the cellular structure of foods can be made more bioavailable by appropriate novel processing methods, such as high-pressure processing and pulsed electric fields (Sanchez-Moreno and writing an extended abstract, others 2009). Even if heating may result in a lower total quantity of vitamins and other micronutrients in the food than in their raw counterparts, making them appear less nutritious, the and decision making, bioavailability of some of gis thesis in malaysia these micronutrients may actually be greater, making some processed foods more healthful. And Decision! Novel emerging processes not totally relying on heat seem to offer the potential to increase bioavailability of classic micronutrients and to spare many of the labile phytochemicals (plant metabolites, some of mobile which are known to have human health benefits) that are a major advantage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Solving the diet-and-disease challenge. The solutions to problem solving making, the diet-and-disease problem are complex and require a multipronged strategy from both the public and private sectors.
The report of the 2010 DGAC recognized that ensuring that all Americans consume a health-promoting dietary pattern and achieve and maintain energy balance requires far more than individual behavior change (DGAC 2010). The DGAC's report contained 4 primary recommendations: • Reduce the incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity of the U.S. population by reducing overall calorie intake and increasing physical activity; • shift food intake patterns to a more plant-based diet and increase the intake of seafood and fat-free and low-fat milk and gis thesis in malaysia, milk products and solving and decision, consume only moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, and eggs; • significantly reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats, reduce sodium intake, and lower intake of refined grains; and • meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The report expressed an urgent call to action and recommended that a strategic plan be developed that focuses on the behaviors and actions needed to the hardy essay, successfully implement these 4 key recommendations. A healthful diet is determined in totality, not just by a choice to include or exclude one single food or beverage. Decision-making and problem solving and decision, priority setting should be made in checker punctuation this context. Policy makers must carefully consider promoting an environment where better and more nutritious foods are readily available, while respecting consumer choice. Recently, local governments have created bans on certain food ingredients such as trans fats. While we have a history of understanding the impact of food fortification, the impact of this type of regulation is not yet clear and remains to be demonstrated.
Consider salt as an example. Problem Solving And Decision! The typical American consumes almost 150% of the recommended daily value for sodiumalmost a tablespoon a day. A recent report by the Inst. of Medicine (IOM 2010) declares that voluntary salt reduction has not worked. The IOM recommendations include modification by FDA of the Generally Recognized as Safe status of ingredients containing sodium and essay, national standards to lower consumption, stepwise reduction in salt content of processed foods and menu items in restaurants to allow American consumers to adapt their tastes to foods with lower levels of sodium, enhanced monitoring and surveillance of compliance with the recommended new FDA standards, increased funding for research that links salt consumption to consumer preferences at different stages in human life, and development of programs that increase consumer awareness of elevated salt consumption. The most widely understood functional property of salt in foods is problem and decision, enhancement of flavor. The Hardy Boys! Consumers can adapt their tastes to lower levels of salt in solving and decision essays their diet over gis thesis time (Dahl 2005), but an and decision making essays, abrupt change may lead to widespread resistance (IOM 2010). Mandated reduction in mobile learning phd thesis salt content of formulated foods and solving and decision making essays, restaurant recipes would need to be carefully coordinated, as salt concentration provides significant economic advantage to those who do not comply. Surveillance of phd thesis restaurants that are not bound by strict recipes but have chef autonomy will be difficult to problem and decision making essays, monitor.
Also, the freedom of the hardy boys essay consumers to solving and decision making, add their own salt via readily available shakers makes it difficult to determine actual levels of consumption (Dahl 2005). Salt functions as a preservative by lowering a W to red death thesis, inhibit or halt microbial growth. The safety of some formulated products would not be affected by salt reduction, but the safety of many others could be compromised (Taormina 2010). Salt-cured products such as country hams that contain as much as 1700 mg of sodium (70% of the daily value) in solving and decision making just a 3-ounce serving (Voltz and Harvell 1999) would probably disappear from essay, supermarket shelves and restaurant menus. Problem Solving! Other products that could be at risk with significant reduction in sodium content include deli meats, hard and soft cheeses, baked pastries, and salad dressings. Salt is also used to control fermentations for products such as olives and pickles, which could be compromised with insufficient levels of salt (Taormina 2010). Overconsumption of total calories coupled with very low physical activity and too much sedentary time is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic, rather than the macronutrient distribution of a person's diet (DGAC 2010). Mobile! Consumers must make more healthful choices of diet and solving making essays, exercise.
Excessively sedentary lifestyles must be modified with more physical activity. Clear, accurate informationnot misinformationabout the foods themselves must be provided, and far more extensive education is needed about how to use that information in making healthful, economical food choices. More emphasis is needed on the potential adverse consequences of essay grammar punctuation poor eating habits, and the benefits of more healthful ones. Choosing foods wisely is a survival skill, one that has received far too little attention. More consumers are born every year, and those efforts must begin early in life and continue through the years.
Many resources are still being devoted to increasing the availability of indulgent foods that do not contribute to meeting the nutrient needs of consumers. The food industry must use innovation pipelines and resources to produce foods and beverages that are more nutrient-rich rather than energy dense to assist the problem solving and decision making essays, consumer in the quest for a healthful diet. This approach is equally as important for responsibly using resources and reducing waste as is the use of technologies described above. This applies both to consumers who are food secure as well as to those who are food insecure. There are some models of the food industry working in partnership to boys, address these complex problems (Yach and others 2010). Responsible marketing is also part of the solution to a healthful diet. Reduced-energy foods and beverages may help to moderate energy, sugar, or fat intake, but only problem and decision, if substituted for energy-rich versions. Simply including them in the diet may fail to reduce energy balance. For example, recommending tea or coffee consumption (Popkin and others 2006) does not reduce energy intake for those who add sugar or cream and may replace nutrient-rich options such as milk. The foodservice industry must provide healthful offerings with available nutritional information and appropriate portions.
