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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Theodor Adorno was one of the foremost continental philosophers of the twentieth century. Although he wrote on a wide range of subjects, his fundamental concern was human suffering—especially modern societies’ effects upon the human condition. He was influenced most notably by Hegel, Marx, and paper, Nietzsche. He was associated with The Institute for Social Research, in the Frankfurt School, which was a social science and cultural intellectual hub for dbq 17 imperialism india essay, promoting socialism and overthrowing capitalism.
It was responsible for the creation of the philosophical form called critical theory, which takes the stand that oppression is created through politics, economics, culture, and research, materialism, but is maintained most significantly through consciousness. Personal For Common Application? Therefore the focus of action must come from consciousness. The Institute of Social Research deviated from issue research paper, orthodox Marxism in its argument that social and cultural factors played as important a role as economics in oppression. Adorno made many contributions to critical theory, notably his view that reason had become entangled with domination and suffering. Adorno coined the tern ‘identity thinking’ to describe the process of categorical thought in modern society, by which everything becomes an personal essay application, example of an abstract, and thus nothing individual in its actual specific uniqueness is paper allowed to exist. He lamented that the human race had gone from pork barrel paper, understanding the world through myth to understanding it through scientific reasoning, but that this latter ‘enlightenment’ was the same as understanding the issue research paper, world through myth. Both modes create a viewpoint that the subjective must conform to an outside world to which it has no control.
Within this argument, Adorno saw morality as being stuck within this powerless subjective: in a world that values only term, recognizable facts, morality becomes nihilistic, a mere prejudice of individual subjectivity. Adorno is research paper also known for for common application, his critique of the ‘the culture industry.’ He felt that the entertainment industry of modern society is just as mechanical, formulaic, and dominating as the workplace. He argued that humans in modern society are programmed at work and in their leisure, and issue, though they seek to escape the monotony of their workplace, they are merely changing to another piece of the machine – from producer to consumer. There is no chance of becoming free individuals who can take part in the creation of society, whether at political system, work or play. Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was born in 1903 to relatively affluent parents in central Germany. His mother was a gifted singer, of research Italian descent, and his father was a Jewish wine merchant. Adorno's partial Jewish status was to have an immeasurable effect upon his life and philosophical works. He was an academically and musically gifted child. Initially, it appeared that Adorno was destined for a musical career. During the early to mid 1920s Adorno studied music composition under Alban Berg in Vienna and his talent was recognized by the likes of Berg and Schoenberg.
However, in the late 1920s, Adorno joined the faculty of the University of Frankfurt and devoted the greatest part of impressionism and post impressionism his considerable talent and energy to the study and teaching of philosophy. Adorno's Jewish heritage forced him to eventually seek exile from Nazi Germany, initially registering as a doctoral student at Merton College, Oxford and then, as a member of the University of Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, in New York concluding his exile in Southern California. Adorno did not complete his Oxford doctorate and appeared to research, be persistently unhappy in personal for common application his exilic condition. Along with other members of the Institute for issue research, Social Research, Adorno returned to the University of Frankfurt immediately after the completion of the war, taking up a professorial chair in philosophy and sociology. Adorno remained a professor at praxis strategies, the University of Frankfurt until his death in 1969. He was married to Gretel and they had no children.
2. Philosophical Influences and Motivation. Adorno is generally recognized within the issue, Continental tradition of philosophy as being one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th Century. His collected works comprise some twenty-three volumes. He wrote on subjects ranging from musicology to metaphysics and his writings span to application, include such things as philosophical analyses of issue research paper Hegelian metaphysics, a critical study of the astrology column of the Los Angeles Times, and jazz. In terms of both style and impressionism impressionism, content, Adorno's writings defy convention.
In seeking to paper, attain a clear understanding of the works of any philosopher, one should begin by asking oneself what motivated his or her philosophical labors. What was Adorno attempting to achieve through his philosophical writings? Adorno's philosophy is fundamentally concerned with human suffering. It is political system founded upon a central moral conviction: that the development of human civilization has been achieved through the systematic repression of nature and the consolidation of insidiously oppressive social and political systems, to issue paper, which we are all exposed. The shadow of human suffering falls across practically all of Adorno's writings. Imperialism Essay? Adorno considered his principal task to be that of research testifying to the persistence of such conditions and thereby, at best, retaining the possibility that such conditions might be changed for the better. The central tension in term paper Adorno's diagnosis of what he termed 'damaged life' consists in the unrelentingly critical character of his evaluation of the effects of modern societies upon issue research paper, their inhabitants, coupled with a tentative, but absolutely essential, commitment to a belief in the possibility of the elimination of unnecessary suffering. As in the work of all genuine forms of critical philosophy, Adorno's otherwise very bleak diagnosis of modernity is necessarily grounded within a tentative hope for a better world. Adorno's philosophy is typically considered to have been most influenced by the works of three previous German philosophers: Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. In addition, his association with the and post, Institute of Social Research profoundly affected the development of Adorno's thought. I shall begin by discussing this last, before briefly summarizing the issue research paper, influence of the first three.
The Institute for Social Research was established at the University of Frankfurt in 1923. The Institute, or the impressionism impressionism, 'Frankfurt School', as it was later to become known, was an inter-disciplinary body comprising specialists in such fields as philosophy, economics, political science, legal theory, psychoanalysis, and the study of cultural phenomena such as music, film, and mass entertainment. The establishment of issue research The Frankfurt School was financed by the son of a wealthy grain merchant who wished to create a western European equivalent to impressionism essay, the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow. The Intellectual labor of the issue research paper, Institute in imperialism india essay Frankfurt thus explicitly aimed at research, contributing to the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of socialism. However, from 1930 onwards, under the Directorship of Max Horkheimer, the work of the Frankfurt School began to show subtle but highly significant deviations from orthodox Marxism. For Common? Principally, the issue research, School began to question, and ultimately reject, the strict economic determinism to which orthodox Marxism was enthralled at the time. Praxis 1 Essay Strategies? This coincided with a firm belief amongst the members of the School that social phenomena, such as culture, mass entertainment, education, and the family played a direct role in issue research maintaining oppression. Barrel Paper? Marxists had typically dismissed the importance of such phenomena on the grounds that they were mere reflections of the underlying economic basis of the capitalist mode of production. An undue concern for such phenomena was thus generally thought of as, at best, a distraction from the real task of overthrowing capitalism, at worst a veritable hindrance.
In contrast, the Frankfurt School argued that such phenomena were fundamentally important, in their own right. The Frankfurt School thus challenged the economically-centric character of Marxism. Research? The Frankfurt School's rejection of economic determinism and interest in pork paper the social and cultural planes of human oppression culminated in a far more circumspect appraisal of the likelihood of paper capitalism's demise. The Frankfurt School rejected the dbq 17 imperialism india, Marx's belief in the economic inevitability of capitalism experiencing cataclysmic economic crises. Issue? The Frankfurt School continued to argue that capitalism remained an oppressive system, but increasingly viewed the system as far more adaptable and dissertation, robust than Marxists had given it credit for. The Frankfurt School came to portray capitalism as potentially capable of averting its own demise indefinitely. The final break with orthodox Marxism occurred with the Frankfurt School's coming to condemn the Soviet Union as a politically oppressive system.
Politically the Frankfurt School sought to position itself equidistant from both Soviet socialism and liberal capitalism. The greater cause of human emancipation appeared to call for issue paper, the relentless criticism of both systems. The Frankfurt School's contribution to the cause of human emancipation consisted in the production of primarily theoretical studies of social and cultural phenomena. This brand of theoretical study is of india essay generally referred to as 'critical theory'. Although originating with the Frankfurt School, critical theory has now achieved the status of a distinct and separate form of philosophical study, taught and practiced in university departments throughout the world.
What, then, are the central philosophical characteristics of critical theory and to what extent does Adorno's philosophy share these characteristics? Critical theory is founded upon an unequivocal normative basis. Taking a cold, hard look at the sheer scale of human misery and suffering experienced during the 20th century in particular, critical theory aims to testify to the extent and ultimate causes of the calamitous state of human affairs. The ultimate causes of such suffering are, of course, to be located in the material, political, economic, and social conditions which human beings simultaneously both produce and are exposed to. Research? However, critical theory refrains from engaging in any direct, political action. Rather, critical theorists argue that suffering and domination are maintained, to a significant degree, at the level of consciousness and essay, the various cultural institutions and phenomena that sustain that consciousness. Critical theory restricts itself to engaging with such phenomena and aims to show the extent to paper, which 'uncritical theory' contributes to the perpetuation of human suffering. Critical theory has thus been defined as 'a tradition of social thought that, in part at least, takes its cue from its opposition to the wrongs and ills of barrel term modern societies on the one hand, and the forms of theorizing that simply go along with or seek to legitimate those societies on the other hand.' (J.M.Bernstein, 1995:11) Max Horkheimer, the Director of the Frankfurt School, contrasted critical theory with what he referred to as 'traditional theory'. For Horkheimer the paradigm of traditional theory consisted in those forms of social science that modeled themselves upon the methodologies of research paper natural science. Such 'positivistic' forms of social science attempted to address and account for human and social phenomena in terms analogous to political essay, the natural scientist's study of material nature.
Thus, legitimate knowledge of social reality was considered to be attainable through the application of objective forms of data gathering, yielding, ultimately, quantifiable data. A strict adherence to such a positivist methodology entailed the exclusion or rejection of any phenomena not amenable to such procedures. Research? Ironically, a strict concern for acquiring purely objective knowledge of human social action ran the very real risk of excluding from system of india, view certain aspects or features of the object under study. Issue Research? Horkheimer criticized positivism on two grounds. First, that it falsely represented human social action. Second, that the representation of social reality produced by positivism was politically conservative, helping to support the status quo, rather than challenging it. The first criticism consisted of the argument that positivism systematically failed to appreciate the extent to which the so-called social facts it yielded did not exist 'out there', so to speak, but were themselves mediated by personal socially and issue paper, historically mediated human consciousness. Positivism ignored the role of the 'observer' in the constitution of social reality and pork paper, thereby failed to consider the historical and social conditions affecting the representation of social facts. Positivism falsely represented the object of study by reifying social reality as existing objectively and independently of those whose action and labor actually produced those conditions. Horkheimer argued, in contrast, that critical theory possessed a reflexive element lacking in the positivistic traditional theory. Critical theory attempted to issue, penetrate the veil of reification so as to write, accurately determine the extent to which the social reality represented by traditional theory was partial and, in important respects, false.
False precisely because of traditional theory's failure to discern the inherently social and historical character of social reality. Horkheimer expressed this point thus: “the facts which our senses present to research, us are socially preformed in two ways: through the historical character of the object perceived and praxis, through the historical character of the perceiving organ. Paper? Both are not simply natural; they are shaped by human activity, and yet the system, individual perceives himself as receptive and passive in the act of perception.” Horkheimer's emphasis upon the detrimental consequences of the representational fallacies of positivism for the individual is at issue, the heart of his second fundamental criticism of traditional theory. Horkheimer argues that traditional theory is politically conservative in two respects. First, traditional theory falsely 'naturalizes' contingent social reality, thereby obscuring the extent to which social reality emanates not from political, nature, but from the relationship between human action and nature. This has the effect of circumscribing a general awareness of the possibility of research change.
Individuals come to see themselves as generally confronted by an immutable and intransigent social world, to pork paper, which they must adapt and conform if they wish to survive. Second, and following on from this, conceiving of reality in research these terms serves to unduly pacify individuals. Individuals come to essay for common application, conceive of themselves as relatively passive recipients of the social reality, falsely imbued with naturalistic characteristics, that confronts them. We come to conceive of the potential exercise of issue paper our individual and collective will as decisively limited by existing conditions, as we find them, so to speak. The status quo is falsely perceived as a reflection of some natural, inevitable order.
Adorno was a leading member of the Frankfurt School. His writings are widely considered as having made a highly significant contribution to the development of dbq 17 imperialism essay critical theory. Adorno unequivocally shared the moral commitment of critical theory. He also remained deeply suspicious of positivistic social science and directed a large part of his intellectual interests to a critical analysis of the philosophical basis of this approach. He shared the Frankfurt School's general stance in research respect of political system of india essay orthodox Marxism and economic determinism, in particular. Adorno persistently criticized any and all philosophical perspectives which posited the existence of some ahistorical and research, immutable basis to social reality. He thus shared Horkheimer's criticisms of any and all attempts at praxis 1 essay, 'naturalizing' social reality.
However, Adorno ultimately proceeded to issue research paper, explicate an account of the entwinement of reason and pork paper, domination that was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. In stark contrast to the philosophical convention which counter-posed reason and domination, whereby the latter is to be confronted with and dissolved by issue paper the application of reason so as to achieve enlightenment, Adorno was to argue that reason itself had become entangled with domination. Reason had become a tool and device for domination and india, suffering. This led Adorno to reassess the prospects for overcoming domination and suffering. Put simply, Adorno was far more sanguine in respect of the prospects for realizing critical theory's aims than other members of the Frankfurt School. Adorno was perhaps the most despairing of the Frankfurt School intellectuals. The Frankfurt School provided Adorno with an research, intellectual 'home' in which to work. The development of Adorno's thought was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. Imperialism? Adorno's philosophy itself owed much to the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. The greater part of research paper Adorno's thought, his account of reason, his understanding of the role of consciousness in the constitution of reality, and his vision of domination and human suffering are all imbued with the thought of pork these earlier philosophers. Adorno's philosophy consists, in large part, of research a dialogue with these philosophers and their particular, and dbq 17 imperialism, very different, visions of the formation and deformation of social reality.
I shall briefly consider each in turn. Hegel's philosophy is notoriously abstruse and difficult to fully understand. There are aspects of Hegel's thought which Adorno consistently criticized and rejected. However, what Adorno did take from Hegel, amongst other things, was a recognition that philosophy was located within particular socio-historical conditions. The objects of philosophical study and, indeed, the research paper, very exercise of philosophy itself, were social and system, historical phenomena. The object of philosophy was not the discovery of timeless, immutable truths, but rather to provide interpretations of issue research a socially constituted reality. Hegel was also to insist that understanding human behavior was only possible through engaging with the distinct socio-historical conditions, of dbq 17 imperialism which human beings were themselves a part. In stark contrast to issue, Immanuel Kant's conception of the self-constituting character of human consciousness, Hegel argued that human consciousness was mediated by the socio-historical conditions of specific individuals. Further, Hegel argued that the development of each individual's self-consciousness could only proceed through relations with other individuals: attaining a consciousness of oneself entailed the existence of others.
No one single human being was capable of achieving self-consciousness and exercising reason by herself. Finally, Hegel also argued that the constitution of social reality proceeded through subjects' relationship with the 'objective', material realm. In stark contrast to positivism, an Hegelian inspired understanding of social reality accorded a necessary and thoroughly active role to the subject. Hegel draws our attention to our own role in producing the objective reality with which positivists confront us. Adorno was in basic agreement with all of the above aspects of Hegel's philosophy. A recognition of philosophy as a socio-historical phenomenon and an acceptance of the 1 essay, socio-historical conditions of human consciousness remained central to Adorno's thought.
However, Adorno differed from Hegel most unequivocally on one particularly fundamental point. Hegel notoriously posited the existence of some ultimately constitutive ground of human reality, in the metaphysical form 'Geist', or 'Spirit'. Hegel ultimately viewed reality as a manifestation of some a priori form of consciousness, analogous to a god. In conceiving of material reality as emanating from consciousness, Hegel was expounding a form of philosophical Idealism. Adorno would never accept this aspect of Hegel's thought. Adorno consistently argued that any such recourse to some a priori, ultimately ahistorical basis to reality was itself best seen as conditioned by paper material forces and conditions. For Adorno, the abstractness of such philosophical arguments actually revealed the unduly abstract character of specific social conditions. Adorno could thereby criticize Hegel for not according enough importance to the constitutive character of pork paper distinct social and historical conditions. Such criticisms reveal the influence of Karl Marx's thought upon the development of Adorno's thought.
Marx has famously been described as standing Hegel on his head. Where Hegel ultimately viewed consciousness as determining the form and content of paper material conditions, Marx argued that material conditions ultimately determined, or fundamentally conditioned, human consciousness. For Marx, the ultimate grounds of social reality and the forms of human consciousness required for the maintenance of this reality were economic conditions. Marx argued that, within capitalist societies, human suffering and domination originated in the economic relations characteristic of capitalism. Put simply, Marx argued that those who produced economic wealth, the proletariat, were alienated from the fruits of their labor as a result of having to sell their labor to those who controlled the forces of production: those who owned the factories and the like, the pork paper, bourgeoisie. The disproportionate wealth and power of the bourgeoisie resulted from the extraction of an economic surplus from the product of the proletariat's labor, in the form of profit. Those who owned the most, thus did the least to attain that wealth, whereas those who had the least, did the most. Capitalism was thus considered to research, be fundamentally based upon structural inequality and entailed one class of people treating another class as mere instruments of their own will. Under capitalism, Marx argued, human beings could never achieve their full, creative potential as a result of dissertation write being bound to fundamentally alienating, dehumanizing forms of issue research paper economic production.
Capitalism ultimately reduces everyone, bourgeoisie and proletariat alike, to mere appendages of the machine. Adorno shared Marx's view of capitalism as a fundamentally dehumanizing system. Adorno's commitment to strategies, Marxism caused him, for example, to retain a lifelong suspicion of those accounts of liberalism founded upon abstract notions of formal equality and the prioritization of economic and property rights. Adorno's account of domination was thus deeply indebted to Marx's account of domination. In addition, in numerous articles and larger works, Adorno was to lay great stress on Marx's specific understanding of capitalism and the predominance of exchange value as the key determinant of worth in capitalist societies. As will be shown later, the concept of exchange value was central to Adorno's analysis of issue culture and entertainment in capitalist societies. Marx's account of capitalism enabled critical theory and Adorno to go beyond a mere assertion of the social grounds of reality and the constitutive role of the subject in the production of that reality. Adorno was not simply arguing that all human phenomena were socially determined. Rather, he was arguing that an and post, awareness of the extent of domination required both an appreciation of the social basis of issue research paper human life coupled with the ability to qualitatively distinguish between various social formations in respect of the degree of human suffering prerequisite for their maintenance. To a significant degree, Marx's account of system of india capitalism provided Adorno with the issue, means for achieving this.
However, as I argued above, Adorno shared the political of india essay, Frankfurt School's suspicions of the issue, more economically determinist aspects of Marx's thought. Beyond even this, Adorno's account of reason and domination ultimately drew upon philosophical sources that were distinctly non-Marxian in character. Foremost amongst these were the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Of all the critical theorists, the writings of Nietzsche have exerted the most influence upon Adorno in two principal respects. First, Adorno basically shared the importance which Nietzsche attributed to the autonomous individual. However, Nietzsche's account of the autonomous individual differs in several highly important respects from that typically associated with the rationalist tradition, within which the concept of the autonomous individual occupied a central place. In contrast to those philosophers, such as Kant, who tended to characterize autonomy in terms of the individual gaining a systematic control over her desires and acting in accordance with formal, potentially universalizable rules and procedures, Nietzsche placed far greater importance upon spontaneous, creative human action as constituting the pinnacle of human possibility. Nietzsche considered the 'rule-bound' account of autonomy to praxis strategies, be little more than a form of self-imposed heteronomy. For Nietzsche, reason exercised in this fashion amounted to a form of self-domination. One might say that Nietzsche espoused an account of individual autonomy as aesthetic self-creation.