Foodservice establishments have moved steadily toward larger portion sizes, as a result of consumer purchasing patterns. Food researchers must set responsible goals for application of technologies that fill the knowledge gaps, to guide the food industry in developing better products and the policy makers in developing more effective public health messages. There is still much to essay checker, be learned about the relationship of diet composition and energy balance, the effect of reduced-energy versions of foods and beverages on signaling systems, and the connection between reduced-energy products with enhanced palatability and energy intake. An important area of needed research is behavior modification for problem and decision making consumers to achieve a more healthful diet promoted by public health messages. It would be neither practical nor possible to return to an idyllic pastoral food system. Procuring food is hard work, and though many in the industrialized countries enjoy the rewards of a home garden, few would be willing to return to subsistence farming and home food preparation full time. In the short term, the local food movement will likely expand as a result of consumer demand, as seen in the urban farms springing up in places such as Detroit, Michigan. But the local food movement has its limits, since many consumers will continue to demand out-of-season and exotic foods that cannot be grown locally, and climate conditions prevent the efficient growth of food year round in all regions. Furthermore, when water availability and the threat of desertification are considered, it can actually be more sustainable to ship grain longer distances, for example, from the United States to the masque of the thesis, Kenya, than to grow it locally (Roberts 2008). With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, it is necessary to problem, find a means to sustainably produce about 50% more food than is currently produced.
In particular, it will be necessary to provide substantially more protein, yet with substantially lower external costs (resulting impacts) (Roberts 2008). Also, application of simple and appropriate processing technologies (for example, drying) and essays, packaging and shipping methods close to food production sites to counter the solving, large percentage of waste (up to 50% by some estimates) in gis thesis in malaysia less-developed areas must be fostered. Some people have envisioned urban farming in vertical greenhouses or in currently blighted urban landscapes, but this seems a rather large investment of problem and decision making materials and energy with perhaps the the masque of the red death thesis, only benefit being limited local production. Solving And Decision Making Essays! Similarly, while single-cell protein from on lady sleepwalking, algae may make sense nutritionally, it faces many hurdles, both economic and making, cultural. Precision farming may build on current thrusts in boys both organic and problem solving, sustainable green agriculture to benefit both those in the developed world and those in the developing countries, where basic sustenance is a growing concern. Ronald and Adamchak (2010) stated in Tomorrow's Table that “the judicious incorporation of 2 important strands of agriculturegenetic engineering and organic farmingis key to helping feed the growing population in an ecologically balanced manner.” Mixed crop and livestock production systems, used to produce about half of the writing abstract, world's food supply, offer important synergies, such as using livestock draft power to cultivate land and manure to fertilize soil, crop residues to feed livestock, and income from problem solving making, livestock products to buffer against low crop yields (Herrero and others 2010). Learning Phd Thesis! It has been suggested that the small-holder farmers in these systems should be the problem making, first target for policies to sustainably intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to essay checker grammar punctuation, markets, new varieties, and technologies (Herrero and others 2010). As those in industrialized countries become more aware of the beneficial phytochemical nutrients found in many crops in developing countries, such as fruits from the tropics or quinoa from South America, export markets for those foods may emerge to stabilize local economies if appropriate food processing and transport infrastructures can be upgraded. Hurdle technology, using combinations of minimal technologies, has been used in developed countries for solving and decision making manufacturing ready-to-eat products, and may hold considerable potential for preserving certain traditional items in developing cultures. Leistner and Gould (2002) reported that much progress had been made in Latin America and red death thesis, India, and that interest in this technology has been seen in problem solving making essays China, Taiwan, and Africa. There is hope for gis thesis the future by embracing a “recombinant” strategy, as Belasco (2006) proposed, blending the best of the classical food sources with modern technologies.
Aquaculture, when combined with hydroponics to problem solving and decision making essays, form aquaponics, and innovations in meat production efficiency hold great promise for the efficient production of high-quality protein. Federoff and others (2010) suggested that aquaculture, integrated with agriculture, is part of the answer to meeting the demands for writing essay abstract food, feed, fiber, and fuel, given the implications of population growth, arable land and freshwater limits, and problem solving and decision essays, climate change. In addition, the judicious application of essays macbeth recombinant DNA biotechnology (rDNA, discussed in a subsequent section) offers the ability to more rapidly transform some of the less highly bred plants, such as quinoa. Looking at teosinte now as corn or maize's ancient ancestor, would the productivity of hybrid maize be predicted? rDNA biotechnology could be harnessed to improve the protein quality of cereal grains and could also be employed to solving and decision, improve crops such as sorghum and millet to reduce antinutrients and build in drought tolerance. This would involve a shift in application of the biotechnology to more directly benefit consumers instead of growers and manufacturers. A new Green Revolution may include an accelerated mutation breeding program (use of chemical or radiation mutagens to introduce genetic change) to build in traits to better preserve quality and nutrient content of key food commodities.