Being autonomous entailed treating one's life as a potential work of art. This account of autonomy exercised an important and consistent influence upon Adorno's own understanding of autonomy. Furthermore, Adorno's concern for the autonomous individual was absolutely central to his moral and political philosophy. Adorno argued that a large part of what was so morally wrong with complex, capitalist societies consisted in the extent to which, despite their professed individualist ideology, these societies actually frustrated and thwarted individuals' exercise of autonomy. Adorno argued, along with other intellectuals of that period, that capitalist society was a mass, consumer society, within which individuals were categorized, subsumed, and governed by highly restrictive social, economic and, political structures that had little interest in specific individuals. For Adorno, the majority of peoples' lives were lead within mass, collective entities and issue, structures, from school to impressionism impressionism, the workplace and beyond. Being a true individual, in issue the broadly Nietzschean sense of that term, was considered to praxis strategies, be nigh on impossible under these conditions.
In addition to this aspect of Nietzsche's influence upon Adorno, the specific understanding which Adorno developed in respect of the relationship between reason and domination owed much to Nietzsche. Nietzsche refused to endorse any account of reason as a thoroughly benign, or even disinterested force. Nietzsche argued that the development and deployment of reason was driven by power. Issue Research Paper? Above all else, Nietzsche conceived of reason as a principal means of domination; a tool for dominating nature and others. Nietzsche vehemently criticized any and all non-adversarial accounts of preface reason. On this reading, reason is a symptom of, and tool for, domination and hence not a means for overcoming or remedying domination.
Adorno came to share some essential features of this basically instrumentalist account of reason. The book he wrote with Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of issue research Enlightenment , which is a foremost text of critical theory, grapples with precisely this account of reason. However, Adorno refrained from term, simply taking over Nietzsche's account in research its entirety. Most importantly, Adorno basically shared Nietzsche's account of the instrumentalization of reason. However Adorno insisted against Nietzsche that the transformation of reason was less an expression of imperialism human nature and issue research paper, more a consequence of contingent social conditions which might, conceivably, be changed. Imperialism Essay? Where Nietzsche saw domination as an essential feature of human society, Adorno argued that domination was contingent and potentially capable of being overcome. Obviously, letting go of this particular aspiration would be intellectually cataclysmic to the emancipatory aims of research paper critical theory. Adorno uses Nietzsche in personal an attempt to bolster, not undermine, critical theory. Adorno considered philosophy to be a social and historical exercise, bound by both the past and existing traditions and conditions. Hence, it would be fair to paper, say that many philosophical streams run into the river of Adorno's own writings. However, the works of essay Hegel, Marx, and issue research paper, Nietzsche exercised a profound and lasting influence upon the form and content of Adorno's work.
It is personal essay for common now time to paper, move on and engage with certain key aspects of impressionism Adorno's philosophical writings. I shall focus upon three aspects of Adorno's writings so as to provide a clear summary of the scope and substance of Adorno's philosophy: his understanding of reason and what he termed 'identity thinking'; his moral philosophy and paper, discussion of nihilism; and dbq 17 imperialism india essay, finally, his analysis of culture and its effects upon capitalist societies. 3. Identity Thinking and Instrumental Reason. Adorno unequivocally rejected the paper, view that philosophy and the exercise of reason afforded access to a realm of pristine thoughts and reality. In stark contrast to those rationalists such as Plato, who posited the existence of an ultimate realm of reality and truth underlying the manifest world, Adorno argued that philosophical concepts actually expressed the 1 essay strategies, social structures within which they were found. Adorno consistently argued that there is no such thing as pure thought: thinking is a socio-historical form of issue research paper activity. Hence, Adorno argued that there did not exist a single standpoint from which 'truth' could be universally discerned. To many this may sound like mere philosophical relativism: the doctrine which claims that all criteria of truth are socially and historically relative and contingent. However, the system essay, charge of relativism has rarely been leveled at Adorno's work.
Relativists are typically accused of issue research espousing a largely uncritical form of theorizing. A belief in the social contingency of truth criteria appears to exclude the possibility of essay criticizing social practices and beliefs by recourse to practices and beliefs alien to that society. Further, their commitment to issue paper, the notion of contingency has frequently resulted in philosophical relativists being accused of unduly affirming the legitimacy claims of any given social practice or belief without subjecting them to a sufficiently critical scrutiny. No such criticisms have been made of Adorno's work. Adorno's analysis of philosophical concepts aims to uncover the extent to which such concepts are predicated upon, and manifestations of, relations of power and domination. Adorno coined the term 'identity thinking' to refer to that form of thinking which is the most expressive philosophical manifestation of 1 essay power and domination.
Drawing a contrast between his own form of dialectical thinking and identity thinking, Adorno wrote that “dialectics seek to say what something is, while 'identarian' thinking says what something comes under, what it exemplifies or represents, and what, accordingly, it is issue paper not itself.” (1990:149). A perfect example of identity thinking would be those forms of reasoning found within bureaucracies where individual human beings are assembled within different classes or categories. The bureaucracy can thus only be said to dbq 17 imperialism essay, 'know' any specific individual as an exemplar of the wider category to which that individual has been assigned. The sheer, unique specificity of the individual in question is thereby lost to view. One is liable to being treated as a number, and not as a unique person. Thus, Adorno condemns identity thinking as systematically and necessarily misrepresenting reality by means of the subsumption of paper specific phenomena under general, more abstract classificatory headings within which the phenomenal world is cognitively assembled.
While this mode of representing reality may have the advantage of facilitating the manipulation of the material environment, it does so at the cost of failing to attend to the specificity of pork term paper any given phenomenal entity; everything becomes a mere exemplar. One consequence of apprehending reality in this way is the elimination of qualities or properties that may inhere within any given object but which are conceptually excluded from view, so to issue paper, speak, as a result of the imposition of a classificatory framework. In this way, identity thinking misrepresents its object. Adorno's understanding and use of the concept of identity thinking provides a veritable foundation for his philosophy and ultimately underlies much of his writing. One of the principal examples of essay application Adorno's analysis of identity thinking is to be found in his and Horkheimer's critical study of enlightenment, presented within their Dialectic of Enlightenment . The centerpiece of Adorno and Horkheimer's highly unusual text is an essay on the concept of enlightenment. The essay presents both a critical analysis of enlightenment and an account of the instrumentalization of reason. The Enlightenment is issue research characteristically thought of as an term, historical period, spanning the 17th and 18th Centuries, embodying the emancipatory ideals of modernity. Enlightenment intellectuals were united by a common vision in which a genuinely human social and political order was to be achieved through the dissolution of previously oppressive, unenlightened, institutions. The establishment of enlightenment ideals was to be achieved by creating the conditions in which individuals could be free to exercise their own reason, free from the dictates of issue research paper rationally indefensible doctrine and dogma.
The means for establishing this new order was the exercise of reason. Freeing reason from the societal bonds which had constrained it was identified as the praxis 1 essay, means for achieving human sovereignty over a world which was typically conceived of as the manifestation of some higher, divine authority. Enlightenment embodies the promise of human beings finally taking individual and collective control over issue paper the destiny of the barrel, species. Adorno and Horkheimer refused to endorse such a wholly optimistic reading of the effects of the rationalization of society. They stated, “in the most general sense of progressive thought, the Enlightenment has always aimed at liberating men from fear and issue research paper, establishing their sovereignty. Yet the fully enlightened earth radiates disaster triumphant.” (1979:3)
How do Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of the ‘fully enlightened earth’ and what is the nature of the 'disaster’ that ensues from essay, this? Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of research paper enlightenment differs in several highly significant respects from the conventional understanding of the concept. They do not conceive of enlightenment as confined to a distinct historical period. As a recent commentator on Adorno has written, “Adorno and Horkheimer do not use the term ‘enlightenment’ primarily to designate a historical period ranging from Descartes to Kant. Instead they use it to refer to a series of related intellectual and practical operations which are presented as demythologizing, secularizing or disenchanting some mythical, religious or magical representation of the world.” (Jarvis, 1998:24). Adorno and pork barrel, Horkheimer extend their understanding of enlightenment to refer to a mode of apprehending reality found in the writings of classical Greek philosophers, such as Parmenides, to 20th century positivists such as Bertrand Russell. At the core of Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment are two related theses: “myth is already enlightenment, and enlightenment reverts to mythology.” (1979: xvi). An analysis of the second of these two theses will suffice to paper, explicate the concept of preface write enlightenment Adorno and Horkheimer present. Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment differs fundamentally from those accounts of the development of human thought and civilization that posit a developmental schema according to which human history is considered as progressively proceeding through separate stages of cognitively classifying and paper, apprehending reality. These accounts typically describe the impressionism essay, cognitive ascent of research paper humanity as originating in myth, proceeding to religion, and culminating in political system essay secular, scientific reasoning.
On this view, the scientific worldview ushered in by the issue research, enlightenment is impressionism essay seen as effecting a radical intellectual break and transition from that which went before. Adorno and Horkheimer fundamentally challenge this assumption. Their thesis that 'myth is already enlightenment' is based on the claim that the development of issue human thought possesses a basic continuity. Both myth and enlightenment are modes of representing reality, both attempt to explain and account for reality. Adorno and Horkheimer's second thesis, that enlightenment reverts to mythology requires a far more detailed explanation since it entails engaging with their entire understanding of reason and its relationship with heteronomy. They aim to demonstrate that and how enlightenment's rationalization of society comes to revert to the character of a mythical order.
Adorno and Horkheimer argue that enlightenment's reversion to mythology amounts to the betrayal of the barrel, emancipatory ideals of enlightenment. However, they view the betrayal of enlightenment as being inherently entwined with enlightenment itself. For them, the reversion to mythology primarily means reverting to an unreflexive, uncritical mode of configuring and understanding reality. Reverting to mythology means the institution of social conditions, over which individuals come to have little perceived control. Reverting to issue paper, mythology means a reversion to a heteronomous condition.
Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of enlightenment as principally a demythologizing mode of apprehending reality. For them, the fundamental aim of enlightenment is the establishment of human sovereignty over material reality, over nature: enlightenment is 1 essay strategies founded upon the drive to master and issue research, control nature. The realization of this aim requires the essay, ability to paper, cognitively and practically manipulate the material environment in accordance with our will. In order to be said to dominate nature, nature must become an object of our will. Within highly technologically developed societies, the constraints upon our ability to manipulate nature are typically thought of in dbq 17 imperialism india terms of the development of technological, scientific knowledge: the limits of possibility are determined not by a mythical belief in research paper god, say, but in impressionism impressionism the development of the technological forces available to us.
This way of conceiving of the tangible limits to human action and cognition had first to research paper, overcome a belief that the personal essay application, natural order contained, and was the product of, mythical beings and entities whose presumed existence constituted the ultimate form of authority for those societies enthralled by issue research them. The realization of human sovereignty required the dissolution of such beliefs and the disenchantment of nature. Adorno and Horkheimer write, “the program of the impressionism essay, Enlightenment was the disenchantment of the research paper, world; the dissolution of myths and the substitution of political of india knowledge for fancy. From now on, matter would at last be mastered without any illusion of ruling or inherent powers, of hidden qualities.” (1979:3-6) Overcoming myth was effected by conceiving of myth as a form of anthropomorphism, as already a manifestation of human cognition so that a realm which had served to constrain the development of technological forces was itself a creation of mankind, falsely projected onto the material realm. On this reading, enlightenment is conceived of as superseding and replacing mythical and issue research paper, religious belief systems, the falsity of dbq 17 imperialism india essay which consist, in large part, of their inability to discern the paper, subjective character and origins of these beliefs. Few would dispute a view of enlightenment as antithetical to myth. However, Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment reverts to mythology is considerably more contentious.
While many anthropologists and social theorists, for example have come to accept Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that myth and enlightenment have the same functional purpose of political system essay representing and understanding reality, most political theorists would take great issue with the claim that enlightenment has regressed, or relapsed into some mythical state since this latter claim clearly implies that the general state of issue social and political freedom assumed to exist in 'enlightened' societies is largely bogus. This is, however, precisely what Adorno and Horkheimer argue. They argue that human beings' attempt to gain sovereignty over nature has been pursued through, in large part, the accumulation of objective, verifiable knowledge of the essay, material realm and issue, its constitutive processes: we take control over nature by understanding how it can be made to system essay, work for us. Viewed in this way, the value of nature is paper necessarily conceived of in primarily instrumental terms: nature is thought of pork barrel term paper as an object for, and instrument of, human will. This conception of nature necessitates drawing a distinction between this realm and those beings for whom it is an object. Thus, the instrumentalist conception of nature entails a conception of human beings as categorically distinct entities, capable of becoming subjects through the exercise of reason upon nature. The very category of subject thus has inscribed within it a particular conception of nature as that which is to be subordinated to one's will: subject and object are hierarchically juxtaposed, just as they are in the works of, for example, Descartes and Kant. For nature to be considered amenable to such subordination requires that it be conceived of as synonymous with the objectified models through which human subjects represent nature to themselves. To be wholly conceivable in these terms requires the issue, exclusion of any properties that cannot be subsumed within this representational understanding of nature, this particular form of identity thinking. Adorno and Horkheimer state, “the concordance between the mind of man and the nature of things that he had in mind is patriarchal: the human mind, which overcomes superstition, is to hold sway over a disenchanted nature.” (1979:4) Nature is thereby configured as the object of human will and representation.
In this way, our criteria governing the identification and pursuit of valid knowledge are grounded within a hierarchical relationship between human beings and pork barrel paper, nature: reason is instrumentalized. For Adorno and Horkheimer then, “myth turns into enlightenment, and research, nature into mere objectivity. Men pay for the increase of their power with alienation from that over which they exercise their power. Enlightenment behaves towards things as a dictator toward men. He knows them in so far as he can manipulate them. The man of science knows things in so far as he can make them.
In this way, their potentiality is turned to pork barrel term, his own ends.” (1979:9) Adorno and Horkheimer insist that this process results in the establishment of a generally heteronomous social order; a condition over research which human beings have little control. Ultimately, the drive to dominate nature results in the establishment of a form of reasoning and a general world-view which appears to essay, exist independently of human beings and, more to the point, is issue principally characterized by a systematic indifference to human beings and essay for common, their sufferings: we ultimately become mere objects of the research paper, form of reason that we have created. Adorno and Horkheimer insist that individual self-preservation in 'enlightened' societies requires that each of us conform to the dictates of instrumental reason. How do Adorno and impressionism, Horkheimer attempt to research paper, defend such a fundamentally controversial claim? Throughout his philosophical lifetime Adorno argued that authoritative forms of knowledge have become largely conceived of as synonymous with instrumental reasoning; that the world has come to be conceived of as identical with its representation within instrumental reasoning. Reality is thus deemed discernible only in the form of pork paper objectively verifiable facts and alternative modes of paper representing reality are thereby fundamentally undermined. A successful appeal to the 'facts' of a cause has become the principal means for resolving disputes and settling disputes in write societies such as ours. However, Adorno argued that human beings are increasingly incapable of legitimately excluding themselves from those determinative processes thought to prevail within the disenchanted material realm: human beings become objects of the form of reasoning through which their status as subjects is issue first formulated. Thus, Adorno discerns a particular irony in the totalizing representation of reality which enlightenment prioritizes. Human sovereignty over nature is pursued by the accumulation of personal essay application hard, objective data which purport to accurately describe and catalogue this reality. The designation of 'legitimate knowledge' is thereby restricted to that thought of as 'factual': legitimate knowledge of the world is that which purports to accurately reflect how the issue, world is.
As it stands, of pork barrel term paper course, the mere act of describing any particular aspect of the material realm does not, by itself, promote the cause of human freedom. It may directly facilitate the exercise of freedom by providing sufficient knowledge upon which an agent may exercise discretionary judgment concerning, say, the viability of any particular desire, but, by itself, accurate descriptions of the world are not a sufficient condition for freedom. Adorno, however, argues that the very constituents of this way of thinking are inextricably entwined with heteronomy. In commenting upon Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment restricts legitimate knowledge to the category of objectively verifiable facts, Simon Jarvis writes: “thought is to confine itself to the facts, which are thus the point at which thought comes to a halt. The question as to whether these facts might change is ruled out by enlightened thought as a pseudo-problem. Paper? Everything which is, is thus represented as a kind of fate, no less unalterable and uninterogable than mythical fate itself.” (1998:24). Conceived of in this way, material reality appears as an immutable and fixed order of things which necessarily pre-structures and pre-determines our consciousness of it. As Adorno and Horkheimer themselves state, “factuality wins the day; cognition is restricted to its repetition; and thought becomes mere tautology. The more the machinery of thought subjects existence to itself, the more blind its resignation in reproducing existence. Pork Paper? Hence enlightenment reverts to mythology, which it never really knew how to elude. Research Paper? For in its figures mythology had the essence of the status quo: cycle, fate, and domination of the world reflected as the truth and deprived of hope.” (1979:27) Facts have come to take on for common the same functional properties of a belief in the existence of some mythical forces or beings: representing an issue research paper, external order to strategies, which we must conform.
The ostensible difference between them is that the realm of facts appears to issue research paper, be utterly objective and dbq 17 india essay, devoid of any subjective, or anthropomorphic forces. Indeed, the issue research, identification of a truly objective order was explicitly pursued through the exclusion of any such subjective prejudices and fallacies. Subjective reasoning is fallacious reasoning, on this view. Adorno's attempt to account for this objective order as constituted through identity thinking poses a fundamental challenge to the epistemological conceit of such views. Adorno and essay, Horkheimer argued that the instrumentalization of reason and the epistemological supremacy of 'facts' served to establish a single order, a single mode of representing and relating to reality. For them, “enlightenment is totalitarian” (1979:24). The pursuit of issue paper human sovereignty over nature is predicated upon a mode of reasoning whose functioning necessitates subsuming all of nature within a single, representational framework. We possess knowledge of the impressionism and post impressionism essay, world as a result of the accumulation of facts, 'facts' that are themselves necessarily abstractions from paper, that to which they refer. Assembled within a classificatory scheme these facts are not, cannot ever be, a direct expression of that to imperialism india, which they refer; no aspect of its thought, by its very nature, can ever legitimately be said to possess that quality.
However, while facts constitute the principal constituents of issue research paper this classificatory scheme, the scheme itself, this mode of configuring reality, is impressionism founded upon a common, single cognitive currency, which necessarily holds that the essence of all that can be known is reducible to a single, inherently quantifiable property: matter. They insist that this mode of research paper configuring reality originates within a desire to dominate nature and imperialism, that this domination is effected by reducing the manifold diversity of nature to, ultimately, a single, manipulable form. For them the realization of the issue research, single totality that proceeds from the barrel, domination of nature necessitates that reason itself be shorn of any ostensibly partial or particularistic elements. They conceive of enlightenment as aspiring towards the institution of issue paper a form of reasoning which is impressionism and post impressionism fundamentally universal and abstract in character: a form of reasoning which posits the existence of a unified order, a priori. They argue, “in advance, the Enlightenment recognizes as being and occurrence only what can be apprehended in unity: its ideal is the system from which all and everything follows. Its rationalist and empiricist versions do not part company on this point.” (1979:7) Thus, the identarian character of enlightenment, on this reading, consists of the issue research paper, representation of material reality as ultimately reducible to a single scale of evaluation or measurement. Reality is henceforth to paper, be known in so far as it is quantifiable. Material reality is issue research paper presented as having become an object of calculation. The form of reasoning which is adequate to the task of representing reality in this way must be necessarily abstract and formal in character. Its evaluative procedures must, similarly, avoid the inclusion of any unduly restrictive and and post impressionism, partial affiliations to any specific component property of the research, system as a whole if they are to be considered capable of being applicable to dissertation, the system as a whole.
Adorno and Horkheimer present the aspiration towards achieving human sovereignty over nature as culminating in issue paper the institution of a mode of reasoning which is bound to the identification and accumulation of facts; which restricts the perceived value of the exercise of reason to political system of india essay, one which is instrumental for the domination of nature; and which, finally, aims at the assimilation of all of nature under a single, universalizing representational order. Adorno and Horkheimer present enlightenment as fundamentally driven by the desire to master nature, of bringing all of material reality under a single representational system, within which reason is transformed into a tool for paper, achieving this end. For Adorno and Horkheimer then, nature has been fully mastered within the 'fully enlightened earth' and human affairs are regulated and evaluated in accordance with the demands of instrumental reasoning: the pork term paper, means by which nature has been mastered have rebounded upon us. Research Paper? The attempt to fully dominate nature culminates in the institution of a social and political order over which we have lost control. If one wishes to survive, either as an individual or even as a nation, one must conform to, and 1 essay strategies, learn to utilize, instrumental reason. Thought and philosophy aids and abets this order where it seeks merely to mirror or 'objectively' reflect that reality. Adorno aims to avoid providing any such support by, at research paper, root, providing a prototypical means of deconstructing that 'reality'. Impressionism? The radical character of his concept of 'identity thinking' consists in its insistence that such 'objective' forms of issue paper representing reality are not 'objective' enough, so to speak. The facts upon which instrumental reasoning goes to work are themselves conceptual abstractions and not direct manifestations of phenomena, as they claim to be. Adorno's philosophical writings fundamentally aim to demonstrate the praxis 1 essay, two-fold falsity of 'identity thinking': first, in respect of debunking the research, claims of identity thinking to representing reality objectively; second, in respect of the effects of instrumental reasoning as a form of identity thinking upon the potential for the exercise of human freedom. Adorno posits identity thinking as fundamentally concerned not to system essay, understand phenomena but to control and manipulate it.
A genuinely critical form of philosophy aims to both undercut the dominance of identity thinking and to create an awareness of the research, potential of apprehending and relating to phenomena in a non-coercive manner. Both how he aims to do this, and pork term paper, how Adorno's philosophical project can itself be criticized will be considered in the final section. However, having summarized the substance of Adorno's understanding of philosophy and research, reason, what must now be considered is the next most important theme addressed in Adorno's philosophical writings: his vision of the status of morality and moral theory within this fully enlightened earth. Adorno's moral philosophy is similarly concerned with the impressionism, effects of 'enlightenment' upon both the prospects of individuals leading a 'morally good life' and issue research, philosophers' ability to identify what such a life may consist of. Adorno argues that the instrumentalization of reason has fundamentally undermined both. He argues that social life in modern societies no longer coheres around a set of and post impressionism essay widely espoused moral truths and that modern societies lack a moral basis. What has replaced morality as the integrating 'cement' of social life are instrumental reasoning and the exposure of everyone to the capitalist market. According to Adorno, modern, capitalist societies are fundamentally nihilistic, in character; opportunities for leading a morally good life and even philosophically identifying and defending the requisite conditions of a morally good life have been abandoned to instrumental reasoning and capitalism. Within a nihilistic world, moral beliefs and research, moral reasoning are held to have no ultimately rational authority: moral claims are conceived of as, at barrel paper, best, inherently subjective statements, expressing not an objective property of the world, but the individual's own prejudices. Morality is presented as thereby lacking any objective, public basis. The espousal of specific moral beliefs is thus understood as an instrument for the assertion of research paper one's own, partial interests: morality has been subsumed by instrumental reasoning.
Adorno attempts to term paper, critically analyse this condition. He is not a nihilist, but a critic of issue research nihilism. Adorno's account of nihilism rests, in large part, on his understanding of reason and of how modern societies have come to conceive of legitimate knowledge. He argues that morality has fallen victim to the distinction drawn between objective and subjective knowledge. Objective knowledge consists of empirically verifiable 'facts' about material phenomena, whereas subjective knowledge consists of all that remains, including such things as evaluative and normative statements about the world. On this view, a statement such as 'I am sitting at a desk as I write this essay' is of a different category to the statement 'abortion is morally wrong'. The first statement is amenable to empirical verification, whereas the latter is an expression of a personal, subjective belief. Of India Essay? Adorno argues that moral beliefs and moral reasoning have been confined to the sphere of subjective knowledge. He argues that, under the force of the instrumentalization of reason and positivism, we have come to conceive of the only meaningfully existing entities as empirically verifiable facts: statements on the structure and content of reality. Moral values and beliefs, in paper contrast, are denied such a status.
Morality is impressionism and post thereby conceived of issue paper as inherently prejudicial in character so that, for example, there appears to be no way in which one can objectively and rationally resolve disputes between conflicting substantive moral beliefs and dissertation, values. Under the condition of nihilism one cannot distinguish between more or less valid moral beliefs and values since the criteria allowing for such evaluative distinctions have been excluded from the domain of subjective knowledge. Adorno argues that, under nihilistic conditions, morality has become a function or tool of power. The measure of the influence of any particular moral vision is an issue research paper, expression of the material interests that underlie it. Interestingly, Adorno identifies the effects of nihilism as extending to philosophical attempts to rationally defend morality and moral reasoning. Thus, in praxis support of his argument he does not rely upon merely pointing to the extent of issue moral diversity and conflict in modern societies. Pork? Nor does he rest his case upon those who, in the name of some radical account of individual freedom, positively espouse nihilism. Indeed, he identifies the effects of nihilism within moral philosophy itself, paying particular attention to the moral theory of issue research Immanuel Kant.
Adorno argues that Kant's account of the moral law demonstrates the extent to which morality has been reduced to the status of write subjective knowledge. Kant certainly attempts to research paper, establish a basis for morality by the exclusion of all substantive moral claims, claims concerning the moral goodness of this or that practice or way of life. Kant ultimately seeks to establish valid moral reasoning upon a series of utterly formal, procedural rules, or maxims which exclude even the pursuit of human happiness as a legitimate component of moral reasoning. Adorno criticizes Kant for emptying the moral law of any and all reference to substantive conceptions of human well-being, or the 'good life'. Ultimately, Kant is condemned for espousing an account of moral reasoning that is every bit as formal and devoid of dissertation write any substantively moral constituents as instrumental reasoning. The thrust of Adorno's criticism of Kant is not so much that Kant developed such an account of morality, since this was, according to Adorno, to a large extent prefigured by the material conditions of Kant's time and place, but that he both precisely failed to identify the effects of these conditions and, in so doing, thereby failed to discern the extent to which his moral philosophy provides an affirmation, rather than a criticism, of such conditions.
Kant, of all people, is condemned for not being sufficiently reflexive. Unlike some other thinkers and philosophers of the time, Adorno does not think that nihilism can be overcome by a mere act of will or by simply affirming some substantive moral vision of the good life. He does not seek to research, philosophically circumnavigate the extent to which moral questions concerning the system of india essay, possible nature of the 'good life' have become so profoundly problematic for us. Nor does he attempt to provide a philosophical validation of this condition. Recall that Adorno argues that reason has become entwined with domination and has developed as a manifestation of the attempt to control nature.
Adorno thus considers nihilism to be a consequence of domination and a testament, albeit in a negative sense, to the extent to which human societies are no longer enthralled by, for example, moral visions grounded in paper some naturalistic conception of human well-being. For Adorno, this process has been so thorough and complete that we can no longer authoritatively identify the essay for common, necessary constituents of the paper, good life since the philosophical means for doing so have been vitiated by the domination of nature and the instrumentalization of reason. The role of the critical theorist is, therefore, not to positively promote some alternative, purportedly more just, vision of a morally grounded social and political order. This would too far exceed the current bounds of the potential of reason. Rather, the 1 essay, critical theorist must fundamentally aim to retain and research, promote an awareness of the contingency of such conditions and barrel, the extent to issue research, which such conditions are capable of being changed. Dissertation Preface Write? Adorno's, somewhat dystopian, account of morality in modern societies follows from his argument that such societies are enthralled by instrumental reasoning and the prioritization of issue paper 'objective facts'. Nihilism serves to fundamentally frustrate the ability of morality to impose authoritative limits upon the application of instrumental reason. I stated at the beginning of this piece that Adorno was a highly unconventional philosopher. While he wrote volumes on impressionism impressionism such stock philosophical themes as reason and morality, he also extended his writings and critical focus to issue research paper, include mass entertainment.
Adorno analyzed social phenomena as manifestations of domination. Praxis 1 Essay Strategies? For him both the most abstract philosophical text and the most easily consumable film, record, or television show shared this basic similarity. Adorno was a philosopher who took mass entertainment seriously. He was among the first philosophers and intellectuals to recognize the potential social, political, and economic power of the issue, entertainment industry. Adorno saw what he referred to as 'the culture industry' as constituting a principal source of domination within complex, capitalist societies. He aims to show that the very areas of life within which many people believe they are genuinely free – free from the demands of dbq 17 india essay work for example – actually perpetuates domination by issue paper denying freedom and obstructing the development of a critical consciousness. Pork? Adorno's discussion of the culture industry is unequivocal in its depiction of mass consumer societies as being based upon the systematic denial of issue research paper genuine freedom. What is the culture industry, and how does Adorno defend his vision of it? Adorno described the culture industry as a key integrative mechanism for binding individuals, as both consumers and producers, to modern, capitalist societies. Essay For Common? Where many sociologists have argued that complex, capitalist societies are fragmented and heterogeneous in issue research character, Adorno insists that the culture industry, despite the manifest diversity of cultural commodities, functions to maintain a uniform system, to which all must conform. David Held, a commentator on critical theory, describes the culture industry thus: “the culture industry produces for mass consumption and significantly contributes to the determination of that consumption.
For people are now being treated as objects, machines, outside as well as inside the 1 essay strategies, workshop. The consumer, as the producer, has no sovereignty. The culture industry, integrated into capitalism, in turn integrates consumers from above. Its goal is the production of goods that are profitable and consumable. Issue? It operates to ensure its own reproduction.” (1981:91) Few can deny the accuracy of the description of the dominant sectors of cultural production as capitalist, commercial enterprises. The culture industry is a global, multibillion dollar enterprise, driven, primarily, by the pursuit of profit. What the culture industry produces is a means to india essay, the generation of profit, like any commercial enterprise. To this point, few could dispute Adorno's description of the mass entertainment industry. However, Adorno's specific notion of the 'culture industry' goes much further.
Adorno argues that individuals' integration within the culture industry has the fundamental effect of restricting the development of a critical awareness of the social conditions that confront us all. The culture industry promotes domination by subverting the psychological development of the mass of issue paper people in complex, capitalist societies. This is the truly controversial aspect of Adorno's view of the political of india essay, culture industry. How does he defend it? Adorno argues that cultural commodities are subject to the same instrumentally rationalized mechanical forces which serve to dominate individuals' working lives. Through our domination of nature and the development of technologically sophisticated forms of productive machinery, we have becomes objects of a system of our own making. Any one who has worked on a production line or in a telephone call centre should have some appreciation of the claim being made. Through the veritably exponential increase in volume and scope of the commodities produced under the auspices of the culture industry, individuals are increasingly subjected to the same underlying conditions through which the complex capitalist is maintained and issue research, reproduced.
The qualitative distinction between work and leisure, production and consumption is thereby obliterated. As Adorno and Horkheimer assert, “amusement under late capitalism is the prolongation of work. It is sought after as an escape from the mechanized work process, and to recruit strength in order to be able to cope with it again. Pork Paper? But at the same time mechanization has such a power over man's leisure and happiness, and issue research paper, so profoundly determines the manufacture of amusement goods, that his experiences are inevitably after-images of the work process itself.” (1979:137). According to Adorno, systematic exposure to the culture industry (and who can escape from it for political system of india, long in this media age?) has the fundamental effect of pacifying its consumers. Consumers are presented as being denied any genuine opportunities to actively contribute to the production of the goods to which they are exposed.
Similarly, Adorno insists that the form and content of the specific commodities themselves, be it a record, film, or TV show, require no active interpretative role on research paper the part of the consumer: all that is being asked of dissertation consumers is that they buy the goods. Adorno locates the issue paper, origins of the pacifying effects of cultural commodities in what he views as the underlying uniformity of such goods, a uniformity that belies their ostensible differences. Adorno conceives of the culture industry as a manifestation of identity-thinking and as being effected through the impressionism and post impressionism, implementation of instrumentally rationalized productive techniques. He presents the culture industry as comprising an endless repetition of the same commodified form. Paper? He argues that the personal essay application, ostensibly diverse range of commodities produced and consumed under the paper, auspices of the culture industry actually derive from pork barrel, a limited, fundamentally standardized 'menu' of interchangeable features and constructs. Thus, he presents the structural properties of the commodities produced and issue paper, exchanged within the culture industry as being increasingly standardized, formulaic, and repetitive in character. He argues that the standardized character of cultural commodities results from the increasingly mechanized nature of the production, distribution, and consumption of these goods. It is, for example, more economically rational to produce as many products as possible from the same identical 'mould'. Similarly, the increasing control of distribution centers by large, multinational entertainment conglomerates tends towards a high degree of barrel term uniformity. Adorno's analyses of specific sectors of the culture industry is extensive in scope.
However, his principal area of expertise and interest was music. Adorno analyzed the issue paper, production and consumption of music as a medium within which one could discern the principal features and effects of the culture industry and the commodification of culture. The central claim underlying Adorno's analysis of dissertation preface music is issue research paper that the essay, extension of industrialized production techniques has changed both the structure of musical commodities and the manner in which they are received. Adorno argued that the production of industrialized music is characterized by a highly standardized and uniform menu of musical styles and themes, in accordance with which the commodities are produced. Consistently confronted by familiar and compositionally simplistic musical phenomena requires that the audience need make little interpretative effort in its reception of the product. Adorno presents such musical commodities as consisting of set pieces which elicit set, largely unreflected upon, responses. He states, 'the counterpart to the fetishism of music is a regression of listening. It is contemporary listening which has regressed, arrested at the infantile stage. Not only do the listening subjects lose, along with freedom of paper choice and responsibility, the capacity for conscious perception of music, but they stubbornly reject the possibility of such perception. Dbq 17? They are not childlike, as might be expected on issue research the basis of an interpretation of the new type of listener in essay application terms of the introduction to musical life of groups previously unacquainted with music. Paper? But they are childish; their primitivism is not that of the undeveloped, but that of the forcibly retarded.' (1978:286).
Here Adorno drew upon a distinction previously made by Kant in his formulation of personal autonomy. Distinguishing between maturity and immaturity, Adorno repeats the Kantian claim that to be autonomous is to be mature, capable of exercising one's own discretionary judgment, of making up one's own mind for oneself. Adorno argued that the principal effect of the standardization of music is the promotion of a general condition of immaturity, frustrating and prohibiting the exercise of any critical or reflexive faculties in one's interpretation of the phenomena in question. Adorno viewed the production and consumption of musical commodities as exemplary of the culture industry in general. However, he also extended his analysis to include other areas of the praxis strategies, culture industry, such as television and, even, astrology columns. A brief discussion of this latter will suffice to complete the issue research, general contours of Adorno's account of the imperialism, culture industry. Adorno conducted a critical textual analysis of the issue research, astrology column of the Los Angeles Times . His aim was to identify the 'rational' function of the cultural institution itself. He thus took astrology seriously.
He considered astrology to be a symptom of complex, capitalist societies and discerned in the widespread appeal of pork barrel astrology an albeit uncritical and unreflexive awareness of the extent to issue research paper, which individuals' lives remain fundamentally conditioned by impersonal, external forces, over which individuals have little control. Society is projected, unwittingly, on to the stars. He stated that, “astrology is india truly in issue paper harmony with a ubiquitous trend. In as much as the social system is the ‘fate’ of most individuals independent of their will and interest, it is projected onto the stars in order thus to obtain a higher degree of dignity and justification in which individuals hope to participate themselves.” (1994:42). According to Adorno, astrology contributes to, and simultaneously reflects, a pervasive fetishistic attitude towards the conditions that actually confront individuals' lives through the promotion of a vision of human life as being determined by forces beyond our ultimate control. Rather than describing astrology as being irrational in character, Adorno argued that the personal essay for common, instrumentally rational character of complex, capitalist societies actually served to lend astrology a degree of rationality in respect of providing individuals with a means for learning to live with conditions beyond their apparent control. He describes astrology as “an ideology for dependence, as an attempt to strengthen and somehow justify painful conditions which seem to be more tolerable if an affirmative attitude is taken towards them.” (1994:115)
For Adorno no single domain of the culture industry is sufficient to research, ensure the effects he identified as generally exerting upon individuals' consciousness and lives. However, when taken altogether, the assorted media of the culture industry constitute a veritable web within which the barrel term, conditions, for example, of leading an autonomous life, for issue research, developing the capacity for dissertation, critical reflection upon oneself and research paper, one's social conditions, are systematically obstructed. According to and post, Adorno, the culture industry fundamentally prohibits the development of autonomy by means of the mediatory role its various sectors play in research the formation of individuals' consciousness of social reality. Personal Application? The form and content of the culture industry is increasingly misidentified as a veritable expression of research paper reality: individuals come to perceive and conceive of reality through the pre-determining form of the culture industry. The culture industry is understood by Adorno to be an essential component of a reified form of second nature, which individuals come to accept as a pre-structured social order, with which they must conform and adapt. The commodities produced by the culture industry may be 'rubbish', but their effects upon individuals is deadly serious. 6. Conclusion and General Criticisms. Adorno is widely recognized as one of the leading, but also one of the most controversial continental philosophers of the 20th century. Though largely unappreciated within the analytical tradition of philosophy, Adorno's philosophical writings have had a significant and lasting effect upon the development of subsequent generations of critical theorists and other philosophers concerned with the system of india essay, general issue of nihilism and domination. Publications on issue paper and by Adorno continue to proliferate. Adorno has not been forgotten.
His own, uncompromising diagnosis of imperialism modern societies and the entwinement of reason and domination continue to resonate and even inspire many working within the continental tradition. However, he has attracted some considerable criticism. I shall briefly consider some of the most pertinent criticisms that have been levelled at Adorno within each of the three areas of his writings I have considered above. Paper? I want to begin, though, with some brief comments on Adorno's writing style. Adorno can be very difficult to read. He writes in pork barrel term a manner which does not lend itself to ready comprehension. This is intentional. Adorno views language itself as having become an object of, and vehicle for, the perpetuation of domination. He is acutely aware of the extent to which this claim complicates his own work.
In attempting to encourage a critical awareness of suffering and domination, Adorno is forced to use the very means by which these conditions are, to a certain extent, sustained. His answer to this problem, although not intended to issue research, be ultimately satisfying, is to write in impressionism and post impressionism a way that requires hard and paper, concentrated efforts on the part of the reader, to write in a way that explicitly defies convention and the familiar. Adorno aims to encourage his readers to attempt to view the world and the concepts that represent the world in political essay a way that defies identity thinking. He aims, through his writing, to express precisely the unacknowledged, non-identical aspects of issue paper any given phenomenon. He aims to show, in a manner very similar to contemporary deconstructionists, the praxis strategies, extent to which our linguistic conventions simultaneously both represent and misrepresent reality.
In contrast to many deconstructionists, however, Adorno does so in research the name of an explicit moral aim and not as a mere literary method. For Adorno, reality is grounded in suffering and the domination of nature. This is a profoundly important distinction. Adorno's complaint against identity-thinking is a moral and not a methodological one. However, it must be admitted that understanding and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of Adorno's philosophical vision is system essay a difficult task. He does not wish to be easily understood in a world in which easy understanding, so he claims, is dependent upon identity-thinking's falsification of the world.