The 21st century has seen increased growth in gis thesis in malaysia knowledge of the human genome, the genomes of microorganisms, and the human microbiome (communities of microbial cells within the human body) (Human Microbiome Project 2010). In the future, as we learn many more of the complex interactions of the thousands of compounds in common foods with the human genome and solving essays, intestinal microflora, the old adage “You are what you eat” may well evolve into an optimal nutrition strategy to serve the growing human population. It is difficult to make predictions in the masque of the red death thesis such a rapidly changing scientific and technological atmosphere, but it is certain that the “designer foods” concept (following the concept of personalized nutrition, which is enabled by knowledge of problem solving essays one's genome and biome) will take on new meaning in coming years, given the accelerating pace of both the the hardy essay, science base and solving essays, technical innovation. An ad hoc committee of the Natl. Research Council was charged with examining the current state of mobile biological research in the United States and recommending how best to capitalize on recent scientific and technological advances to find solutions to solving and decision essays, 4 major societal needs, including sustainable food production. The committee's main recommendation was for a coordinated, interagency initiative to encourage the emergence of a “New Biology” approach to challenging problems, described in writing the book New Biology for the 21st Century (NRC 2009). The essence of the New Biology is integration, described as a new level of inquiry that reintegrates the problem solving and decision essays, subdisciplines of biology and integrates physicists, chemists, computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, purposefully organized around problem solving. With respect to the food challenge, the New Biology requires parallel application of several technologies; computational modeling of plant growth and development at the hardy boys the molecular and cellular levels; cell-type specific-gene expression, proteomic, and metabolomic data; high-throughput visual and chemical phenotyping; methods to characterize the dynamics and problem solving essays, functions of microbial communities; and ready access to next-generation sequencing methods. With an integrated approach to these needs, predictive models of plant growth at the cellular and molecular level detail would allow scientific plant breeding of a new type, in which genetic changes could be targeted in a manner that would predictably result in food plants that adapt and grow sustainably in changing environments (NRC 2009). Emerging areas affecting health and wellness. There are several research areas that have the essays macbeth, potential to greatly affect the and decision essays, quality of food and human health and wellness.
• Personalized Nutrition. Humans have emerged from boys essay, evolution with a remarkable flexibility in the range of phenotypes that they can adopt. Human adults vary in height, weight, strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, cognition, and other traits. Solving Making! Furthermore, humans apply these phenotypes to a remarkable range of lifestyles, varying in everything from daily activities such as endurance exercise to recreational pursuits ranging from music, art, and athletics to preference for foods. This basic biological truth means that as science gains more information on the interaction among genetics, environment, and phenotype, people will want to thesis, use the controllable variables of and decision making their environmentdiet and exercise, for exampleto guide their own personal phenotype. One consequence of human diversity relates to of the, the observable variations in disease susceptibility. Disease resistance is one aspect of phenotype that everyone would like to improve.
The first priority of life science research, of course, is to understand the basis of varying predisposition to, cures of, and recovery from disease (Collins and problem solving and decision essays, others 2003). The future will see humans take charge of the variables of environment to guide their own health to lower their disease risks and speed recovery. Personalizing diet will be essential to their success. The research investments of the 20th century have chronicled the basic biological processes, detailed the basic genetic sequence of organisms, and linked the complex interweaving pathways of biochemistry to variations in anatomy, metabolism, physiology, immunology, so on. Scientists are already cataloguing these same processes but are now into assigning the details of individuals. The field of gis thesis in malaysia nutrigenomics (interaction of dietary components such as essential nutrients with genes) is seeking to assign the variations in dietary responses of humans to specific genetic sequences (Muller and Kersten 2003). In parallel, the field of metabolomics is building the tools to both diagnose individual variations in metabolism and identify the problem and decision essays, solutions to improve it (German and others 2004, 2005). As science and technologies are racing to reduce disease, the relationships between basic biology and human performance are also emerging (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008). As science understands the basis of human disease and prevention, technologies will compete to bring solutions to practice. All aspects of interventiondrugs, diet, and lifestylewill be recruited to lower disease risk.
These solutions will have to boys, solve the 2 key dimensions of preventionindividualization and solving making, integration. Diets must be individualized, since all people are not predisposed to the same health problems. In addition, diets must be integrated, since no single ingredient, bioactive or therapeutic, can solve all issues at once. The Hardy! The concept of multiple ingredients solving multiple targets combined into products is a logical direction for food. Foods can already be used in a personalized wayto lower cholesterol, improve blood pressure, alter intestinal microflora, and guide immunity.
The food industry and all of its support and regulatory systems will have to come to grips with this new reality. One of the fundamental problems of the current functional-food and health-claim system is the wildly optimistic pursuit of solving making essays food ingredients that are equally effective and safe for all consumers. Personalizing will change the value system of health-promoting foods and an extended, its regulatory oversight as the benefits are targeted directly to those who respond. Parsing individual response (based on and decision making essays, the individual's genotype) is at the hardy boys essay least as complex a challenge as the task of increasing or decreasing the amount of a specific protein, fatty acid, or other component of the plant itself (Brigelius-Flohe and Joost 2006). Functional-food components are of increasing interest in reducing risk of a number of the leading causes of death: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Solving And Decision Making! Many food components, such as plant-derived estrogens (phytoestrogens), are known to influence the expression of the hardy boys essay both structural genes and transcription factors (a sequence-specific DNA binding factor that controls the transfer of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA) in humans (Kaput and others 2007). Genistein, coumestrol, and zearalenone, for example, bind to the estrogen receptor and may switch on a similar set of making genes, such as 17β-estradiol, the physiologic estrogen.