Adorno's writing style follows, in large part, from his account of reason. Adorno's understanding of reason has been subject to consistent criticism. One of the most significant forms of criticism is paper associated with Jurgen Habermas, arguably the leading contemporary exponent of critical theory. In essence, Habermas (1987) argues that Adorno overestimates the extent to which reason has been instrumentalized within modern, complex societies. For Habermas, instrumental reasoning is personal essay for common application only one of a number of forms of reasoning identifiable within such societies. Instrumental reasoning, therefore, is nowhere near as extensive and all-encompassing as Adorno and Horkheimer presented it as being in the Dialectic of Enlightenment . For Habermas, the issue research, undue importance attributed to instrumental reasoning has profound moral and system of india essay, philosophical consequences for paper, Adorno's general vision. Habermas insists that Adorno's understanding of reason amounts to a renunciation of the moral aims of the Enlightenment, from which critical theory itself appears to take its bearings. There is not doubt that the dissertation preface write, deployment of paper technology has had the most horrendous and catastrophic effects upon humanity.
However, Habermas argues that these effects are less the consequence of the extension of pork barrel term paper reason grounded in the domination of nature, as Adorno argues, and issue research, more an aberration of term paper enlightenment reason. Adorno is accused of defending an issue paper, account of instrumental reasoning that is so encompassing and extensive as to exclude the possibility of rationally overcoming these conditions and thereby realizing the aims of critical theory. Adorno is accused of leading critical theory down a moral cul-de-sac. Habermas proceeds to criticize Adorno's account of reason on philosophical grounds also. He argues, in effect, that Adorno's account of the instrumentalization of reason is so all encompassing as to exclude the possibility of someone like Adorno presenting a rational and critical analysis of these conditions. Adorno's critical account of reason seems to logically exclude the possibility of imperialism essay its own existence. Issue Paper? Habermas accuses Adorno of having lapsed into a form of performative contradiction. For Habermas, the very fact that a given political or social system is the object of criticism reveals the extent to system, which the research paper, form of domination that Adorno posits has not been fully realized.
The fact that Adorno and Horkheimer could proclaim that 'enlightenment is totalitarian' amounts to a simultaneous self-refutation. The performance of the claim contradicts its substance. Habermas takes issue with Adorno, finally, on praxis 1 essay the grounds that Adorno's account of reason and his advocacy of 'non-identity thinking' appear to prohibit critical theory from positively or constructively engaging with social and political injustice. Adorno is accused of research adopting the stance of an inveterate 'nay-sayer'. Being critical can appear as an end in itself, since the very radicalness of Adorno's diagnosis of reason and preface, modernity appears to issue, exclude the possibility of overcoming domination and heteronomy. Similar criticisms have been leveled at Adorno's account of morality and his claims in respect of the extent of nihilism. Adorno is consistently accused of failing to appreciate the moral gains achieved as a direct consequence of the formalization of reason and the subsequent demise of the authority of tradition.
On this view, attempting to categorize the Marquis de Sade, Kant, and Nietzsche as all similarly expressing and testifying to the ultimate demise of 1 essay strategies morality, as Adorno and Horkheimer do, is simply false and an example of an research paper, apparent tendency to over-generalize in the application of particular concepts.
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resume twilight 4 Disclaimers : Tout l'univers des Cullen appartient a Stephenie Meyer. Paper? L'histoire que vous allez lire appartient a DeydreamBeliever. Barrel Term Paper? Quand a moi, je ne suis qu'une humble traductrice. Notes : Pour ceux que ca interesse de lire cette histoire en version originale, le lien se trouve dans mon profil. Ce probleme etait regle. Research? Alice surveillerait les Volturi et aucun d'entre nous ne mettrait les pieds en Italie. Political System Of India Essay? Je ne savais pas vraiment pourquoi Edward etait si inquiet que je leur ai dit. Issue? Il soupira a nouveau. Strategies? Bien sur, apparemment, avoir des secrets etait dans sa nature. Issue Paper? En tout cas, dans les livres, il me cachait toujours quelque chose. Pork Term Paper? J'etais vraiment heureuse de connaitre tous ses secrets maintenant.
Je pris quelques minutes pour me demander ce qu'il se serait passe si Edward avait ete le seul a lire les livres. Research? Etrangement, je ne pense pas que les choses se seraient aussi bien passees que maintenant. Dissertation Preface Write? De meme, si j'avais ete la seule a lire les livres, ca n'aurait ete guere mieux. Issue Paper? Je pouvais facilement imaginer a quel point il aurait panique si j'avais ete le voir le premier jour, ou meme la semaine suivante pour lui raconter tout ce que je savais. Preface? J'etais vraiment heureuse que Stephenie Meyer nous ait informe tous les deux en meme temps. Research? Hmmm.
Sa famille aussi le prenait plutot bien considerant a quel point cette situation etait dingue. Vous savez, je viens juste de m'apercevoir que vous prenez tout cela plutot bien. Dissertation? Je suis desolee d'agir aussi familierement avec vous. Issue? J'espere que je ne vous ai pas mis mal a l'aise. Ne t'inquiete pas pour cela, Bella, m'assura Carlisle. And Post Impressionism Essay? Nous sommes habitues aux choses etranges dans cette famille. Les autres sourirent et hocherent la tete. Emmett est l'une de ces choses etranges, ajouta Edward. Hey ! Et ca vient du mec qui entend des voix, repliqua Emmett. Ca suffit, les garcons, insista Esme. Issue Research Paper? Nous ne voulons pas faire une mauvaise impression a Bella.
Je pense qu'il est un peu trop tard pour ca, Esme, marmonna Jasper. System? Apparemment, elle nous connait deja. Ils eclaterent tous de rire. Qu'est-ce que tu disais au sujet des loups-garous, Bella ? demanda Carlisle. J'echangeai un regard avec Edward. Issue? Il ne semblait pas vouloir se lancer dans une quelconque explication, donc je decidai de le faire. Les loups sont de retour. And Post? En tout cas, il y en a deja au moins un.
Son nom est Sam Uley. Issue Research? Apparemment, ils ont 24 pairs de chromosomes, et leur gene dormant est active par la presence de vampires. For Common Application? Donc, parce que vous etes a Forks, plusieurs jeunes hommes vont devenir des loups-garous. Issue Research Paper? Il pourrait y avoir jusqu'a 15 males et une femelle, mais ca n'arrivera que si Forks est attaque, c'est ce qui est arrive dans le futur de Stephenie Meyer. Personal? Heureusement, nous pouvons empecher cela. Hmmm, alors nous ferions mieux de consulter le Conseil des Anciens pour renegocier le traite.
C'est une situation malheureuse, reflechit Carlisle. Ben, Edward et moi avons quelque chose de prevu. Issue? L'un des ancien, Billy Black, est le meilleur ami de mon pere. 1 Essay Strategies? Son fils, Jacob Black, est le veritable Alpha de la meute, mais il n'est pas cense se transformer avant un an. Research? Ses deux meilleurs amis deviendront eux aussi des loups peu apres lui. Essay? Il ne croit pas aux legendes pour le moment. Issue Research? Il pense que son pere est superstitieux. Praxis Strategies? Donc, je pense que ce serait une bonne idee de les inviter lui et ses amis pour qu'ils apprennent a vous connaitre.
Quoi ? hurla Rosalie. Issue Research Paper? Tu veux qu'on invite les loups-garous chez nous ? Tu veux notre mort ? Non, bien sur que non. Strategies? Ils n'auront meme pas besoin de venir ici. Research Paper? Le probleme c'est qu'on leur a apprit que les vampires n'ont pas de sentiments, qu'ils ne sont pas vraiment des personnes. Imperialism Essay? D'apres le futur de Stephenie Meyer, les loups vous detestent jusqu'a ce qu'ils apprennent a vous connaitre. Research? Une fois qu'ils commencerent a vous voir comme des personnes, ils choisirent de nous aider a defendre notre famille. Dissertation Preface? Nous avons affronte une armee de nouveaux-nes, et ils ont tue onze des vingt-deux vampires. Issue Research Paper? Sans eux, nous n'aurions pas tous survecus. Praxis? De plus, plus tard, ils se tiendront a nos cotes face a la garde entiere des Volturi et aux trois freres.
Ils ont risque leurs vies pour nous proteger. Issue? S'ils ne nous avaient pas soutenus, nous aurions ete immediatement detruits. Praxis? Parce qu'ils etaient la, nous avons tous ete epargnes. Research Paper? Nous avons besoin d'avoir les loups de notre cote. Quand l'armee des nouveaux-nes arrive-t-elle ? demanda Jasper. Ben, normalement, ils ne viendront pas. Praxis 1 Essay? C'est le resultat d'une serie d'evenements. Research? Mais nous savons qui est a l'origine de l'armee et pourquoi, donc nous pouvons empecher le premier evenement d'arriver. Edward grogna bruyamment. Impressionism And Post? Bella, qu'est-il arrive a notre accord de ne pas tout raconter a la famille ? Ben, je suis sure qu'ils n'ont pas besoin de connaitre les moindres petits details, Edward, mais comment peuvent-ils nous aider a empecher tout ca s'ils ne savent pas ce qui va arriver ? Ils n'ont pas besoin de s'inquieter et d'angoisser sur des choses qui n'arriveront meme pas. Bien sur que non, mais si c'etait moi, j'aimerais savoir ce qui m'attend.
Au fait Alice, je viens de penser que tu aimerais peut-etre savoir que tu ne peux pas voir les loups-garous dans tes visions. Issue? Donc si les loups-garous sont impliques; tu ne pourras pas voir cette portion du futur. Quoi ? Pourquoi ? Alice n'etait pas contente. On ne sait pas vraiment, mais ta theorie est que tu peux voir les vampires parce que tu en es une et que tu peux voir les humains parce que tu en etais une, mais pas les hybrides parce que tu n'en as jamais ete une. India? En parlant d'hybrides, tu ne peux pas voir les hybrides mi-humain, mi-vampire non plus. Issue Paper? Ils y en a plusieurs en Amerique du Sud, a qui nous pourrions vouloir rendre visite l'annee prochaine.
Donc tu ne pourras pas voir notre enfant a Edward et moi. Bella ! cria Edward. Strategies? C'est l'une des choses que nous ne devions pas mentionner ! Ben, tu sais, c'est pas comme si on issue research, avait une liste ou quoi. Dissertation? Peut-etre que tu devrais me faire une liste des choses dont je ne suis pas supposee parler et me la donner, repliquai-je. Issue Paper? Ce n'est pas comme si j 'etais une telepathe ou quoi. Il eut la grace de paraitre gene. Pork? Le reste de la famille etait figee par le choc, nous fixant avec incredulite. Tu as fais l'amour avec elle alors qu'elle etait toujours humaine ? cria Jasper. Je ne peux pas voir le futur du bebe ? pleurnicha Alice. Wow ! Vas-y Edward ! l'encouragea Emmett. Vous allez avoir un bebe ? haleta Esme.
Le bebe est a moitie vampire ? questionna Rosalie. Je pense que c'est l'une des choses dont nous devrions avoir les details, fils, annonca Carlisle. Edward soupira a nouveau. Research? Okay, qu'est-ce que vous voulez savoir ? Et bien, j'avais l'impression qu'il etait impossible pour un vampire et une humaine de procreer ensemble. For Common Application? Donc je suis naturellement curieux de connaitre le processus entier. Issue Research? Comment avez-vous fait ? Et je suis aussi surpris que tu ais choisi de, umm, faire cela alors qu'elle etait encore humaine. Ouais, je sais, Edward lui lanca un regard noir. Praxis? Elle a failli mourir parce que tu ne savais rien a ce sujet. Je pense que Bella devrait nous expliquer, suggera Rose.
Elle est moins reservee qu'Edward. Le reste de la famille acquiescat, me fixant avec impatience. Paper? Je ne pus pas m'empecher de faire un sourire victorieux a Edward. Personal Essay For Common Application? Il renifla. Vas-y, Miss Bavarde, raconte leur tous les details. Okay, ben, Edward ne voulait pas me transformer. Issue Research? Il croyait que je finirais par l'oublier et que je vivrais une agreable vie d'humaine sans lui. Dissertation Preface Write? Il avait tort. Comment tu sais ca ? demanda Rose. Euh, c'est une longue histoire, et je suis sure que c'est l'une des choses qu'Edward ne veut pas que je mentionne, hesitais-je.
Fais nous un resume, suggera Rose. Issue Research Paper? Je commencai a secouer la tete, tout comme Edward. S'il te plait, Bella, commence par le debut et laisse nous tous etre au meme niveau. Barrel Term Paper? Toutes les choses que tu nous as raconte ne font qu'amener plus de questions. Research Paper? S'il te plait, peux-tu nous resumer les deux prochaines annees d'apres Stephenie Meyer, pour que nous puissions tous savoir a quoi nous attendre ? Au moins un resume partiel ? demanda polimment Carlisle.
Je ferais tout ce que me demanderait Carlisle. Write? Je jetais un rapide coup d'oeil a Edward qui hocha la tete. Research? Je pris une profonde inspiration. Of India? J'allais resumer plus de 2500 pages aussi brievement que possible. Issue Research? Je decidai de commencer par le match de baseball. Okay, trois nomades viennent. Dissertation Write? Laurent va a Denali ou il devient le compagnon d'Irina.
James est un traqueur qui me prend en chasse. Research? Sa compagne, Victoria, l'aide. Personal Essay Application? James manque de me tuer, donc Jasper et Emmett le tuent, pendant qu'Alice, Carlisle et Edward me sauvent. Paper? James m'avait mordu, mais Edward aspira le venin pour me laisser humaine. Application? Edward decide de me quitter parce qu'il pense que c'est trop dangereux pour moi d'etre avec lui. Paper? Il me dit qu'il ne m'aime pas et vous partez tous sans meme me dire au revoir.
Edward interdit a Alice de surveiller mon avenir et vous promettez tous de ne plus m'approcher. Political Of India Essay? Je suis catatonique pendant les quelques semaines suivantes puis je deviens un zombie pendant les quelques mois suivants. Paper? Je commence a trainer avec Jacob Black. Dissertation Preface? Il se transforme en loup-garou. Research Paper? Je commence a faire des chose stupides parce que je suis suicidaire. Paper? Pendant ce temps, Edward est cache dans un grenier, en Amerique du Sud, completement depressif.
Je vais dans les bois. Issue Research Paper? Laurent me trouve alors qu'il chasse et veut me manger. Imperialism? Les loups-garous le tuent. Issue Research Paper? Victoria continue d'essayer de m'attraper pour me torturer et me tuer afin de venger la mort de James. Dbq 17 Imperialism India Essay? Je passe la plupart de mon temps a La Push pour que les loups puissent me proteger. Issue? Je saute d'une falaise pendant un jour de tempete. Dissertation? Alice me voit tomber dans l'eau mais ne me voit pas en ressortir.
Elle suppose que je suis morte et vient a Forks. Issue Research? Jacob me sauve de la noyade. Personal For Common Application? Rose dit a Edward que je me suis suicidee, donc il demande aux Volturi de le tuer. Research? Ils refusent. Of India Essay? Il decide de les forcer a le tuer. Paper? Alice et moi allons a Volterra pour le sauver.
On y arrive, mais nous sommes emmenes devant Aro. Barrel Paper? Aro veut que nous rejoignions tous les trois la garde. Issue Research Paper? Nous refusons. Dissertation Write? Ils nous laissent partir et nous rentrons a la maison. Et tu es toujours humaine a ce moment la ? me demanda Jasper, incredule. Research Paper? J'hochai la tete. Barrel Term Paper? Tu te retrouves devant les Volturi, connaissant la verite sur notre existence, et ils te laissent partir ? J'hochai a nouveau la tete. Oui, avec la promesse d'Alice que je serais bientot transformee. Issue Paper? Edward refuse de me transformer. Impressionism And Post Impressionism Essay? Carlisle propose de le faire apres mon bac.
Edward dit qu'il le fera si j'accepte de l'epouser. Issue Research Paper? J'accepte a condition que l'on soit, umm, intime avant que je sois transformee, Je commencai a rougir en baissant les yeux. Impressionism? Je craignai d'avoir a attendre une annee entiere avant que l'on ne puisse faire quoi que ce soit. Issue? Enfin bref, il accepte. Barrel Term? Victoria cree une armee de nouveaux-nes. Issue Research? Ils viennent ici.
Les loups nous aident a les combattre. Pork Term? Tous les nouveaux-nes sont tues. Paper? Edward tue Victoria. And Post Impressionism? Quelques membres de la garde des Volturi viennent. Issue Paper? Ils ne voient pas les loups. Dissertation Write? Ils ne sont pas contents de voir qu'on a tous survecus et que je suis toujours humaine.
Edward et moi, nous nous marrions. Research? Je tombe enceinte durant notre nuit de noce. Impressionism And Post Impressionism Essay? Edward panique. Issue Research? Nous rentrons. Dissertation Preface Write? Edward veut que j'avorte. Research Paper? Je demande a Rose de m'aider a proteger le bebe. Impressionism And Post Impressionism Essay? Le bebe et moi agonisons jusqu'a ce que nous comprenions que j'ai besoin de boire du sang. Issue Research? Carlisle part chercher plus de sang. Pork Barrel Term? Le placenta se dechire. Issue Research Paper? Edward me fait une cesarienne d'urgence et met le bebe au monde.
Il la donne a Rose. Imperialism Essay? Mon coeur s'arrete. Paper? Jacob me fait un massage cardiaque pour faire circuler le venin dans mon sang pendant qu'Edward me fais mes points de suture. 1 Essay? Je me transforme, et echappe pratiquement a toute la phase du nouveau-ne. Paper? Notre fille est parfaite. Term? Jacob s'en est impregnee. Issue? Elle a un don, prefere le sang a la nourriture humaine, a les capacites normales des vampires mais son coeur bat et elle a les yeux marrons. Praxis 1 Essay? Sa peau est chaude et elle grandit tres vite. Issue Paper? Irina la voit et dit aux Volturi qu'elle est une enfant immortelle. India Essay? Ils viennent pour tous nous tuer. Issue Paper? Nous appellons nos amis pour nous soutenir, mais les loups sont ceux qui les arretent suffisament longtemps pour qu'on puisse leur expliquer.
Alice trouve Nahuel en Amerique du Sud et le ramene pour qu'il temoigne. Impressionism And Post Impressionism Essay? Lui et ses soeur sont des hybrides mi-humain, mi-vampire. Issue Research Paper? Ils atteignent leur maturite en sept ans, puis vivent pour toujours comme les vampires. Political System? Les Volturi repartent, nos amis repartent, nous sommes amis avec les loups-garous, mon pere sait que nous sommes differents mais ne veut connaitre aucun details, il veut juste connaitre sa petite fille. Issue? Fini.
Okay, voila qui resume environ 2500 pages. And Post Impressionism? Oh, sauf que je n'ai pas mentionne que je suis la Chanteuse d'Edward. Issue Research Paper? Mon sang est cent fois plus attirant pour lui que pour n'importe qui d'autre, donc il combat continuellement l'envie de me tuer, mais il finira par arriver a surmonter cela. Ils etaient tous entrain de me fixer. Political Essay? Hey, je pensai avoir fait du bon boulot en resumant deux ans en cinq minutes. Issue Research Paper? J'avais deliberemment laisse de cote le fait que Jasper m'avait attaque le jour de mon anniversaire, sachant que cela ne ferait que blesser ses sentiments. Jasper se tourna pour regarder Edward.
L'autre nuit, quand tu etais dechaine, c'est parce que tu l'avais sentis ? Edward eut l'air honteux. Essay? Um, en fait, je voulais voir si la theorie du livre etait reelle, donc j'ai ete chez elle. Issue Research Paper? Je savais d'apres les livres que je reagirais tres mal la premiere fois que je sentirais son odeur, donc j'ai a peine entrouvert la porte de la voiture dans laquelle elle etait venue de l'aeroport. Personal For Common Application? Meme si elle remontait a la veille, son odeur fut suffisante pour m'affecter a ce point. Alors comment peux tu t'asseoir si pres d'elle maintenant ? Je savais d'apres les livres que j'apprendrais a ignorer son odeur de la meme maniere que Carlisle si je m'entraine, donc j'ai prit un vetement a elle et je l'ai sentis pendant des heures pour me forcer a ignorer la brulure. Paper? Je sais que ca a l'air bizarre et inquietant mais au moins elle comprend. Impressionism And Post Essay? Ca me rappelle d'ailleurs. Research? Bella a une theorie, et j'aimerais faire un essai pour voir si c'est exact. 1 Essay? Emmett, Carlisle pourriez-vous retenir Jasper pour moi ? Jasper eut l'air offense mais se laissa retenir. Research? Edward appuya son nez contre mon cou et inspira profondement, autorisant son esprit a reconnaitre a quel point mon sang lui donnait soif. System Essay? Jasper commenca immediatement a grogner et a gronder, en essayant de m'attaquer.
Edward arreta rapidement de respirer et se reconcentra. Issue? Les femmes se placerent devant moi alors que Carlisle et Emmett repoussait Jasper sur le canape. Tout le monde, projetez votre amour vers Jasper, faites-le lui sentir, criai-je. Write? Pas de colere ou de deception, juste de l'amour. Issue Paper? Je vis leurs corps se detendre et leurs expressions changer. And Post Impressionism? Alice s'approcha de lui et mis ses mains sur son visage avant de plonger son regard dans celui de son compagnon. Research? Jasper reprit rapidement ses esprits. Personal Essay Application? Il me regarda avec horreur puis baissa la tete de honte. Issue? Je suis desole, tellement desole.
Je ne sais pas ce qui m'a prit. Moi je sais, admit tristement Edward. Dbq 17 Imperialism Essay? C'etait ma faute, Jasper releva la tete, surpris. Toutes ces fois ou nous t'avons donne l'impression que tu etais le maillon faible. Research Paper? Nous t'avons vu lutter contre ta soif plus que nous, et nous t'avons excuse en disant que c'etait parce que tu etais celui qui nous avait rejoint en dernier et parce que tu avais bu du sang humain pendant plus longtemps que nous, expliqua Edward. Dissertation Preface? La verite c'est que tu es l'un des plus forts. Research? C'est nous qui te rabaissons. Dbq 17 Imperialism India Essay? Tu ne luttes pas juste avec ta propre soif, tu luttes contre notre soif a tous les sept.
Je viens de le prouver. Research Paper? Tu allais parfaitement bien jusqu'a ce je m'autorise a ressentir ma soif pour le sang de Bella. Impressionism Essay? Tu reagissais a ma soif, pas a la tienne. Je serrai la main d'Edward et souris a Jasper. Issue Paper? Il regardait Edward d'un air abasourdi, essayant de comprendre et de realiser la revelation d'Edward.
La famille entiere commenca a regarder Jasper differemment. Je n'arrive pas a croire qu'on ait vecut avec toi pendant toutes ces decennies et que l'on ait jamais realise cela. Personal Application? Bella est celle qui a comprit. Issue Research? Chaque fois que l'un d'entre nous attendait trop longtemps avant de chasser, c'etait encore plus dur pour Jasper de maintenir son controle. Of India Essay? Chaque fois que l'un d'entre nous lutte, il lutte plus.
Je suis desole, Jasper. Research Paper? Je suis desole pour toutes les fois ou j'ai rendu les choses plus dures pour toi, et je suis desole de t'avoir juge en fonction de tes difficultes, en me considerant meilleur que toi. Essay? S'il te plait pardonne moi, Jasper, pour tout cela et pour t'avoir fait douter de toi-meme, le supplia Edward. Issue Research Paper? Jasper se precipita vers nous et nous etreignit tous les deux. Political Essay? Nous repondimes a son etreinte. Research Paper? Puis il se recula, souriant joyeusement.
Bien sur que je te pardonne, Edward. Dbq 17 Imperialism? Merci, Bella. Issue Research? Je ne peux pas te dire a quel point ca compte pour moi. Pork Barrel? Edward et moi pouvons nous entrainer ensemble, pour que nous puissions tous les deux devenir plus fort. Issue Research? Je n'ai jamais voulu te blesser. Dbq 17 India Essay? Maintenant que nous savons, je pense que toute notre famille pourra chasser un peu plus souvent pour nous assurer qu'aucun de nous ne sera jamais trop assoiffe lorsque tu seras la, offrit-il.
Le reste de la famille acquiesca, murmurant des excuses a Jasper et promettant de lui faciliter la vie. Comme d'hab, un teaser si vous me le demandez ! Commencez a etre rodes non ? J'vais arreter de vous le rappeler alors ! Prochain chapitre : Gerer Papa. Vous voulez la suite ? Moi, je veux des reviews. Issue Research Paper? Vous savez ce qu'il vous reste a faire !
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Research Paper Publishing - IJSER, Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2017
2 more reasons why Eric Metaxas#8217;s #8220;science proves God#8221; approach falters. The title concerned me a bit. Issue Paper! Metaxas is a bright guy, and I was hoping the piece wouldn#8217;t add to the mountain of poorly conceived Christian apologetics about proving God#8217;s existence. It seems, though, this Metaxas has fallen into political system that very rut, and I really wish he hadn#8217;t. There are a lot of thoughtful Christian theologians (and others religious thinkers) and scientists out there who have thought deeply about this issue and are working hard to issue, turn the conversation away from dissertation preface write, such an approach.
High profile pieces like this one only turn the clock back. Rabbi Geoffrey A. Issue! Mitelman gives us two of the reasons for why the approach Metaxas adopts is dead in the water: (1) Science is pork barrel paper, always changing. The science upon which things like the #8220;fine-tuned universe#8221; argument for God rests, which Metaxas uses, can easily change, and consequently so would the #8220;proof#8221; of God need to research, change along with it. (2) Science and faith are two ways of knowing . God#8217;s existence is not amenable to the scientific method. (See also here for personal essay for common a rebuttal.) I agree on both of Mitelman#8217;s points, and research paper I#8217;d like to add a little bit to the second. It strikes me that the #8220;science proves God#8217;s existence#8221; argument falters on two related points. First is the 1 essay, notion that our theologyspecifically, our understanding of Godis our sure starting point for deliberating about the relationship between science and faith.
As I argue at issue paper, some length with respect to Christianity and evolution in The Evolution of Adam , we should not assume that how we think about political system God is the unmovable and firm starting point for further deliberations . It may be, in research fact, that pushing the boundaries of our understanding of physical reality might actually affect the kind of God we understand ourselves to be proving. For example, Psalm 19 tell us, #8220;The heavens are declaring the glory of God; and the firmament proclaims his handiwork.#8221; When this was written in Iron Age Israel, the heavenly bodies were understood as fixed by God in the heavens to run their circuits around the earth. The ancient#8217;s looked up and dissertation preface praised God for ordering the cosmos. In principle, we can utter the same note of issue paper praise today, but not in the same way. Personal Essay! We conceive of the universe quite differently and that certainly affects how we conceive of God. Science doesn#8217;t prove or disprove God. For people of faith, it does, however, stretch us beyond our familiar ways of thinking of God. How we think of God is not our unassailable starting point. It may be the paper, very think that needs to change. Second, and related to the first point, what stands behind the #8220;science proves God#8221; mindsetat least those I have come acrossis the notion, however unintentional, that God is a #8220;thing,#8221; a #8220;being,#8221; that can stand under scientific scrutiny.
When you get down to it, large strands of the Christian tradition (I would say most) do not think of God as a being alongside other beings, just bigger and and post impressionism betterlike the Greek and issue research Roman gods were just bigger versions of humans (and with bigger hangups). God is not a #8220;being#8221; whose #8220;existence#8221; can be pointed out here or there. God is being, the ground of dissertation preface being, that by which all being, all existence, is made possible. That is the claim of the Christian faith and to fall short of research that claim is to sell this God short. Now, of course, all our language of personal application God is metaphorical. Research Paper! We speak of God as a bigger version of ourselvesthe Bible even speaks this way. This is a God who: sits on a throne with his feet resting on the earth; fights battles; has a thought process where he deliberates; is a #8220;he#8221;; a king; a parent, etc. Our language of system of india God is metaphorical because we are human beings and not God, and I believe by faith that God is fine with thatas long as we do not claim that our language exhausts God as being.
I don#8217;t mean to sound unnecessarily abstract, and I#8217;m continuing to work out in my own mind exactly how I want to express myself on this. Issue Research Paper! But my basic point here is that thinking that science can prove or disprove God begins with a notion of God where our metaphors are confused for the real thing. Both God and the Christian faith deserve better. Bottom line, as I see it: God#8217;s #8220;existence#8221; (pardon the metaphorical language) and consequently knowing this God are not proven or disproven by the amazing advances in 1 essay strategies recent generations concerning our knowledge of the physical universeeven if those advances challenge how we think of research God and political essay speak of God. God is not at stake. Our metaphors are. Metaxas#8217; op-ed is issue research paper, embarrassing, to be honest. Pork Barrel Term! He doesn#8217;t even really bother grappling with the well known scientific rebuttals to the fine-tuning fallacy. Metaxas#8217; pattern of overreaching and issue research paper feeding red meat to self-satisfied evangelicals is grating.
I felt that way about his Bonhoeffer biography as well. It just glosses over any counter-factuals which might cast Bonhoeffer as something other than a conservative evangelical which he so obviously was not. Whenever I read anything by Metaxas I always get the feeling that everything is much more complicated than the way he#8217;s serving it up, but he knows that his audience will have no problem uncritically swallowing it. It#8217;s interesting to for common, consider that many people of faith have no problem acknowledging that God#8217;s existence/nonexistence is not contingent on scientific evidence. . . while others feel the pressing need to quote-mine scientists to research paper, give the dissertation write, impression that science confirms their specific view of God. Which is the more confident form of faith? #8220;well known scientific rebuttals#8221; Do you mean the delusional Multiverses that also need a Fine Tuning and also need a beginning or the research paper, anthropic principle which doesn#8217;t really answer the question if the Universe is fine tuned due to chance necessity or design. Strategies! Scientists can only model what natural processes might bring the universe into existence (and they don#8217;t limit that search to just #8220;one#8221; cause either) but they cannot postulate supernatural claims. If they did invoke them, they could just say #8220;that#8217;s magic#8221; to every phenomenon, because many things are amazingly intricate and *appear* to issue research, be designed just for us, at first glance. Even if the essay for common application, scientific answer is #8220;we don#8217;t know but we have some mathematically based possibilities,#8221; the complete answer is not a default: #8220;God did it.#8221; That doesn#8217;t mean those scientific concepts are all going to be correct.
But a so called fine-tuned universe does not prove what Metaxas thinks it does. Whenever you apply probability laws to past events, you#8217;re going to get an issue paper extremely unlikely set of occurences. We only imperialism essay, have one universe we can observe and experiment with; we have scant clues as to what might be outside of it. In light of issue paper that, most scientists are humble about imperialism india our knowledge in research this area. Contrast this with Metaxas, who thinks the scientific data rubberstamps his position, which assumes all manner of strategies things he doesn#8217;t do any work to research paper, support. And even if the fine tuning argument somehow worked to personal application, prove some kind of Mind(s) behind the universe, it doesn#8217;t actually prove specific theistic models.
For that you need faith. Paper! There#8217;s no way around that. I#8217;m not saying faith is imperialism, bad I#8217;m saying it can#8217;t be proven scientifically. By the way, you#8217;ll notice when scientists talk about multiverses they cage that language in research #8220;mays#8221; and #8220;mights#8221; it would be delusional if they dogmatically believed in Multiverses, created organizations specifically to defend Multiverses and attack opponents, and wrote articles suggesting all evidence pointed to political system of india essay, Multiverses while ignoring all counter-arguments and reasons why it is a hypothetical not fact. Now, why does that sound familiar? Who does that sound like? Metaxas is to science what Barton is to history. And Metaxas is to history what Ken Ham is to science.
At least he#8217;s consistent. These almost mirror my thoughts exactly when I read the issue, piece. You shoot and score again my friend. As long as we define God as the being from whom the natural order of the cosmos sprung then he is and dissertation preface write always be beyond the issue research paper, reach of impressionism and post impressionism scientific proof, either for or against. Issue Research Paper! Science can only prove or disprove things that follow the known laws of the universe. Any being capable of establishing those laws themselves must be beyond those laws, and therefore unknowable by science.
Does Eric use the words #8220;science proves God?#8221; I#8217;m too cheap to subscribe and 1 essay strategies find out. The title itself gives a different slant that should be of interest to inquiring minds. I don#8217;t like the flavor of the Rabbi#8217;s second point. Issue Research Paper! There is certainly a profound relation between faith and dbq 17 imperialism essay sciencewell worth exploringunless the God of Judeo-Christian revelation is not Creator and the bodily resurrection of Christ is research, of no historical (scientific) concern to us. Impressionism Essay! Science communicators are seldom shy about drawing metaphysical and theological conclusions from the literature. Why should Metaxas, also a #8220;science guy#8221; of sorts, remain silent? I agree that the case for God should not be based upon particular bits of scientific theory. However, the mainstream Christian tradition is that God#8217;s existence and nature to a certain extent CAN be known by reflection on the observable world. For example, the claim that #8220;God is being, the ground of issue research paper being, that by which all being, all existence, is made possible#8221; is the conclusion of the cosmological argument whose starting premiss is the existence of contingent objects.
Further reflection upon pork term paper, the idea of the necessary ground of being reveals that this ground must be infinite, immutable, eternal, perfect and intellective. Issue Paper! These are things we can know about God apart from dbq 17 imperialism, any putative divine revelation (such as the Bible), and apart from any particular deliverances of science. For further details see Edward Feser, Aquinas, chapter 3, or Norman Kretzmann#8217;s magisterial The Metaphysics of Theism. Well Said, Tristan Marks! If our idea of science can encompass our idea of issue God, then our God is too small! How does changing our understanding of the universe change our understanding of God? In your example, a new, more scientific view of the cosmos doesn#8217;t change what we know of the 1 essay strategies, person of God, only of his works. I think this is true for anything science can tell us.
I agree with your second point. If you have time, chapter 1 of The Unintended Reformation by paper, Brad S. Gregory extensively explores the origins of the idea of metaphysical univocity (the belief that God is a #8220;being#8221; somehow analogous to us existing on the same place) in Christian thought. Newton famously thought that God would have to send a comet through the solar system everyone once in a while to keep it working properly. Leibniz famously responded that such belief in of india God is irrational and detracts from his perfection. Issue Research Paper! One could call Newton#8217;s idea #8216;irrational#8217;, perhaps deus ex machina . I would argue, along with Kenneth Pearce#8217;s interpretation of Leibniz at Leibniz#8217;s theistic case against praxis 1 essay strategies, Humean miracles, that a Christian ought to think of God as supremely rational. He#8217;s orderly , and the idea of research needing comets to balance out the solar system is more frenetic. Taking things back to earth, I think one#8217;s conception of dissertation God being more irrational or less irrational impacts how one views more mundane matters. Does God frequently enact miracles to aid your day, or does he act more systematically? One can look at issue research, the OT and preface write find that despite all of God#8217;s #8220;divine interactions#8221;, he relies on humans to do much of the issue, #8216;work#8217;. Perhaps God expects the same of preface write us, today. Perhaps he expects us to do a lot more, whereas we are expecting him to do a lot more.
When I find people who expect God to do most of the heavy lifting, they seem to want him to issue, do it in an irrational way—because I think only irrational ways are available that have God doing most of the work and us doing virtually none. They want comets. I don#8217;t think God sends comets. Indeed, especially after the New Covenant, I think he wants to act through us . Impressionism And Post Essay! Metaxas is foolish if he thinks science can give clear proof for issue research paper God. And based on what little I can see of his article he is foolish in other ways, like endorsing the ID movement. It is ironic that many fine-tuning arguments relate to the universe and Earth being suited for and post the evolution of life, when many who make those arguments are aligned with those who deny evolution. That said, as we reject this work from a notorious culture warrior, let#8217;s not throw the baby out with the research paper, bathwater by dismissing completely the idea of cosmic fine-tuning as a consideration (not a proof) in strategies theological thinking. There is research, sound science behind some fine-tuning observations (along with some much more tenuous science like speculations about the possible multiverse). Is this anything resembling proof of God?
No. But it is at impressionism and post impressionism, least consistent with theism, and that#8217;s not insignificant. Of course we should not make fine-tuning foundational to our theology. But I think there can be room for a humble natural theology that sees this as a secondary reinforcement of theism. Something that does get the research paper, science right, like Karl Giberson#8217;s book The Wonder of the Universe: Hints of personal God in our Fine-Tuned World (note he says #8220;hints#8221; and not #8220;proof#8221;). Other good thinkers who have written along these lines include Alister McGrath, Simon Conway Morris, and John Polkinghorne. don#8217;t look now, but you are channeling David Bentley Hart. Research! Sorry for double-commenting, but I think Rabbi Mitelman#8217;s points both need some pushback. 1) Science is always changing. That#8217;s a line I expect from evolution deniers, or climate-change deniers. It typically is an excuse to imperialism india essay, avoid dealing with science you don#8217;t like or find inconvenient. While it is trivially true in a sense, a large fraction of science is not going to change significantly.
The Earth is billions (not thousands) of years old, and revolves around the issue research, Sun rather than the other way around, and no amount of painting science as #8220;always changing#8221; is going to alter those results. The bits that do change (for physical sciences; medicine and social sciences are different) are almost always those at the speculative edge of knowledge. Political System! Now, some fine-tuning arguments are at issue research, that edge, and might well change. If Mitelman had said (with appropriate scientific backing) that the political system essay, specific science in Metaxas#8217; article was tenuous and might change, I#8217;d respect that argument. Research Paper! But to make a blanket appeal to political of india essay, #8220;always changing#8221; science to dismiss the actual argument without dealing with it is the same thing many evolution or climate-change deniers do.
It#8217;s a bad argument there, and research paper a bad argument here. Pork Barrel Paper! 2) Science and faith are two [unconnected?] ways of issue research knowing. This sounds like SJ Gould#8217;s #8220;Non-overlapping magisteria#8221; where science has total say over the physical world and faith is relegated to preface write, some secondary and not-quite-real arena of values. It reminds me of the Enlightenment#8217;s total split between #8220;facts#8221; and #8220;values#8221;. But if we believe in a God who created the physical universe and in some way interacts with it, this absolute split won#8217;t do. Properties of the paper, creation and events within it can#8217;t be categorically dismissed as unable to have any bearing on our thinking about God. If, for example, science tells me that a man is dead, and 3 days later tells me that the same man is dissertation preface write, alive, that could be a significant input to my theology. To choose another example that Pete will find familiar, science can affect our thinking about God by helping us in #8220;genre calibration#8221; of Biblical literature. I agree that it is a mistake to make any science the foundation of our theology, or to issue research paper, expect that it must answer our questions about God. But Mitelman goes too far when he seems to say that data from our physical senses (which is ultimately what science is) cannot possibly inform our view of God. That may be the case for the god of paper deism, but not for the Christian God who is immanent and who participated in the physical world through Jesus.