As personalization of health becomes increasingly important, many aspects of the agricultural enterprise will adapt to on lady macbeth, capture markets. Problem Essays! For example, the growing catalog of plant and animal genomes will broaden the commodities routinely cultivated to fuel the food supply. The food industry will move away from essay checker punctuation, uniform branded products to branded platforms on which products are customizable. Problem And Decision Essays! Marketing and distribution chains will also become more intimate as consumers value the personal information exchange that is critical to their foods and overall diets. The net results will once again be a marked improvement in the human condition, the quality of human lives, andas has always been true when humans are healthy and happythe rate at which we innovate. Grammar! It is a very attractive future. • Molecular Biology. Molecular biology is currently being revolutionized by whole-genome sequencing of individual microbes, as well as entire microbial communities, a field known as metagenomics (Wooley and others 2010).
These new advances are also being complemented by our increasing understanding of solving and decision essays gene expression and metabolism at the level of in malaysia individual cells and complex microbial communities, such as those that exist within the problem solving and decision making, human gastrointestinal tract. Sophisticated gene expression arrays based on whole-genome sequences are now allowing us to on lady, see for the first time the complex and problem and decision, dynamic regulation of virulence genes (those coding for a pathogen's illness-causing potential) in vivo during the various stages of infection (Toledo-Arana and others 2009). These recent advances will increasingly improve our understanding of how pathogenic microorganisms interact with humans and mobile learning phd thesis, will lead to novel strategies for detecting and controlling those key pathogens that most affect human health. For example, using special whole-genome “tiling” microarraysconcentrated, orderly arrangements of thousands of problem solving gene probes on a glass slide, used to mobile phd thesis, detect all genes present within a microorganism or measure the level of expression of all genes within a microorganismwith overlapping nucleotides, Toledo-Arana and problem making essays, others (2009) were able to demonstrate how expression of various virulence genes dramatically changed as the microorganism switched from being a saprophyte (an organism that lives on dead organic matter) in essay the environment to a pathogen in infected hosts. In the past, microbiologists focused on detecting and controlling various genera and problem solving essays, species of pathogens in foods and humans. However, with the above recent advances scientists can now identify those specific genetic determinants that actually make a specific strain of a microorganism harmful to humans. The Masque! This will allow a much more targeted, efficient, and cost-effective approach to detecting and controlling those strains of a species that are most likely to problem, cause disease.
This will allow food processors and government agencies to develop much more highly focused intervention strategies that will maximize control of those strains most likely to cause disease. Also, identification of novel genetic determinants responsible for transmission and virulence will lead to gis thesis, rapid sequence-based approaches for determining the molecular epidemiology of various pathogens (Chen and others 2010). Making Essays! Such rapid sequence-based approaches are becoming increasingly high throughput and cost effective and have numerous other advantages, including much greater specificity, reproducibility, epidemiologic relevance, and writing, portability via the Internet. Such advances will result in a global sequence-based epidemiology network for rapidly tracking and problem solving essays, controlling dangerous strains of food-borne pathogens, which increasingly are capable of being quickly spread around the globe as a result of mobile international trade and air travel. Metagenomics is problem essays, starting to reveal the diverse, complex, and dynamic microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, many of whose members may be unculturable in the laboratory (Ley and others 2008; Wooley and others 2010). Microbial members of the writing essay abstract, microbiome in the human gastrointestinal tract actually outnumber their eukaryotic counterparts (organisms whose cells have a nucleus that contains their genetic material) in the human body and solving and decision making, may be playing major roles in maintaining and phd thesis, promoting human health (Neish 2009). Recent advances in metagenomics will have a major impact on our understanding of how probioticsmicrobes that have a beneficial health effect and are of increasing importance to both consumers and the food industrycontribute to human health. Probiotics will continue to and decision, gain in importance as the population ages and more people become at risk for various pathogenic and chronic diseases and increasingly look for in malaysia novel probiotics that can prolong health and wellness.
Molecular methods will allow food scientists to identify those genetic determinants that are critical for making probiotic effects and introduce those strains into on lady macbeth sleepwalking, more different kinds of foods to help consumers achieve their health and wellness goals. Whole-genome and metagenomic approaches will also be used to better understand how probiotic microorganisms interact with both the human microbiota and human cells and organs to achieve various health and wellness benefits. And Decision Making! These same techniques will also allow researchers to engineer “designer probiotics” that target specific pathogens and toxins. Pathogen-derived stress-response genes might be used to create more robust probiotic strains with increased host and processing-associated stress-tolerance profiles. Also, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes with probiotic attributes from diverse and vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gastrointestinal tract (Culligan and others 2009). Whole-genome approaches will also be used to develop novel molecular methods for tracking and controlling specific strains of probiotics throughout the food system. The Masque Red Death! This will allow food companies to differentiate the unique probiotic products they have developed from others in the marketplace. These approaches will allow food companies to both promote these unique products and also protect their investment, thus increasing profitability. • Microbial Ecology. With potential impact on food quality and health and wellness, microbial ecology examines the diversity of problem solving essays microorganisms and how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment to generate and maintain such diversity. While microbial ecology is not a new concept, it is mobile learning, of increasing interest to many food microbiologists, because it explains the presence and functioning of microbes in complex and dynamic food environments, both outside and inside the gastrointestinal tract.
Another reason microbial ecology is undergoing a renaissance is the making essays, development and application of genomics tools. Culture-independent genomics tools are now allowing more accurate estimations of the total microbial ecology in foods inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract. However, genomics tools have also exposed how little we know about the vast diversity of microorganisms that colonize foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. Foods outside the gastrointestinal tract often harbor a complex and dynamic community of nonpathogenic spoilage flora that affect various quality attributes, such as taste, flavor, texture, appearance, and shelf life. They also often can contain pathogens and probiotic bacteria that can greatly influence the health and wellness of humans who consume them. Mobile! After foods enter the gastrointestinal tract, microbial ecology becomes even more complex and dynamic, as a result of the interaction of the numerous biotic and abiotic factors located there. Until very recently, microbial diversity in these environments was estimated using culture-dependent approaches. However, the culture-dependent methods cannot accurately describe naturally occurring microbial communities, because they only target those we know how to culture and those that can grow in a specific growth medium.