I think your pushback on Mitelman#8217;s second point is well taken. If he is right then Francis Collins should never have published a book with the title #8220;The Language of issue God.#8221; (I have read the book and liked it, so I recognize that Collins does not go anywhere near as far as Metaxas in his claims, but I can#8217;t help but think that if Mitelman were reviewing that work he would make the impressionism impressionism, same critique). Paper! Dare I evoke Lewis one more time, but I think there was great wisdom in his analogy of looking to try to find Shakespeare by reading Hamlet he points out that, in dbq 17 one very real sense, you#8217;ll never #8220;find#8221; Shakespeare as a discreet character or person in the play. Issue Research Paper! However, he also points out that, if you know what you#8217;re looking for, you can #8220;find Shakespeare#8221; in a different sense on every single page. Very well put! Although I agree that any effort to use science to #8220;prove#8221; God is an ill-considered venture, so is ruling out science#8217;s impact on theology or apologetics out of hand.
I have not read the Metaxas article, so I can#8217;t say much on that side, but this response seems to lack some balance, or at least, it seems to be based on the unproven premise that science will never be an appropriate way to corroborate belief in God. Maybe it isn#8217;t appropriate and maybe there will always be counter-arguments to every Theist-friendly interpretation of scientific findings (likely true), but I#8217;ve seen NOMA being dismantled far more than I#8217;ve seen it being argued, so it doesn#8217;t seem obviously true that something like what Metaxas is doing is and post impressionism essay, a bad idea to begin with. Maybe someone can enlighten me with what seems to be obvious to most of the commentators here? it would be nice if the next time you link to issue paper, an article you would provide a link that gets your reader to the article instead of praxis 1 essay some one paragraph demand to subscribe to issue, a newspaper. some of us are not adept at essay, internet gymnastics to be able to make the needed connections to some other news source that printed the whole article so it could actually be read. Issue Paper! There was a link to the article on the Biologos Facebook page that was free when I tried it several days ago. #8220;Universes!?#8221; From an OT scholar?? Did not see that coming. Ha. I meant singular#8230;although, who knows.
Only God and impressionism essay Eric for sure, and research God#8217;s not saying. #8220;And I have other sheep that are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and pork paper they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd.#8221;—who knows, indeed. :-p Oh, and Eph 1:7–10, especially v10. Paper! I agree with Peter Enns. The tools of old school apologetics, concerning proving God’s existence needs to be taken in a different direction.
The old theistic. arguments were based on categories of metaphysics of Greek philosophy, specifically Aristotelian philosophy. These arguments. later were developed on dissertation preface, medieval understanding of God and were never intended. to stand the test of research time. Impressionism And Post Impressionism! The authors of these arguments never consulted science, instead consulted religious philosophy and were designed to rebut philosophical conclusions made by agnostics and atheists such as Hume, Kant…) Furthermore, the development of research new arguments and an improvement of past arguments for God’s existence were developed by filtering scientific conclusions through a contemporary theistic paradigm (the unmoved mover). The problem is not that science is always changing, but our agreement on the meaning of these scientific conclusions and dissertation philosophy of issue research science behind those conclusions is always changing. According to Thomas Kuhn, our temporal understanding of science goes through revolutions (radical changes) that even forces science to change its categories from time to time. So how we construct arguments for existence of God if we can’t agree on what certain scientific data means in light of our own worldviews? In other words, what scientific bias do I adopt? Plus, some of the india essay, old metaphors such as perfection and immutability I believe require some. restructuring too. The conservatives are still stuck answering assumption of the enlightenment by reassuring their followers that the research paper, enlightenment categories are still relevant. Maybe what needs to change is the way we. think about God altogether as object instead of subject?
Like the Psalmists said, “How precious to me are your thoughts, O God! How vast is the sum of them! (Psa 139:17 NIV)” Also what I think needs to change is philosophical. Personal Essay For Common Application! assumptions behind old school apologetics such as philosophy of issue paper rationalism and. Kant wasn#8217;t agnostic or atheist, he was a devout Lutheran. In The Moral Gap, John Hare briefly discusses the fact that many treat Kant#8217;s philosophy as if he were an atheist, and how much this distorts one#8217;s reading of it. Luke thanks for your reply, I#8217;ve never read that book, but sounds like an dbq 17 essay interesting read, it might be the next book I read. Peter hardy, thank you for issue research paper making that correction about write him being. Lutheran. In my post, I was referring to his epistemology, specifically. his conclusions about metaphysics and to research, his response after he read Hume.
Kant believed in God but did not develop those arguments in order to prove God#8217;s existence. on personal essay, the contrary, he believed that God existed, but that God could not be known through reason or experience alone since God dwells beyond human reason or experience. I believe his writings, specifically Kant#8217;s Prolegomena to issue paper, #8220;Any Future Metaphysics#8221; and #8220;critique of political of india essay pure reason#8221; support this conclusion. This is why I labeled him an agnostic or atheists. This is my second time posting I posted a comment, rather lengthy one. I wanted to paper, know why it got booted, was it because of the comment or did it not reach you? if it reached you then apologize for write anything I said in the comment.
It just takes me a few hours to paper, moderate comments sometimes. Science connects with Christian faith when Christian faith is dbq 17 imperialism india, already present. The two are coherent. Issue Research! It may not be the case that science leads to faith, but faith certainly leads to science. We expect a rational universe operating according to praxis 1 essay strategies, predictable laws and principles precisely because we affirm the one creator God and issue research paper not the human-like gods of the pagans. Ah, I should have reserved comment until reading Eric#8217;s article. It seems to be an attempt to reach out on a popular leveltoo triumphalist, as you note. Read John Polkinghorne (among others, see comment below) for coverage of similar ground yet more convincingly and with elegance.
JP is both scientist and theologian who wrestles well with the relation between #8220;the two ways of knowing.#8221; One of the good things about living in the UK is that the above quoted article (which I can#8217;t access) totally passed me by at the time (as did the essay, associated rebuttals). Thankfully leaving me to catch up with it now that I have reached some level of sobriety. It#8217;s a good point for Pete to raise, and I agree strongly that this sort of statement be treated very cautiously, but I would have some reservations possibly about Rabbi Mitelman#8217;s response, particularly as I don#8217;t think there is quite such a strong difference and imiscibility between #8220;science#8221; and #8220;religion#8221;. I think there is still some merit in the kind of issue paper point being raised by Eric Metaxas, such as that there is no cut and praxis dried case that #8220;science#8221; has disproved God, and issue paper maybe some of write #8220;science#8217;s#8221; findings (if not all of them) are actually totally compatible with the existence of God. Though I don#8217;t know if the research, pursuit of #8220;science#8221; will actually bring any convincing proofs of God#8217;s existence, or otherwise. The main point I think being missed by everybody is actually the preface write, non-existence of #8220;science#8221;, which may be more shocking to some than the paper, existence or otherwise of and post God. There is no thing such as #8220;Science#8221;, some kind of monolithic all knowing infallible edifice, which will discover, prove or show what is paper, or isn#8217;t. There#8217;s a fair number of people using the dissertation write, scientific method to explore all sorts of things, many doing it well and some absolute charlatans, often coming up with grand speculations as to what may or may not be, along with all sorts of other useful and profound things. However they tend to explore and discuss what is popular, or funded, occasionally what they find intriguing or important.
It is issue paper, just a human activity, often very similar to the human activity of theology, philosophy or Baseball statistics. Political Of India! Some #8220;scientists#8221; believe that #8220;religious believers#8221; are just credulous and should be sceptical of their beliefs and this will bring change. Scepticism is (or should be) an important aspect of the scientific method and applied equally to #8220;scientific#8221; claims as to paper, #8220;religious#8221; ones. To my mind this is far from always the case. So maybe instead of making claims on the certainty of God#8217;s existence or otherwise, all sides should maybe spend more time thinking in Socrates#8217; terms (if I#8217;ve got him right on this one) that #8220;What I do not know I do not think I know#8221;.
I appreciate the basic merit in Metaxas#8217; article as well the basic point is rather interesting#8230;. but I fear I agree with Peter that he takes it a bit too far as using it as an apologetic foundation I would not want to base #8220;proof#8221; of impressionism essay God#8217;s being on such foundations. James below calls it #8220;too triumphalist,#8221; and I concur. I think I would be far more satisfied with the article if merely the title was less #8220;triumphalist#8221; and a bit more qualified: something like #8220;Scientific discoveries increasingly found consistent with theistic view#8221; or even #8220;#8230;increasingly found inconsistent with atheism/materialism/naturalism.#8221; again to borrow from Lewis: #8220;We must be very cautious of snatching at any scientific theory which, for the moment, seems to be in issue paper our favour. We may *mention* [his emphasis] such things; but we must mention them lightly and without claiming that they are more than #8216;interesting.'#8221; You should read Gutierrez#8217;s commentary on and post essay, Job, if you haven#8217;t. He gets at all of this stuff in a way that I think would be very helpful. Research Paper! I read a few reviews on political system essay, Amazon and issue research the book sounds pretty neat; I#8217;ve yet to get into dissertation liberation theology. Would you be willing to say a bit more? Richard Beck, always fascinating, has some discussion of the book: Being an inveterate disciple of C.S. Lewis, the discussion reminds me of two observations of his that reflect Mitelman#8217;s two thoughts and research your additional observations: #8220;Sentences beginning #8216;Science has now proved#8217; should be avoided. If we try to base our apologetic on some recent development in science, we shall usually find that just as we have put the finishing touches to our argument science has withdrawn the theory we have been using as our foundation stone.#8221; (From #8220;Christian Apologetics#8221;) #8220;Looking for God#8230;by exploring space is like reading or seeing all Shakespeare#8217;s plays in impressionism essay the hope that you will find Shakespeare as one of the characters or Stratford as one of the places#8230;.If God creted the universe, He created space-time#8230;. To look for issue paper him as one item within the framework which He himself invented is nonsensical.
If Godsuch a God as any adult religion believes inexists, mere movement in space will never bring you any nearer to Him or any farther from Him than you are at paper, this very moment. You can neither reach him nor avoid Him by travelling to Alpha Centauri or even to research paper, other galaxies.#8221; (From #8220;The Seeing Eye#8221;) Does Metaxes anywhere say that Science proves God#8217;s existence? Or did he only say that Science suggests heavily that the universe was designed for life? “The odds of life existing on another planet grow. ever longer. Intelligent design, anyone?” Even though Krauss rebuts that the odds are in fact getting better, I#8217;ll run with Eric for dissertation write a moment. With there being billions and billions of galaxies, and there being billions to trillions of stars in issue research each one of those galaxies, and each one of those stars potentially having planets, sounds more like a very poor success rate for the design. ON the contrary, it takes a certain arrogance to attempt to decipher the intent of an artist, and then criticize Him for NOT doing it in a way YOU approve of. Throw in a tad of ignorance as well . India Essay! . Issue Paper! . My approval of reality has little bearing on it. And the math adds up: trillions upon trillions to one. Following the art theme, artists DO want you to decipher their work and intent: it is their attempt to convey something.
My advice, you should leave metaphors to personal application, the pros: you are not very good at it. NDT does a great talk on how the fragile Pale Blue Dot and it#8217;s denizens are poorly designed indicating an research paper incompetent Creator, should one exist. Great post, thanks Pete. One doesn#8217;t need to subscribe to any simplistic notion of proof or any metaphysics of the univocity of being in order to maintain that natural science can provide some confirmation and support (as well as falsification) for some theological claims. Here is an excellent summary of pork term paper six ways that science and issue research theology intersect and interact: http://www.reasonablefaith.org/what-is-the-relation-between-science-and-religion. WLC#8217;s arguments are always so chock-full of imperialism india logical fallacies I almost choke on them when I read his work . Issue Research! . Dbq 17 Imperialism India Essay! . Interesting how those same fallacies are trotted around in this thread without the barest recognition by the writer. Dear Peter, I don#8217;t know who you are or even if you are a born again believer but the research paper, Apostle Paul clearly states in personal for common application Romans 1:20 that the natural world #8220;things that are made#8221; demonstrate or #8220;prove#8221; the existence of God. so that all men are without excuse in their unbelief of his existence.
While I would agree that Christians can#8217;t point to Scientific theory and say #8220;look this proves God#8217;s existence#8221; because as you stated theories could in the future be proven wrong or change. We Christians can point to scientific FACT and say #8220;this demonstrates His Eternal power#8221; Trying to argue for the existence of God by quoting the Bible, which is said to be of paper value because it was inspired by God, appears to be a fine example of system a circular argument. Arguing from issue paper, authority, begging the system of india essay, question, Appeals to closure, appeals to issue research, heaven, Appeals to tradition, Arguing from consequences, arguing from Ignorance (ad absurdum), Argumentum ex silentio and my favorite post hoc ergo propter hoc. Barrel Term Paper! Thank you, Peter, for writing, #8220;I don’t mean to sound unnecessarily abstract, and I’m continuing to work out in my own mind exactly how I want to issue research, express myself on this. #8221; You are the first person of significance I have read that honestly acknowledges that #8220;knowing God#8221; is a process and term paper not a destination. I believe than any of the claims made for the scientific or other methods of proving the existence and nature of God are doomed to the circular reasoning trash heap. By definition, all descriptions of research a being without limits places limits on pork barrel paper, its being, including whether or not it exists. Please excuse my own abstraction, but when confronted with Eric Metaxas, William Craig Lane, et. al., and similar arguments for or against God, I am compelled to say, #8220;So, what#8217;s your point?#8221; Your rationale and conclusions lead me no closer to research paper, knowing the God I choose to seek and love. By the way, thanks for your Daily Digest. I appreciate it.
Physicist Lawrence Krauss#8217;s critique of Metaxes#8217;s editorial is worth repeating: 1) While scientists know the factors that led to life on Earth, life on political system, other planets could be based upon issue research, a different set of praxis 1 essay strategies factors. 2) The odds of life on other planets have increased, not decreased with greater scientific evidence. 3) Life is fine-tuned for the universe rather than the universe being fine-tuned for research paper life. Pork Paper! 4) The appearance of design in life on Earth is due to research, the #8220;remarkable efficiency of natural selection.#8221; He submitted it as a response to the WSJ, but they declined to publish it. You can read his full response at political system, https://richarddawkins.net/2014/12/letter-to-the-editor/ Not surprisingly, though, Krauss#8217; claims are just as philosophically problematic as Metaxes#8217;.
1. Research! Since there is no evidence either way for this first claim it is unfalsifiable and contributes nothing to his rebuttal. 2. This claim rests on a fallacious, probabalistic argument that only works if we know how life begins in the first place, which we don#8217;t. 3. It is true that life evolves to better tolerate respective environments, but, according to and post, the evolutionary model, life cannot be fine-tuned for an environment it has never been exposed to unless it has been modified by an outside source. Either way, this claim seems more supportive of Metaxes#8217; overall objectives than Krauss#8217; and other religious critics. 4. Natural selection cannot be #8220;efficient#8221; as that would indicate that the process has purpose and issue research direction which, unfortunately for Krauss, moves the conversation out pork term of the realm of science and into the realm of metaphysics. Issue Research! 1. Krauss isn#8217;t making a claim. He#8217;s refuting Metaxes#8217; claim that life is necessarily unique and rare. Metaxes can#8217;t make such a claim so emphatically when their remains the praxis 1 essay strategies, possibility that life can arise by multiple means. Research! 2. True, we don#8217;t yet know exactly how life begins.
But it is and post, also true that the plausible theories for issue the possibility that it arises spontaneously, inevitably, and possibly more than once given the right conditions are increasing. See for example: http://www.sciencedump.com/content/life-may-be-inevitable. Again, keep in mind here that Metaxes has made a bold claim that life has been #8220;proven#8221; by science to be extremely unlikely. If credible scientists are saying the opposite, than his claim is invalid. 3. Your statement here makes no sense to me. Life on earth has been #8220;exposed#8221; to the environment of earth. Krauss#8217; point is simply that we have the life we have (on earth) because it evolved to dbq 17 imperialism essay, the conditions of paper earth. Therefore, life on earth has the appearance of and post impressionism essay having been #8220;designed#8221; for earth, but in reality it#8217;s just that the conditions of earth caused life to evolve that way. 4. You fail here to understand what a scientist means by #8220;efficient,#8217; especially in reference to evolution. Efficient here simply means that the process of research evolution tends over praxis 1 essay strategies time to produce organisms that are highly adapted to the environment in issue research which they exist. No intelligent #8220;purpose and direction#8221; is needed to do that.
It#8217;s similar to saying that a modern gasoline engine is #8220;efficient.#8221; I#8217;m going to post here the entire letter by Krauss, as the summary in my first comment may not provide enough context: I was rather surprised to read the unfortunate oped piece “Science Increasingly makes the case for God”, written not by essay for common, a scientist but a religious writer with an agenda. The piece was rife with inappropriate scientific misrepresentations. For example: We currently DO NOT know the factors that allow the evolution of life in the Universe. We know the research, many factors that were important here on Earth, but we do not know what set of other factors might allow a different evolutionary history elsewhere. The mistake made by praxis strategies, the author is akin to saying that if one looks at all the factors in my life that led directly to issue, my sitting at my computer to write this, one would obtain a probability so small as to dbq 17 imperialism india essay, conclude that it is impossible that anyone else could ever sit down to compose a letter to the WSJ. Issue Research Paper! We have discovered many more planets around stars in our galaxy than we previously imagined, and many more forms of life existing in extreme environments in our planet than were known when early estimates of the frequency of life in the universe were first made. If anything, the praxis 1 essay, odds have increased, not decreased. The Universe would certainly continue to exist even if the strength of the four known forces was different. It is true that if the forces had slighty different strengths ( but nowhere near as tiny as the fine-scale variation asserted by the writer) then life as we know it would probably not have evolved. This is more likely an example of life being fine-tuned for the universe in which it evolved, rather than the other way around.
My ASU colleague Paul Davies may have said that “the appearance of design is overwhelming”, but his statement should not be misinterpreted. Research! The appearance of design of life on Earth is also overwhelming, but we now understand, thanks to Charles Darwin that the appearance of design is not the same as design, it is in fact a remnant of the remarkable efficiency of natural selection. Impressionism Impressionism Essay! Religious arguments for the existence of God thinly veiled as scientific arguments do a disservice to both science and issue paper religion, and by 1 essay, allowing a Christian apologist to masquerade as a scientist WSJ did a disservice to its readers. #8220;The piece was rife with inappropriate scientific misrepresentations.#8221; As GHomer Pyle used to say, #8220;Surprise, surprise, surprise#8221;. Wow, Seraphim, you really should learn some evolution, for sure. But if you want to stick to strict logic, consider the (unstated) fundamental assumption of Metaxas#8217;s argument: if he wants to issue research paper, say that the universe/Earth had to be *just* like it is for life to personal essay for common, exist, that means life can only be *just* like it is. That means he has to have a complete understanding of all the possible ways life could exist to know that includes only what we see on issue paper, the only example we know (Earth).
I call that kind of hubristic bull the necessity of #8220;comprehensive imagination,#8221; and I bet even Metaxas would admit he doesn#8217;t actually have it. Barrel Term! If you want to read a more worked-out argument, try this post: http://wantonempiricist.blogspot.com/2015/01/recently-opinion-piece-by-eric-metaxas.html. Issue Paper! 1. Dissertation Preface! Do you deny the possibility of life outside our pale blue dot? If so, you need a remedial corse on statistics. 2.Learn some math. 3. Empty rhetoric.
If not exposed, the question is moot but that was an interesting red herring. 4. There are limits on paper, efficiency not a complete lack A lesson.. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdwR9huqrUI#t=52. Richard Dawkins? Really? Yes, really. Of India Essay! You had trouble reading the URL? #128521; Thank you for issue research this article. It has always seemed to political system of india essay, me that we confuse our ideas about God with God.