In the past 20 y, the application of genomics and and decision, metagenomics tools has revolutionized microbial ecology studies and drastically expanded our view of the previously underappreciated microbial world, including environments on macbeth, and in foods and those within the human gastrointestinal tract (Xu 2006). How can we best use microbial ecological data gained through genomic analysis to better understand and solving essays, control microorganisms on foods and in the gastrointestinal tract? To answer this question, an interdisciplinary systems approach is needed. Red Death Thesis! This approach will require the integration of the problem solving, analyses at the hardy boys various levels of ecological organization, from subcellular and cellular levels to and decision essays, those of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Indeed, the American Society for Microbiology has issued a call to create an integrated approach called systems microbiology to coordinate such efforts and to set it as a priority area for future development (ASM 2005). Essay Abstract! As we understand more about the complex and dynamic microbial ecology of foods, we will be in a better position to manipulate those biotic and solving making, abiotic factors that enhance food quality and/or health and wellness. A number of other new technologies are being developed, with promising and potential benefits. • Biotechnology. In the simplest and broadest sense, biotechnology is an extended abstract, a series of technologies applied to living organisms or their subcellular components to develop useful products, processes, or services. Many of the products we eat and wear are, or can be, developed using the tools of biotechnology.
The first generation of products commercialized from biotechnology were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits, primarily in response to biotic stresspressure from organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and problem solving making essays, insects that can harm plantsand the vast majority of biotechnology crops have been in the area of pest resistance and herbicide tolerance. Biotechnology-derived papaya, squash, and sweet corn are commercially available in the United States; enzymes produced using recombinant DNA methods are used to essay, make cheese and low-lactose milk, keep bread fresh, and produce fruit juices and wines; and bioengineered E. coli is used to produce human insulin (Baines 1991; Lemaux 2008; Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Two varieties of problem and decision making essays ricereferred to as Golden Ricehaving increased levels of gis thesis in malaysia beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, have been developed and are in use in the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam (Lemaux 2008). Other products made using rDNA methods include food supplements such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin) (Lemaux 2008). Significant advances in problem solving and decision making food biotechnology applications are occurring in many areas (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). These include increasing vitamin levels in crops, such as vitamin E in soybean, maize, and canola, and increasing bioavailable iron levels in rice, maize, and lettuce. Biotechnology is writing abstract, also being used to reduce food allergens, address food intolerances, and reduce naturally occurring toxins in plants. There is tremendous potential in additional opportunities, described below. The Intl. Food Information Council's thirteenth annual survey of consumer perceptions of problem solving making essays food biotechnology (IFIC 2008) found that concerns about biotech use are low and that the likelihood to purchase biotechnology-derived foods for writing an extended abstract special benefits remains high and stable.
A more recent survey (IFIC 2010) found that consumers responded most positively to benefits of biotechnology pertaining to the environment and sustainability. The set of technologies that constitute the biotechnology “toolbox” has introduced a new dimension to agricultural and food production innovation. Agricultural biotechnology offers efficient and cost-effective means to produce a diverse array of novel, value-added products. Solving Making! In addition to the applications already discussed, biotechnology has the potential to increase food production, improve food quality and healthfulness, reduce the dependency of agriculture on chemicals, alleviate biotic and abiotic stress (for example, high salt or temperature extremes), and lower the cost of essays on lady raw materials, all in and decision making essays an environmentally sustainable manner. While the essay punctuation, scope of biotechnology's influence in solving the food industry is broad, the tools of this technology have potential for a major impact in 4 principal areas: crop and animal agriculture, bioprocessing, and diagnostics (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). It is possible to enhance the gis thesis, growing season, yield, disease and solving and decision, pest resistance, and essay punctuation, other properties of crops and enhance the nutritional content, texture, color, and flavor of solving making foods. Transgenic techniques can be applied to farmed animals to improve their health, growth, fitness, efficiency of production, and in malaysia, other qualities such as meat and milk. Microorganisms can also be engineered to improve the quality of our environment. In addition to the opportunities for a variety of new products, including biodegradable products, bioprocessing using engineered microbes, offers new ways to treat and use waste and to use renewable resources for materials and fuel. Instead of depending on nonrenewable fossil fuels, organisms can be engineered to problem solving and decision, convert maize and cereal straw, forest products and municipal waste, and writing an extended essay abstract, other biomass to produce fuel, plastics, and other useful commodities. The coming generations of crop plants developed via biotechnology can be generally grouped into essays, 4 broad areas: continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and tolerance to abiotic stress, in essay checker grammar addition to problem essays, the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and “bio-synthetics;” value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production sources for therapeutics and industrial products (Newell-McGloughlin 2008).
Developing and punctuation, commercializing plants with these improved traits, however, involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory, and perception challenges inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex modifications. Both the problem and decision making, panoply of traditional plant-breeding tools and modern biotechnology-based techniques will be required to learning, produce plants with the desired quality traits. From a health perspective, plant components of dietary interest can be broadly divided into 4 main categories, which can be further broken down into positive and negative attributions for human nutrition: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids/oils) and fiber; micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals); antinutrients; and allergens, intolerances, and toxins (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). In some cultures, either by problem, design or default, plant-based nutrition constitutes almost 100% of the diet. Given this situation, one can deduce that significant nutritional improvement can be achieved via modifications of staple crops (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). A growing body of evidence indicates that food components can influence physiological processes at an extended all stages of problem solving making life. Approximately 25000 of the in malaysia, 200000 or so metabolites produced by plants have known value in the human diet (Go and others 2005).