My favorite utterance about God comes from the Tao Te Ching: The Tao [God] that can be spoken is paper, not the eternal Tao. The name that can be named is not the eternal name. I just finished Mr. Metaxas#8217;s book and liked it a lot. I don#8217;t believe he was saying that science has empirically proven the existence of God. I believe that he was saying that the write, more we learn, through science, the more reasonable or at least plausible, belief in God is. I think he is attempting to disprove the issue, notion that science disproves the existence of God. And Post Impressionism! I don#8217;t believe Mr. Metaxas expects or wants absolute proof of God#8217;s existence. Paper! Even if God did prove his existence, in an empirical way, many would still not believe.
The Bible has many examples of God demonstrating his existence and people still not believing in him. I believe that God wants to provide us with enough proof of is existence that lack of proof does not prevent us from freely making a well informed choice about Him. I think Mr. Metaxas is merely trying to demonstrate that belief in God is plausible choice, but a choice nonetheless, that we need to pork barrel paper, make, not one that science will make for us. The Bible. Texts written in the Bronze and Iron ages, edited first by Constantine#8217;s politician bishops and translated arbitrarily into research over fourlanguages and exists presently in over 100 English language versions. Yep, that#8217;s a book you want to impressionism, rely on.
DERP. your reply seems to research, imply that you think it is impressionism and post impressionism essay, stupid* to rely on the Bible yet you also seem to rely upon it in issue research your comment above where you state, #8220;perhaps you need to take greater interest in the welfare of others less fortunate than you and express your own inner God. After all that is what Christ#8217;s life was all about.#8221; Where do you get the level of certainty implied in your comment about Christ in writings beyond the Bible? I#8217;m curious. Also, it is true that God is impressionism and post impressionism essay, #8220;soothing,#8221; and takes #8220;a personal interest in research paper our welfare#8221;, that is, He is perfect mercy, but if you#8217;ve read that Bible you reference you know that that God is 1 essay strategies, also perfect justice, which, given all of research paper our shortcomings, presents a sometimes completely different image than #8220;soothing.#8221; There#8217;s a reason #8220;Fear God,#8221; and #8220;the wrath of God,#8221; are found throughout the Bible. (the idea of God being total perfect mercy AND total perfect justice at the same time is paper, one of the many claims about research paper God that point to Him, for praxis 1 essay strategies me. We can#8217;t conceive of mercy and justice beyond a continuum; more mercy means less justice and vice versa. It is staggering and indeed beyond this world or any other world for such a perfection to exist.
No?) Also, I agree, #8220;nothing is invisible to science,#8221; or at issue research, least agree that, conceivably, ultimately nothing should be invisible to science, the key being #8220;no-thing#8221;, i.e., no materialistic reality should conceivably be undiscoverable to political essay, the process of science, discovery. The God as described in issue the Bible is political system, #8220;no-thing,#8221; though, He is beyond materialistic reality (He#8217;s not a #8220;sky God,#8221; contrary to thoughts of many out there). As such, the Bible and Judeo-Christian thinkers throughout history have discouraged/condemned trying to #8220;prove#8221; God#8217;s existence with the facts of his creation. To do so is, because He is beyond the issue, creation#8217;s materialistic space and time, impossible. Trying to do so leads to falsely #8220;seeing#8221; God in the creation itself, a form of idolatry. The creation can provide icons, if you will, pointing to the existence of God. Which is what Metaxas was about praxis strategies with his article and book interesting read by the way. Issue! I like Pascal#8217;s wager for a quick analysis of where this leaves us, decision-making-wise. As such I#8217;m with Puddleglum #128521; Also, Metaxas rejects #8220;the God of the pork barrel term paper, Gaps,#8221; method: #8220;In the nineteenth century, the evangelist and issue scientist Henry Drummond coined the term, #8220;God of the barrel paper, Gaps.#8221; It is the idea that whatever one cannot explain or understand, one attributes to #8220;God.#8221; But this is essentially a negative definition of issue paper God, and of course as science progresses, our need for personal essay application this #8220;God of the gaps,#8221; diminishes. In his famous Letters and Papers from Prison, the German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer wrote: #8216;#8230; how wrong it is to use God as a stop-gap for the incompleteness of our knowledge.
If in fact the frontiers of knowledge are being pushed further and further back (and that is bound to research paper, be the case), then God is being pushed back with them, and is continually in retreat. We are to find God in what we know, not in what we don#8217;t know.#8217; Since Bonhoeffer wrote those words in impressionism 1943, this positive view of God has been increasingly affirmed. As scientific knowledge increases, we have more evidence, not less, pointing to a creator.#8221; Indeed, Metaxas points out that it is the evolutionists that are struggling with the gaps: #8220;In the nineteenth century, Darwin postulated that the gaps in the fossil record would slowly be filled as more and more fossils were uncovered. He hoped to show the streamlined unbroken and steady development for one species to the next. Issue Research! But just the opposite has happened. Instead of finding fossils to fill in 1 essay strategies the gaps between other fossils, scientists have uncovered more and more of the same kinds of research fossils. We have found more examples of the species we have already discovered, and no clear and incontrovertible links between them.#8221; Miracles, page 32-33. (by the by, I, like C.S Lewis and like I think Metaxas too, are #8220;circumspect,#8221; about evolution, i.e., I can see the logic in dbq 17 imperialism essay it but also believe the science is not #8220;settled.#8221;) *I didn#8217;t know what #8220;Derp#8221; meant but after googling are you really sure you want to use in paper civil conversation a term originally used for mistakenly smelling the impressionism, panties and licking the vibrat#8217;r of the paper, mother of impressionism and post impressionism essay one#8217;s love interest instead of those of the love interest? Gross? Certainly uncharitable, i.e., un-Christlike.
Science can never prove the existence of God, just as Love cannot be weighed in a balance. God is beyond the material measurements of Science. However, the material universe is God#8217;s creation, and research it will therefore bear the marks of personal essay for common his handiwork. Research! The more we understand scientifically, the more it will point to the Creator it is the only way that the material universe can point. But God exists on a much higher level of impressionism and post impressionism reality spirit reality which is invisible to research paper, science.
The more we understand scientifically, especially on the level of particle physics, the more a god becomes moot. Nothing is invisible to science. There is only science that as yet remains beyond the grasp of our limited comprehension. To say that is God is merely the pork term paper, age old God of the gaps argument is the most notorioius post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy of our race. God is the soothing manifestation of the need to issue, be comforted that some Supreme Being is taking a personal interest in our welfare. If that is your need, perhaps you need to take greater interest in the welfare of others less fortunate than you and express your own inner God. After all that is what Christ#8217;s life was all about. The title of the (which I have not read) is #8216;increasingly science makes the essay for common application, case for research God#8217; hardly the straw man that #8216;science proves God#8217;. Essay! There is a world of difference between the claims. As you note, science won#8217;t prove God, the best we can hope form science is the rather obvious #8216;reality is more than matter in motion#8217; case. This is the research paper, case for God that Metaxas references.
For more like who God is we need to and post impressionism essay, look to those #8216;Iron Age#8217; documents you dismiss so cavalierly. Research Paper! But of course science points towards a creator. Dbq 17 Imperialism Essay! The argument here is a strawman. No one reasonably thinks you can prove or disprove God. Apparently some think that when atheists claim science is in research conflict with God Christians should sit by without pointing out how false this is. I agree. Science neither prove not disprove the system essay, existence of God. That said, it futile to have deliberations based on science. Salvation comes through faith nothing else. Most of these design type arguments are variants of the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy. The experiential revelation of God is independently verifiable, repeatable, and consistent.
Science is beginning to allow this light to research, dawn in their minds and as such they experience cognitive dissonance between revelation and documentation. Science continues to document the revealed truths of the Bible. These revealed truths stand on their own merit and require no apologetic exegesis. I.e. God is. Wait, does this guy Metaxa even exist? This is fake, what kinda name is that? Fake people every place these days. Spell the name right, then google it.
You might be interested in preface write the works of three ground-breaking. Research! Christian thinkers: Pere Teilhard de Chardin and Charles Hartshorne (especially. his ‘The Divine Relativity’) and Nancy Murphy’s ‘On the Moral Nature of the. Preface Write! Universe: Theology, Cosmology and Ethics’. These together should set you one. your way to re-thinking God. Re. the anthromorphic descriptions found in the O.T., we also.
find Isaiah saying of YHWH: My ways are not your ways, my thoughts not your. thoughts. Not so much an image of a god ‘bigger’ than we, but different. Issue Research! Jesus. is speaking in the same vein when saying ‘Why do you call me good? Only the. Also, I#8217;m not sure your blanket characterization of dissertation preface #8216;God-talk#8217; as always metaphorical holds up.
When we Christians say #8220;God is Love#8221; we mean exactly that. Where we fall short, I believe, is thinking of Love. Issue! ontologically when, in fact, we#8217;re speaking behaviorally/psychologically/sociologically; i.e., God is the pork, One Who Acts Lovingly at all times. Issue Research Paper! Does this mean that. Theology is the highest form of psychology/sociology? Perhaps. At least to political system, do. so would lead us away from the tedious engagement with the ‘hard’ sciences. My first exposure ever to Metaxas was last night in the bookstore with his Bonhoeffer biography.
Quite impressed, so I look him up and almost the first thing I find is his nonsense about science and god. I#8217;ll stick to his biography. Although not so much about his WSJ piece as some of the comments here, it seems to me that if one is out to #8220;look for issue research God#8221; or to #8220;find God#8221; that, if honest, one ought not have any preconceptions about the nature of god #8212; assuming one exists at all. I look around at Earth and human history and the Cosmos and it#8217;s pretty clear to me #8212; if god exists #8212; that She#8217;s a manic-depressive lesbian with multiple-personality disorder and dissertation preface an imp of perverse. Research Paper! She may well, indeed, have even involved Herself in the invention of the Bible (and the Qur#8217;an and dissertation preface Gita, etc) but maybe, just as likely, She hasn#8217;t yet even explored this part of the universe She created and doesn#8217;t even know about Homo sapiens or life on Earth. Or care. With some confidence we should rule out both Yahweh and research paper the FSM as just plain silly and pork paper man-made, but not so The Lesbian.
Thomas Paine got it right: #8220;The study of theology, as it stands in the Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on research paper, no principles; it proceeds by no authority; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion.#8221; #8220;God is not a “being” whose “existence” can be pointed out here or there.#8221; This reminds me of an argument I saw ages ago: a Christian rebutted to an Atheist who said that God doesn#8217;t exist, saying he was right, #8220;God doesn#8217;t exist; God IS#8221;. In a sense, again using metaphors, God is ultimately #8220;more real#8221; than us, than what anything we can expect to be or to think.
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Essay: Inclusive education and issue research, inclusion. When considering provision for children with special educational needs and disability (SEND) in England, the Warnock committee’s report (DES 1978) was a significant landmark towards ‘inclusive’ education. Dbq 17 India Essay? This committee suggested not only the paper, concept of special educational needs (SEN), but also encouraged the principle that children with SEN could be educated in mainstream schools or non-special schools. Also, the pork term, committee introduced parental participation in decision-making for their children with SEN. These suggestions were taken into account in the Education Act 1981 (HMSO 1981) and are still effective after various revisions (Norwich, 2008). ‘Inclusive’ education has been widely accepted in public arena and has established its place in issue educational provision.
On the other hand, some ambiguities of india essay ‘inclusion’ are still left to be discussed. In this assignment, the areas which remain as dilemmas within inclusive education are going to be discussed, by paper, identifying influential aspects and processes which can be used to develop inclusive practice. The Warnock report and the medical model. The starting point of inclusive education is first considered. Before the Warnock report was published, academic opportunities for children with SEN were generally very restricted.
Unfortunately, they were thought of impressionism as not capable of being educated, maladjusted or sub-normal. Issue Research Paper? Moreover, those issues were considered as problems which existed within a child. Many SEN children were placed in institutions, where their potential was developed in a positive way. However, in reality this approach was just a form of segregation from mainstream education. Personal Essay Application? The Warnock report was the first time it was suggested that children could be integrated into mainstream education, if their special ‘needs’ were addressed in order to overcome their difficulties, rather than as children within a medical setting. It is also important to point out that such provision was under certain conditions; it was in accordance with the parents’ wishes, compatible with the issue paper, education of other children in preface the class, and allowed efficient use of resources (Bibby and Lunt 1996). In one sense, policy moved away from the view of a ‘medical model’ of disabilities. Instead, the ideals of the Warnock report and the subsequent Education Act 1981 rather favoured a movement towards ‘integration’, not towards ‘inclusion’. Oliver (1996) thought that the research, commitment of the governmental and term, educational administrators was incomplete to ensure its implementation. Norwich (2008) considered that the initiative which Local Education Authorities (LEAs) took was to increase resourcing to issue paper, try to accommodate many children with SEN in mainstream schooling. However, this is again another form of integration, not inclusion.
As a result of the inclusion movement, special school populations started to essay application, decrease and research, some schools closed down as a result; later, this would cause some dilemmas in the support system. Nevertheless, this reflected the pork barrel, start of inclusive education, even though it was to ‘integrate’ SEN children into mainstream education. The Warnock report without doubt pointed the UK education system towards inclusion. The Warnock report was introduced positively with an emphasis on issue providing for the needs for children with SEN, rather than looking for deficits in dissertation children. On the other hand, the Warnock report did not overcome the ‘medical model’ completely, in particular with regard to categorisation. The issue of issue categorisation is discussed here.
In the Warnock report, the ‘Statement’ procedure was included as a legally binding assessment to accommodate proper resources for educational needs, and additional or different provisions for children with SEN. The Warnock report could be considered as a departure from using rather negative medical terms, such as ‘handicap’ and ‘disability’; instead of that, more general and looser terms of categorisation such as ‘learning difficulty’ were promoted (Norwich 2008). 1 Essay? In short, it was just a substitution of terminology. SEN labelling and categorisation have been accepted for a long time, for example the OECD report (2012), as being key to understanding what each children’s needs are. Categorisation has used more generic terms to provide consistent support among certain groups, as well as being strongly related to funding issues (Kelly and Norwich 2004). There is a problem here; even though this categorisation is issue, used in a positive way to provide support, the categorisation can sometimes be treated negatively.
The nature of the categorisation has a risk of preface turning into a ‘label’ for research paper learners’ difficulties. And a label is, according to term paper, Freeman (2013), simply based on assumptions and never evidence, giving authority to professionals, and then resulting in limiting children’s expected capability. Even though expectation should be equally high for all learners, a label may be used as justification or as an excuse for issue a learner’s failure to reach targets, instead of finding a way of improving attainment. This can lead to withdrawal, disengagement and problematic behaviour (Mackey and Neal 2009). At the heart of labelling is the belief that those within a certain SEN ‘box’ are all the same, with the same needs and india essay, therefore normalising individual needs. Issue? Moreover, labels stigmatise and devalue children, as labelling strongly relates to self-perception and psychological well-being .The impact of the system essay, school setting and others’ views of educational ability are strongly co-related with self-perception (Kelly and issue research paper, Norwich 2004). Labelling hinders children’s experiences in their schooling and inclusive education thereby loses its true meaning. The greatest barrier to inclusion might be our underestimation of the impressionism and post impressionism essay, potential abilities of those we label as having SEN (Clough 2002). National Curriculum and Marginalisation. Mainstream education has kept the same approach for nearly three decades, in terms of trying to include children with SEN into the system.
This is issue research, another barrier for inclusive education. The Education Reform Act 1988 (HMSO 1988) had a significant impact in shaping school experiences for children with SEN. Dissertation Preface? This Act enhanced free parental ‘choice’ of school, and also introduced the National Curriculum to focus on levels of standardised attainment; to maintain this, Key Stages and Standard Attainment Tests (SATs) were introduced. Issue Research? Reflecting parental choice and a consumerist approach to personal for common application, education, schools were driven to a market-based education system and concentrated on raising standards and attainment (Tomlinson 2008). There followed league tables for schools and the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted) inspection system in issue the 1990s, echoing this movement. The issue here was that while the National Curriculum introduced for all pupils the essay for common, right to access the same curriculum, it did not take account of children with SEN. As a result, this created a situation where children with SEN were considered as having low attainment and research, an environment which was less appealing for parents of non-SEN children (Norwich 2008).
Moreover, the National Curriculum did not take into account of individual children’s needs, because the ‘standard’ attainment was prioritised. Furthermore, schools were obliged to follow the impressionism and post impressionism essay, National Curriculum, which was not flexible initially, while at the same time schools had a responsibility to cater for issue children with SEN. This led to an increasing demand for Statements to seek extra provision in system of india mainstream schooling, because Statements were mandatory to obtain financial support. This situation sometimes contributed to funding difficulties and created marginalised SEN children without a Statement. It also created marginalised children with a Statement, for research paper example, those with a behavioural problem who were placed in a normal situation and were permanently excluded, because of the need to conform with the term paper, National Curriculum (Audit Commission 2002). The market system and standardisation of education could not successfully coexist with inclusion. To solve this confusion, especially to tackle marginalized children without a Statement, government started launching some inclusive education measures in their policies. The introduction of a SEN Code of Practice (DfE 1994), revised in 2002, became a good starting point to consider the treatment of paper SEN children. In addition, the Labour government from 1997 sought a wider inclusion agenda in imperialism india essay the education system and introduced some positive measures, such as ‘Excellence for all children’ (DfEE 1997) and the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 (SENDA) (HMSO 2001).
Policies encouraged schools to research paper, take initiatives for their own support systems for children with SEN before the Statement process, such as placing a special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) in school, Individual Education Plans (IEPs) and later there followed Action Plans (DfES 2003). These movements definitely contributed to preventing issues with marginalised children in schools. Moreover, and importantly, the praxis 1 essay strategies, most significant initiative for inclusive education was that the government introduced special adaptations in the National Curriculum for children with ‘learning difficulties’ (QCA 2003). Before these adaptations, the National Curriculum did not have the flexibility to paper, provide an individual curriculum for individual needs and targets in education (Norwich 2008). Schools and systems had to change their attitudes to political essay, deliver the issue, right education for praxis strategies individual children’s needs to be met, rather than children needing to fit within the curriculum in order to be included. Issue? This is a clear shift towards the dissertation preface, ‘social model’ of disability. The social model. The shift of thinking towards the ‘social model’ of disability is an important aspect when considering inclusive education.
If the ‘medical model’ perspective saw children’s difficulties as resulting from children’s own characteristics, by contrast the social model of disability sees them as the outcome of social realities (Clough 2002). To create an inclusive environment in which children with SEN can participate, the curriculum should have an aim, which is an ‘objective’ that is ‘adjusted’ or ‘special’ to reflect individual needs. Therefore schools and research paper, teachers need to give attention to 1 essay strategies, regular assessment and revision of learning within the framework of the curriculum, with the issue paper, view that the ‘curriculum’ exhibits issues, not the learner. IEPs can support this approach. By contrast, there is always a risk of creating segregated special education, if the curriculum just becomes mediation between mainstream and special provision. It would be as if we have achieved an inclusive environment, whereas we have only achieved ‘integration’ (Clough 2002). System Essay? Inclusion sits side by side with exclusion all the time; in this sense, we never achieve completely inclusive education. A special educational curriculum should continue to connect with the mainstream curriculum, in order to approach a truly inclusive curriculum (Clark et al. 1998).
While appropriate delivery of the curriculum is vital for inclusive education, the issue paper, whole school ethos, institutional culture and role of pedagogy are equally important in creating an inclusive environment (Clough 2002). Therefore, considering inclusion only application, within the research paper, sphere of children with SEN might limit the possibilities of inclusion itself. Educational systems have been constructed with a focus on the difficulties for children, rather than on individual deficit. Dissertation Preface Write? The cycle of deprivation comes from social disadvantage, and inequality has resulted from institutional inequality, sometimes in the form of a hidden curriculum (Tomlinson 2008). The ‘social model’ of disability regards inclusive education as connecting with an paper inclusive society and the removal of all forms of oppression (Clough 2002).
Therefore while the curriculum has a crucial role in accessing an inclusive education, maximised participation in the community and write, culture is an essential element for inclusive education (Clough 2002). According to Booth (1996), exclusion is not simply about disability, it is about the inability to participate in issue mainstream culture and community. Praxis? The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the issue paper, Child (UNCRC) 1989 (UN 1989), the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO 1994) and Education for All (UNESCO 2000) have promoted a universal awareness of issues and preface write, also influenced the UK political agenda; access to an appropriate education is issue research, now an political essay ethically and socially fundamental element for issue paper human rights, equal opportunities and participation. Those rights will lead to social and educational inclusion. Inclusion has been even more promoted in the public and essay for common application, political arenas, and inclusion has echoed the views of the issue paper, ‘social model’ of disability rather than the views of the ‘medical model’ of disability. Praxis 1 Essay Strategies? Inclusion has set a philosophical argument that any children with mental, physical, or emotional handicaps are entitled to research paper, access to education within the mainstream of public education. Therefore, the more inclusive is educational progress, the more inclusive is societal progress.
According to Hunt (1966), the problem of disability lies not only in the impairment of function and its effect on us individually, but more importantly in personal essay for common our relationship with normal people. The whole approach. Educational inclusion is irrevocably connected to social inclusion. Oliver (1988) has pointed out that educational policy has been developed with other initiatives, such as health, housing, social security, and family support; social creations. Issue Research? Disability studies also propose capturing the bigger picture of inclusion. Interestingly, personal and environmental factors, such as additional language learning needs and socio-economic disadvantages were not included in praxis SEN category in research the Education Act 1981 (Warnock 2005).
It is not necessary to identify having difficulties or disabilities for special educational provision. Policy has concentrated on disability and tried to meet the needs of those deemed to have a disability with a certain strategy, even though all individuals are unique. Actually, we need a view of term abilities within individual children. Gardener’s (2006) multiple intelligence theory strongly contributes to research, this argument. Regarding inclusion, Warnock (2005) was concerned that some children might not fit into or flourish in mainstream education because all children’s needs are unique and different. If this is the praxis 1 essay strategies, case, children are deprived of their rights to have an appropriate education. Paper? The current Government policy is to encourage the maximum level of integration of pupils with SEN into mainstream schools and to try to provide special support to facilitate this. Conversely, if some students do benefit from specialised teaching and extra resources in special schools, then it might be asked whether there is a benefit of integration into mainstream schools for children with SEN, and this is an individual choice (Warnock 2005). When considering an appropriate education, it is an paper entitlement of parents and children with SEN to be involved in decisions for special educational provision; and there is also the issue paper, obligation of the authorities to provide adequate resources to ensure that children with SEN can have an education appropriate to those needs, to become full members of our society (Borsay 2005). This echoes with the Every Child Matters (ECM) (2004) agenda. To summarise, inclusive education is not an system of india argument for accessing mainstream education for issue the students who have previously been excluded.
Nor it is about closing down special schools which had been seen as promoting exclusion. ‘Inclusion’ should be valued as a process in which existing school systems can change; such as taking into india, account the environment, curricula and teacher’s roles, to further the participation of all learners (Barton 1997). Disabilities studies as mentioned above, especially in European counties, present a more dynamic solution for an inclusive society. The recent European disability strategy suggested that the concepts of inclusion in mainstream education must target supporting people with disabilities to develop their biographies in the context of ‘normal’ social institutions and issue, places, because those are the decisive conditions for their participation. Moreover, to appreciate disability, welfare and educational policies need to pork barrel, understand the risks of discrimination, continuing to rely on medical and research, psychological interpretations and define and measure impairment with reference to dissertation, specific impairment groups, but not with any mindset of oppression or discrimination (Barnes 2008). As a result, we identify the realities and difficulties of people’s lives as well create the issue, link between individual biographies and social barriers; this is the perspective of a life course approach (WHO 2000).
Taking the life situation of people with severe disabilities and 1 essay, complex needs as a starting point, the issue paper, life course oriented approach makes it possible both to collect data on patterns of social protection and public attitude and to identify risks of discrimination in each stage of their life (Schade, et al. 2008). 1 Essay Strategies? In this way, we can confront reality, accept differences, and find solutions. Children’s difficulties exist in reality. This also echoes the ECM agenda (2004).
Accepting individual differences and needs leads to inclusive education. Issue Research Paper? An acknowledgement of the diversity of the learning needs of all learners and dissertation write, flexibility in pedagogy is the starting point to consider ‘inclusive education’ (Wedell 2008). Classroom strategy must be needs-based and issue, not label-based, and should include the use of the impressionism impressionism essay, differentiation tactics to cater for a wide range of learners. Teachers can build up a picture of issue research paper a learner’s difficulties, their learning needs, which interventions have worked for them in the past and which have not, and the way forward. Effective pedagogies for inclusion depend upon teachers’ skills in understanding and responding to difference (Riddell, et al. Pork Paper? 2006). Of course, this depends on class size and class subjects, and moreover the collaboration with the Teaching Assistant is vital element (Goepel, et al. 2014). In addition, teacher training, especially for the general teaching qualification for issue research paper students with SEND, needs to be emphasised (OECD 2014). Realistic and flexible approaches are required for an inclusive environment, such as activity-based learning, self-directed learning, practical hands-on approaches, thematic approaches to topics and open-ended tasks (Goepel, et al.
2014). Similarly the assessment for learning strategy (Black and William 1998) is considered strongly effective to impressionism, create inclusive teaching, including feedback; meta-cognition and self-regulation; peer mentoring and peer working; well-structured and well-targeted questioning; and small group working. Although a commitment to comprehensive teaching and a wide curriculum points to a truly inclusive education, it also brings back again the argument of having a ‘common’ curriculum. The development of a classroom effectiveness approach carries a risk of alienating the SEN or failing to promote inclusion itself (Clough 2002). The fundamental concept of inclusion has been developed as a ‘common’ approach, and in particular it has developed alongside the difficulties of the class and the management of class resources; it has also identified a range of questions related to governance, curriculum, and detection and placement for individual needs. This is the issue research paper, way forward to inclusive education (Norwich 2008). The issue is not about treating everyone the same; what is important is that everyone should be treated equally: ‘realising these entitlements would look very different for different children in different areas, but the political, quality of their opportunities would not be different’ (Wadell 2008).
Children and research, Families Act 2014. The future of inclusive education is now considered, in relation to india, the introduction of the Children and Families Act 2014 (HMSO 2014). There are clear signs of improvement around a good number of processes which are the central aim of this reform, such as enhancing the child and family centred view. Improvements in research paper the quality of the impressionism and post impressionism, support which children will receive through the Local Offer, Personal Budget and education, health and care (EHC) plan are promising, compared to the previous system. Issue Research? Yet some families still think children and young people do not have a say in the support planning process and that professionals still lead the services, and there is no perceived difference in qualities of life or health (Craston et al, 2014). Involvement in the decision making process, moreover allowing young people to think what is best for them, should be a vital role in decision making.
Early intervention, multi-agency work, parental views and the children’s own views should be coordinated as part of a comprehensive program, to provide efficient support bearing in mind the write, future perspective of their life, leading to issue, a life course approach. It is still too early to make any judgement on the outcome of this new Act; in addition, inclusive education involves a process of impressionism impressionism essay reform and restructuring as a whole (Mittler 2000). Inclusion will work in an environment with proper accommodation for sufficient support, with adequate resources and funding, where decisions are truly child-centred. Without any doubt, ‘inclusive education’ and research paper, inclusion as a whole are ethically, socially and politically essential rights to be a member of society. However, inclusion has been developed with dilemmas between the ‘medical model’ and the ‘social model’, together with categorisation and marginalisation, and will continue to develop with dilemmas. This is because general ideas of system inclusion always challenge us and issue, sometime become a form of positive discrimination, when improving systems, especially with regard to decision-making for public spending. The ‘official’ terminology is sometimes too conceptualised, and is not current with the ideas and thinking of issues involved in SEND. In some cases, idea and thinking did not reflect reality; individual reality has been lost in political of india the system, as well as practical meaning. So inclusion becomes far away from reality.
Inclusion can be used as moral and political rhetoric in Western counties, but should be considered as the movement and process which has resulted from current beliefs, and different local struggles (Clough 2002). In this way, inclusive education can capture ideas from the real life and experiences in issue research each child. Maximising flexibility in teaching and classroom practice is an area which needs further research. Promoting attitudes of accepting realities and recognising differences for praxis strategies individual needs are vital areas of inclusive education. (Word counts: 3,305) Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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History: Ancient/ Augustus Caesar term paper 19240. In ancient history there have been many great leaders who have come to the forefront to save the Roman Empire from research, destruction and demise. The leaders and heroes of the Roman Empire are countless, but one leader stands out from all the rest. Dbq 17 Imperialism India? Augustus Caesar’s contributions to Roman history helped make Rome the dominant empire we study and remember today. (Octavian) Augustus Caesar is without a doubt the greatest political leader in the history of the Roman Empire. As a young adolescent, Octavian demonstrated his leadership ability long before having thoughts of becoming the first emperor of Rome. Octavian’s strengths, feats, and accomplishments as a military leader show just a portion of his great political skills he pocessed. After the murder of Octavian’s great uncle, Julius Caesar, in 44 BC; Octavian along with Mark Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate.
The three men lead their armies into Rome. The Roman Assembly granted the Second Triumvirate full power for five years. Research Paper? With full backing of the Roman Assembly, Octavian, Antony, and dbq 17 india essay Lepidus raged a bloody campaign against all those who opposed them. As a reward for research paper outstanding service to the Second Triumvirate, the term land won from conquered victims was distributed amongst deserving soldiers. Octavian and his two companions put a temporary end to research paper, the civil war of the Roman Empire in 42 BC. The Triumvirs, at Philippi in Macedonia, defeated the republicans led by Brutus and dbq 17 imperialism india essay Cassius. They divided the empire between themselves.
Antony remained in research the wealthy East, Lepidus got control of Gaul and Spain, and Octavian received Italy. This was not the most generous of gift for young Octavian. He had the difficult task of settling the veterans of imperialism, Italy. This involved redistributing land and forcibly expelling any of the previous landowners. “In time, Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement and issue research paper won control of all western provinces.”(Chodorow 90) By 32 BC, Italy and the western provinces swore an pork barrel oath of allegiance to Octavian. Octavian could than concentrate his efforts on moving against Antony, for total control of the Roman Empire. The Battle of research paper, Actium in 31 BC was arguably one of the most important naval battles in the history of the dbq 17 india essay Roman Empire. Upon defeat by Octavian at issue paper this furiuos naval battle, Antony flees to Egypt with his lover Cleopatra.
The following year in Egypt, Octavian and his army again defeat Antony. Conesquently, Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide. With the victory at the Battle of Actium, Octavian was now sole ruler of Rome and all its provinces. Upon the defeat and death of Antony, Octavian proclaimed the restoration of the Republic of Rome. However, he had no intention of stepping down as ruler. In 27 BC, with more of theatrical gesture than sincerity, Octavian placed the impressionism and post essay republic at the disposal of the Senate and the Roman people. “The Senate thereupon, realizing by past experience its own helplessness and knowing that it did not possess the organization for ruling the great Roman world successfully, gave him [Octavian] officially the research command of the preface army and the control of the most important frontier provinces. Besides these vast powers he held also the important rights of a tribune. ”.(Breasted 680) Octavian’s position was now legitimized by the Senate’s request that he command and lead Rome. He was given the military command, known as Imperium for ten years. This office included the issue paper administration of Roman provinces that required the presence of the army. The official name of Octavian became Imperator Caesar Augustus From that time would be known as Augustus, which means “the Exalted”.
Augustus received the tribuncian power for life and assumed the role of protector of the Roman people. He also received the application right to intervene in those provinces administered by the Senate. The backbone of Augustus’ power came from being Imperium of the military. “The major portion of the army was not, however, kept in Italy, where rebellious generals might intrigue with the research paper Senate and dbq 17 imperialism india rise in sudden revolt. Instead, the Roman legions (twenty-eight of them, of six thousand men each, plus enough auxiliary forces to bring the research paper total to about four hundred thousand men) were stationed at the other boundaries of the imperialism india essay realm in just those places where there might be trouble with the barbaric tribes beyond the issue research border.”(Asinov 5) It was of great importantance to Augustus that the elite troops and military officers were of Roman descent. This made certain that people with pride, feelings, and love for the Roman Empire would run the army with Roman traditions. With all great political leaders, there must be some affection shown for the arts and for education. Augustus understood the importance of ideology and propaganda. Preface Write? He sponsored and issue encouraged the impressionism and post impressionism essay leading writers and artists of issue, his time. The historian Livy, and the poets Vergil and Horace were of importance to Augustus. Their works glorified Rome’s past and the greatness of Augustus’ achievements. This time of restoration is essay frequently referred to as “The Golden Age of Latin Literature”.
Latin literature achieved its highest level of excellence with the help of Augustus’ promoting of higher learning and his patronizing of the arts. The term “Augustan Age”, used to describe periods of great literary achievement in modern nations, shows that Augustus had a profound impact on the world’s history of learning. “Augustus filled his house at Capri with huge fossilized remains of sea and land monsters, which people call Giants’ Bones or Heroes’ Weapons. What Augustus did with them, nobody knows. Of course, he was an emperor, and so could be only an amateur scientist: he was too busy to spend a lot of time on his hobbies.”(Nichols 8) Augustus known the importance of learning and continuing to learn new knowledge. In an effort to bring back the moral standards of the past, Augustus established a code of issue, laws and social programs. The laws passed restored the family unit, which gave total power of the family to the head male. These laws included such things as: Encouraging marriage and child bearing with penalties going to people not married by the age of essay application, thirty.
Adultery was strictly forbidden. Married men were heavily fined and taxed for not having children and tax breaks were given to people with three or more children. Augustus’ laws also gave the male head of household the right to decide who the issue children would marry, where they would live, and what profession and economic goals they would pursue. Augustus also re-established the priest hoods of Rome. He revived old religious customs and attempted to restore the old stern morality. When the elder incumbent died, Augustus assumed the and post role of Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest). He also asserted his power as Pontifex Maximus to prohibit the Roman people from participating in mystery cults. The organizational skills of Augustus were impeccable.
This is evident by the conducting of issue research, a census at around the time of the birth of Jesus Christ. With his organizational ability and Augustus introduced laws that emphasized hard work, traditional family values, and loyalty to the Roman government. Augustus’ laws proved to be a success. Part of personal essay for common, Augustus’ success came from his ability to relate to the people of Rome. It always helps a politician to be able to relate to the people. And that strength made Augustus a politician. His young and energetic personality made it easy for the people of Rome to communicate with Augustus.
Augustus dressed like common men of Rome. He would not dress in the costumes of the paper upper class. The extreme popularity of write, Augustus is evident with the people offering him Chancellorship for life. He turns down the title. People insisted that they worship him as a god. Once again he refuses, stating that he wants people to worship his ideas instead. Issue Research? The people who worship and spread the ideas of Augustus are referred to as the Augustilites. And in time, the month of Sextilis is renamed August in his honor.
History remembers the imperialism india greatness of Augustus in several ways. Although it seems unusual, it is worthy of mention that Augustus Caesar was one of the few emperors to die a natural death. Augustus entered a city of brick and stone and left a city of marble. He extended the boundaries of the empire and reorganized its administration. His reign starts a two hundred-year period of paper, peace known as the Pax Romana. The political system he established endured essentially no change for three centuries. The modern world honors him with our calender by pork paper the naming of the paper eighth month after him.
The only thing that saved the destruction of the Roman Empire was the emergence of a brilliant political leader, Octavian Augustus Caesar, first emperor of the Roman Empire. Thesis sentence: (Octavian) Augustus Caesar is without a doubt the greatest political leader in impressionism and post impressionism essay the history of the Roman Empire. I. Octavian strengths, accomplishments, and feats as a military leader. A. Octavian joins forces with Mark Antony and Lepidus. 1. Three form Second Triumvirate in 44 B.C. 2. Three lead their army into Rome and Assembly grants them full power for five years.
3. Brutus and issue paper Cassius are hunted down in Macedonia where Brutus. and Cassius are defeated and killed in the Battle of Philippi in. 4. Octavian, Anthony, and Lepidus divide the empire. B. Octavian forces Lepidus into retirement and gains control of all western empire. C. 32 B.C. Octavian moves against Antony. 1. Dissertation Preface Write? 31 B.C.
Octavian wins naval battle at Actium. a.. Battle of issue paper, Actium puts end to civil war. b. Win at impressionism impressionism essay Battle of Actium gives Octavian sole control of the R. D. Octavian proclaims restoration of empire in 27 B.C. 1. Proclamation is more theatrical than sincerity. 2. Senate begs Octavian to not abandon the empire. 3. Given military command for ten years. a. Named Imperator Caesar Augustus and referred as. Augustus the Exalted.
b. Imperium is the Supreme Military Command. E. Backbone of Augustus’ power is the army. 1. Army has twenty five legions of about six thousand men in each. 2. Research Paper? At least two hundred and fifty thousand men in army at all. II. Personal For Common? Education and the Arts. A. Golden Age of Latin Literature. 1. Octavian promotes learning. 2. Octavian patronizes the arts. B. Great writers flourish in research paper Augustan Age. 1. Augustan Age is a term used to describe periods of great.
literacy achievement in modern nation’s. 2. Barrel Paper? Writers are Virgil, Horace, Livy, Ovio flourish. III. Helping The Restoration of Rome through Code of paper, Laws and Social Programs. A. Personal? Passed laws to restore family unit. 1. Encouraged marriage and child bearing. 2. Penalties to people not married by the age of thirty. 3. Adultery is absolutely forbidden. 4. Married men are heavily fined and taxed for not having.
5. Tax breaks are granted for people with three or more children. B. Reestablishes the priest hoods. 1. When elder incumbent dies Augustus assumes the role of. Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest). 2. Prohibits participation of Roman people in mystery cults. C. Issue? Augustus brings back morals of Rome. D. Augustus has great organizational skills and conducts a census. E. Augustus’ laws give total power of 1 essay strategies, family unit to male head of the. 1. Male head of family decides who the sons and daughters will. 2. Male head of family decides where sons and daughters will live. 3. Male head of family decides what profession and what.
economic goals his children will pursue. 4. Male head of family owns all families land. F. Augustus’ new code of laws emphasize hard work, loyalty to the. Roman government and traditional family values. IV. Issue? Augustus Caesar’s Relates to the People of Rome. A. Dissertation? Augustus is young and issue very energetic. B. Dissertation Preface Write? Augustus dresses like common men of Rome and not in costumes of. the upper class. C. Extremely popular with the issue people of Rome. 1. 1 Essay? Augustus Caesar is offered Chancellorship for life, but he turns title down.
2. People want to worship Augustus as a god. a. Augustus wants people to worship his ideas instead. b. Followers of issue research, Augustus are called “Augustilites” and barrel term paper tell of. 3. Month of Sextilis is renamed August in honor of Augustus. V. History Remembers Greatness Augustus. A. Augustus saves Rome from destruction. 1. Entered a city of brick and left a city of marble. 2. Sets the stage of Pax Roman Period (two hundred years of. B. Issue Paper? One of few Roman emperors to die a natural death.
C. Honored on modern calendar with month of August named in his. D. Title as the Roman Empires first emperor. Word Count: 2090. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.
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