Analysis of these metabolites, specifically metabolomic analysis, is a valuable tool in solving and decision making essays better understanding what has occurred during crop domestication (lost and silenced traits) and in designing new paradigms for more targeted crop improvement that is better tailored to current needs (Hall and others 2008). In addition, with modern techniques, we have the potential to the masque of the thesis, seek out traits of value that were limited in previous breeding strategies. And Decision Making! Research to boys, improve the solving and decision making essays, nutritional quality of plants has historically been limited by a lack of basic knowledge of plant metabolism and the challenge of resolving complex interactions of thousands of metabolic pathways. A complementarity of techniques, both traditional and novel, is needed to metabolically engineer plants to produce desired quality traits. Metabolic engineering is generally defined as the in malaysia, redirection of one or more reactions (enzymatic and problem and decision making essays, otherwise) to improve the production of existing compounds, produce new compounds, or mediate the the hardy boys essay, degradation of undesirable compounds. This involves the redirection of cellular activities by the modification of the making, enzymatic, transport, and/or regulatory functions of the plant cell. Significant progress has been made in grammar recent years in the molecular dissection of solving and decision essays many plant pathways and in mobile learning the use of cloned genes to engineer plant metabolism. With evolving “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), a better understanding of the totality of effects of metabolic engineering on metabolites, enzyme activities, and problem solving and decision making, metabolic fluxes (rates of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway) is beginning to be developed.
A number of new approaches are being developed to counter some of the complex problems in metabolic engineering. Through these new technologies, the in malaysia, limitation of single-gene transfers has been overcome and the attendant transfer of multiple components of metabolic pathways has been facilitated. For example, it is now possible to design “minichromosomes” that carry cassettes of problem and decision essays genes, enhancing the ability to engineer plant processes such as the production of complex biochemicals. In Malaysia! Paul Christou's laboratory at problem the Univ. of Lleida in learning Madrid, Spain, used combinations of essays genes in gis thesis a modification that introduced multicomplex metabolic pathways coding for solving and decision essays increased beta-carotene, vitamin C, and folate, effectively creating a multivitamin maize cultivar (Naqvi and others 2009). This system has an added advantage from a commercial perspective in that these methods circumvent problems with traditional approaches which not only limit the amount of sequences transferred but also may disrupt native genes or lead to poor expression of the transgene, thus reducing both the numbers of transgenic plants that must be screened and an extended, the subsequent breeding and other related steps required to select a suitable commercial candidate. Regulatory oversight of engineered products has been designed to detect any unexpected outcomes in rDNA biotechnology-derived crops, and, as demonstrated by Chassy and others (ILSI 2004a, 2004b; ILSI 2008), existing analytical and regulatory systems are adequate to address novel metabolic modifications in nutritionally improved crops. • Nanotechnology. Nanoscale science, engineering, and technologyreferred to as nanotechnologyinclude the fundamental understanding and technological advances arising from the understanding of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of problem solving and decision making essays matter at the length of scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). Nanotechnology has far-reaching implications for grammar science, engineering, and technology in the 21st century, with tremendous potential for societal benefits and the potential to revolutionize agricultural production and food systems (CSREES/USDA 2003; IFT 2006; Magnuson and others 2007; IFT 2010).
Nanotechnology is rooted in the vision of Richard Feynman, 1959 Nobel Laureate in physics, who envisioned the ability to closely observe and control phenomena and behaviors of matter at the nanometer scale with atomic precision. His vision became reality in the mid-1980s when instrumentation advancements (for example, scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy) enabled seeing nanoscale structure and interactions and manipulation of individual atoms with precision. Occurring in the nanometer-length range are many naturally occurring moleculessuch as whey proteins (4 to 6 nm) and problem and decision making essays, lactose (0.5 nm) in essay grammar milkand man-made biological molecules and supramolecular structures of assemblies of polymers, including proteins and polysaccharides (polymers of solving sugar units, such as starch) (Magnuson and others 2007). Phd Thesis! Exciting novel structures, phenomena, and processes have also been observed at the nanometer scale during the past 2 decades. In the past decade, governments around the world launched initiatives and industries, and private sectors ventured into research and development of nanotechnologies for and decision making essays a wide range of applications, from semiconductors, energy, chemicals, and materials to medicine, the environment, and food and agriculture. In the food sector, nanotechnology applications are in their infancy but are growing rapidly, estimated to reach more than $20 billion by 2010. In agriculture, nanotechnology holds promise for responding to the need for more precise management of resources such as water, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; improving crop and livestock production; controlling pests, diseases, and weeds; monitoring plant disease and environmental stresses; supporting sustainable and precise production; and improving postharvest technology, including waste management. A nanotechnology-enabled smart-field sensor network, for example, would be advantageous in continuously monitoring environmental data to provide critical information for crop management to attain optimal production yield.
Also, superabsorbent materials with slow release rates have been investigated for grammar punctuation improved soil water retention and temperature regulation around plant roots, to decrease irrigation needs. The potential benefits of nanotechnology applied in the food system are anticipated for food safety and defense, food processing, food packaging, and ingredient technologies (IFT 2005, 2007, 2010). Nanoscale capsules for delivery of micronutrients and bioactives via functional foods and ingredients have been actively studied; evidence suggests that their small size will facilitate access to problem making, the large area within cellular microvilli of the intestine, thus enhancing absorption. Grammar! Clemson Univ. scientists have developed a polymer-based nanoparticle that attracts pathogenic bacteria adhering to poultry intestinal walls, thereby aiding their excretion with the making, bird's feces. Such nanoparticles might also be added to writing an extended, chicken feed to making, remove pathogens, minimizing the chance of postslaughter cross-contamination. Other potential food safety-related applications include use of nanosized bubbles that selectively attach to pathogen cells and subsequently burst, damaging the cells. Used for pathogen detection, nanotechnology could enable development of practical detection devices and systems that are more rapid, sensitive, specific, robust, economical, and easily conducted than analytical methods available today. Portable, real-time, and/or in-line detection capability is being pursued for deployment in mobile learning phd thesis food production, postharvest processing, distribution, foodservice, and the home. Other research has investigated nanocomposite polymers that improve food-package barrier properties against oxygen and moisture transmission, protecting oxygen-sensitive foods and reducing packaging costs for manufacturers. Nanocomposite materials have also demonstrated potential for use as antimicrobial packaging components, improved package mechanical strength, and solving and decision making essays, biodegradability. Several biodegradable nano-biobarcode technologies have been researched that will aid product traceability, maintenance of boys product authenticity, identification of product attributes of interest to problem making, consumers, and the masque red death thesis, monitoring of product changes relevant to quality and safety.
Responsible research and development of nanoscale food materials for the agricultural and food sectors will involve assessment of the adequacy of existing characterization methods and, where necessary, development of new methods to address critical questions for solving and decision a science-based approach to understanding the characteristics of the gis thesis, novel engineered substances. Characterization of nanoscale food materials will include study of their stabilities in food matrices and during processing; digestibility and biopersistence; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; ability to translocate across cell membranes; and potential toxicity at the intended application range/exposure level through oral ingestion. Such characterization will contribute to the establishment of the safety of subsequently deployed new products that incorporate novel nanostructured food additives, ingredients, micronutrients, and micronutrient delivery complexes (IFT 2005, 2007). Recognizing that without consumer acceptance new technologies will not succeed in problem solving and decision essays the marketplace, federal funding agencies and universities are engaged in disseminating through a variety of channelssuch as public radio and interactive displays at science centers and museumsinformation about nanotechnology developments emerging from the laboratory, obtaining public input, and boys essay, studying consumer responses to nanotechnology food applications. Solving Making Essays! An IFIC (2010) survey found that slightly more than one-third of Americans surveyed had read or heard about nanotechnology, and of the, that when given examples of potential benefits and food applications half of those surveyed were favorable about this technology. Much of the advance in problem solving and decision nanotechnology will depend on the outcome of recently proposed research on its safety, as well as real measuresand communicationof both benefits, such as increased bioavailability of micronutrients, and risks to consumers.
Consumer attitudes will determine the acceptance of novel food items and, to some degree, the essay, implementation of new processing technologies. The decoding of the human genome has promised an era of personalized nutrition. Its first application is solving, already being seen with genetic tests for celiac disease and boys, gluten sensitivity. The growing population makes niche markets feasiblefor example, the market has responded with gluten-free alternatives. We have barely scratched the surface of genomics and are already hearing of the influence of epigeneticschanges in gene activity without alteration of the genetic codeand the problem solving essays, potential for epigenetic changes brought about by short-term limitation in food availability to influence obesity in future generations (Bygren and others 2001).
Consumer attitudes will be very important to the eventual adoption of technologies, but will depend in part on how the technologies are introduced. Recombinant culture, referring to Belasco's proposal mentioned above, embraces the consumer's desire for both novelty and constancy, or novelty without risk (Cardello and Wright 2010). To be accepted, new technologies must often be put into the context of the the masque of the red death thesis, familiar. Our modern food system is very complex and changes continuously in solving and decision making essays time and the masque red death thesis, space. During the past century, food processing evolved to make food the basis of a healthy civilization, help society overcome hunger and disease, and making essays, improve the safety, nutrition, convenience, affordability, and availability of foods. Food processing also changed the perception of foods and in malaysia, beverages. Through food science and solving, technology, the knowledge of many disciplines is applied to transform raw food materials and ingredients into consumable foods available year round. Advances in an extended essay abstract agriculture and food science and problem solving making essays, technology have provided reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; enhanced food safety and consistent quality; decreased home food-preparation time; a large variety of delicious food choices; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; food and mobile learning, meal convenience options; products specifically formulated to meet the nutritional needs of specific subpopulations; and efficient global food distribution, which can be exploited in times of natural and making, man-made disasters. Misplaced concerns about the food industry's motives in manufacturing processed foods have led to increasing negative perceptions among the essay checker grammar punctuation, general public in the United States. It is a fact that scientific and technical achievements throughout the food systemfrom agriculture and food manufacturing to preparation in the homeallow most people in the developed world to problem solving, have ready access to checker grammar, a diverse, abundant supply of food that is safer, tastier, more nutritious, more convenient, and relatively less expensive than would otherwise be the case. Many people in problem solving and decision making the developing world, however, where a substantial portion of food produced is lost, are not able to the hardy essay, make choices from such abundance.
Further advances in science and technology are critically needed to successfully meet the daunting challenges ahead in problem solving feeding the mobile phd thesis, growing world population, especially in the areas of greatest need. The new tools of biotechnology hold promise for meeting the needs of our rapidly growing world population more efficiently and making, cost effectively through improved crop production yields, ability to in malaysia, grow crops in environmentally stressful conditions, and essays, improved nutrient availability and gis thesis in malaysia, delivery in an environmentally sustainable manner. Obesity, unfortunately, is a complex issue of concern in the developed world. With scientific and technological advancements, food manufacturers have been able to provide many more options than were available years ago for consumers who seek to manage their weight. These options include food and beverage products with reduced caloric density and packaging as a component of portion control. Problem Essays! Technologies on the horizon also offer additional opportunities to create more weight-management options. Use of technologies to improve the food supply and contribute to human health and wellness is a responsible use of resources. It is important to recognize that obesity is a complex issue of behavior.
Further developments in genomics, metabolomics, and nutrigenomics hold tremendous promise for development of individualistic solutions to gis thesis in malaysia, obesity. Through nutrigenomics and metabolomics, personalized nutrition for health and wellness will become better understood and problem essays, a more practical reality for a larger number of people. Such changes will no doubt lead to changes in regulatory oversight and new approaches to food marketing. Genomics will allow improved food quality and protection from pathogens, through opportunities ranging from learning phd thesis, probiotic foods to more precise pathogen interventions. Nanotechnology can be expected to and decision essays, have beneficial impacts throughout the food system, from agricultural production, where it may enable more precise management of resources, to personalized nutrition, which holds potential for enhancing delivery and absorption of nutrients and bioactive substances via functional foods. With continued developments in on lady sleepwalking nanotechnology, we can anticipate new mechanisms for detecting and controlling pathogens, in problem solving and decision essays both the agricultural and food-manufacturing sectors. Today and in the future, the food system must be flexible and resilient, consumer driven, and sustainable, and it must secure the environment and natural resources and assure the health and wellness of an essays on lady sleepwalking, increasing number of consumers.
Food science and technology can help us advance the food system, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and deliver a safe, nutritious, and abundant food supply to all people around the world. Food science and technology professionals must work together with many othersthe food industry, and those in the regulatory and public policy communities. And society must invest in basic and applied research and and decision, education and outreach. With science and technology solutions available to address specific issues throughout the the masque red death, food system, our ability to feed a growing population in problem solving and decision essays a sustainable way, while safeguarding both human and planet health, looks not only possible, but also promising. We must, however, remain steadfast and rational about our approach, to help both humanity and nature. IFT greatly appreciates the efforts of the contributing authors, editor, members of the task force who contributed to the concept for this document, peer reviewers, and the organization providing financial support. John D. Floros, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Mobile! Rosetta Newsome is Director of Science and problem solving making, Policy Initiatives at the Inst. of Food Technologists. William Fisher is Vice President of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Institute of Food Technologists.
Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor of Food Engineering at Washington State Univ. Hongda Chen is Natl. The Masque Of The Red Death! Program Leader at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natl. Inst. of Food and Agriculture. C. Patrick Dunne, a Fellow of making IFT, is gis thesis, Senior Research Scientist at the U.S.
Army Natick Soldier Center. J. Bruce German is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and Past President of solving and decision making IFT and a Past President of the the hardy essay, Intl.Union of Food Science and Technology. Dennis R. Heldman, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Principal of Heldman Associates. Mukund V. Karwe is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Rutgers Univ. Stephen J. Knabel is Professor, Dept. of and decision making essays Food Science, at gis thesis Pennsylvania State Univ. Theodore P. Labuza, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor of solving and decision making Food Science at mobile learning the Univ. of Minnesota. Daryl B. Solving And Decision! Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.
Martina Newell-McGloughlin is Director, Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, at the Univ. of California, Davis. James L. In Malaysia! Robinson is Professor Emeritus at the Univ. of Illinois. Joseph G. Sebranek, a Fellow of IFT, is problem, Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, at Iowa State Univ. Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. William F. Tracy is Professor and Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, at boys essay the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.
Connie M. Weaver, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and problem and decision making, Head, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, at Purdue Univ. Gregory R. Ziegler is Professor, Dept. of of the thesis Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Neil H. Solving Making Essays! Mermelstein, a Fellow of IFT, is Editor Emeritus, Food Technology , Institute of essay abstract Food Technologists. John D. Floros (chair), a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of and decision making essays Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. David M. Essays On Lady Sleepwalking! Berube is Professor, Communication, at North Carolina State Univ. Richard T. Crowder is Professor, Agricultural and Applied Economics, at Virginia Tech. Solving And Decision! Eric A. Decker is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and mobile phd thesis, Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl. Union of Food Science and Technology. And Decision Making! Gilbert A. Macbeth Sleepwalking! Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director, at Wrigley Science Inst. Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is solving and decision essays, Emeritus Professor at the Univ. of Wisconsin.
Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. Noel E. Anderson is Vice President, Technical Insights, at Pepsico Inc. Christine M. Bruhn, a Fellow of essay checker IFT, is Director, Center for Consumer Research, Dept. of and decision Food Science and Technology, at essays macbeth sleepwalking the Univ. of California, Davis. Fergus M. Clydesdale, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and problem and decision making essays, Director, Food Science Policy Alliance, at essays macbeth sleepwalking the Univ. of Massachusetts. William K. Hallman is Professor, Dept. of Human Ecology, at Rutgers Univ. and Director at the Food Policy Inst. Gilbert A. Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director at the Wrigley Science Inst. Mark R. McLellan, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Dean for Research and Director of the problem essays, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at essays macbeth sleepwalking the Univ. of Florida. IFT gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Intl. Food Information Council that helped support the production of this scientific review. 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®
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