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Beethoven: man, composer and communities revolutionary. If any composer deserves the maken name of revolutionary it is Beethoven. He carried through what was probably the greatest single revolution in modern music and changed the way music was composed and listened to. This is music that does not calm, but shocks and disturbs. On Virtual. Alan Woods describes how the world into which Beethoven was born was a world in turmoil, a world in pathos logos and ethos in essays transition, a world of wars, revolution and counter-revolution: a world like our own world. Beethoven is the essay communities friend and contemporary of the French Revolution, and he remained faithful to essay, it even when, during the Jacobin dictatorship, humanitarians with weak nerves of the Schiller type turned from it, preferring to destroy tyrants on essay the theatrical stage with the help of cardboard swords.
Beethoven, that plebeian genius, who proudly turned his back on emperors, princes and computer magnates - that is the essay communities Beethoven we love for his unassailable optimism, his virile sadness, for the inspired pathos of his struggle, and for his iron will which enabled him to seize destiny by the throat. Phd Dissertation Help Computer Science. (Igor Stravinsky) If any composer deserves the name of revolutionary it is Beethoven. Essay Communities. The word revolution derives historically from the discoveries of Copernicus, who established that the case earth revolves around the sun, and thus transformed the way we look at the universe and our place in it. Similarly, Beethoven carried through what was probably the greatest single revolution in modern music. His output was vast, including nine symphonies, five piano concertos and others for violin, string quartets, piano sonatas, songs and on virtual one opera. He changed the way music was composed and listened to.
Right to the end, he never ceased pushing music to its limits. After Beethoven it was impossible to go back to the old days when music was regarded as a soporific for wealthy patrons who could doze through a symphony and enquete then go home quietly to essay, bed. After Beethoven, one no longer returned from a concert humming pleasant tunes. This is music that does not calm, but shocks and disturbs. it is study, music that makes you think and feel. Marx pointed out that the difference between France and on virtual Germany is that, whereas the French actually made revolutions, the Germans merely speculated about them. Philosophical idealism flourished in Germany in the late 18th and essay company early 19th centuries for the same reason. In England the bourgeoisie was effecting a great world-historical revolution in production, while across the English Channel, the French were carrying out an equally great revolution in politics. In backward Germany, where social relations lagged behind France and England, the only revolution was a revolution in men's minds.
Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel argued about the nature of the world and ideas, while other people in other lands actually set about revolutionising the world and the minds of men and women. The Sturm und Drang movement was an essay on virtual communities expression of this typically German phenomenon. Goethe was influenced by German idealist philosophy, especially Kant. Here we can detect the echoes of the French revolution, but they are distant and indistinct, and they are strictly confined to the abstract world of poetry, music and philosophy. The Sturm und Drang movement in Germany reflected the revolutionary nature of the epoch at the end of the 18th century. Article Writing. It was a period of enormous intellectual ferment. The French philosophe s anticipated the revolutionary events of 1789 by their assault on the ideology of the old regime. As Engels put it in the Anti-Duhring: “The great men, who in France prepared men's minds for the coming revolution, were themselves extreme revolutionists. They recognised no external authority of any kind whatever. Essay On Virtual. Religion, natural science, society, political institutions — everything was subjected to the most unsparing criticism; everything must justify its existence before the judgment-seat of reason or give up existence. Reason became the sole measure of everything.
It was the time when, as Hegel says, the world stood upon its head; first in the sense that the human head, and the principles arrived at essay company, by its thought, claimed to be the basis of all human action and essay communities association; but by and by, also, in the wider sense that the reality which was in contradiction to these principles had, in fact, to be turned upside down.” Bonn in the 18th century. The impact of this pre-revolutionary ferment in France made itself felt far beyond the borders of writing that country, in Germany, England, and even Russia. In literature, gradually the old courtly forms were being dissolved. This found its reflection in the poetry of Wolfgang Goethe – the greatest poet Germany has produced. His great masterpiece Faust is shot through with a dialectical spirit. Mephistophiles is the living spirit of negation that penetrates everything. This revolutionary spirit found an echo in essay the later works of Mozart, notably in Don Giovanni , which among other things contains a stirring chorus with the words: “ Long live Liberty!” But it is america needs essay, only with Beethoven that the spirit of the French Revolution finds its true expression in music. Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn on November 16, 1770, the son of a musician from a family of Flemish origin.
His father, Johann, was employed by essay the court of the Archbishop-elector. He was by all accounts a harsh, brutal and dissolute man. His mother, Maria Magdalena, bore her martyrdom with silent resignation. In Essays. Beethoven’s early years were not happy. This probably explains his introverted and somewhat surly character as well as his rebellious spirit. Beethoven’s early education was at best patchy. He left school at on virtual communities, the age of eleven.
The first person to realise the youngster’s enormous potential was the court organist, Gottlob Neffe, who introduced him to the works of Bach, especially the service Well-Tempered Klavier . Noting his son’s precocious talent, Johann tried to turn him into a child prodigy – a new Mozart. On Virtual Communities. At the using pathos logos and ethos age of essay on virtual five he was exhibited at a public concert. But Johann was doomed to its nerds, disappointment: Ludwig was no childhood Mozart. Surprisingly, he had no natural disposition for music and had to be pushed. So his father sent him to several teachers to drum music into essay communities, his head. At this time Bonn, the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, was a sleepy provincial backwater. In order to advance, the young musician had to america its nerds, go to study music in Vienna.
The family was not rich, but in 1787 the young Beethoven was sent to essay on virtual, the capital by and ethos the Archbishop. It was here that he met Mozart, who was impressed by him. Later one of his teachers was Haydn. But after only two months he had to return to Bonn, where his mother was seriously ill. She died shortly afterwards.
This was the first of essay many personal and family tragedies that dogged Beethoven all his life. In 1792, the year in which Louis XVI was beheaded, Beethoven finally moved from study india, Bonn to Vienna, where he lived till he died. Vienna in Beethoven's time. The portraits that have come down to us show a brooding, sombre young man with an expression that conveys a sense of inner tension and a passionate nature. Communities. Physically he was not handsome: a large head and custom article service Roman nose, a pock-marked face and thick, bushy hair that never seemed to on virtual communities, be combed. His dark complexion earned him the nickname “the Spaniard”. Short, stocky and rather clumsy, he had the bearing and manners of a plebeian – a fact that could not be disguised by the elegant clothes he wore as a young man. This born rebel turned up in aristocratic and using logos in essays fastidious Vienna, unkempt, ill-dressed and ill-humoured, with none of the essay on virtual polite airs and graces that might have been expected of him. Like every other composer in those times, Beethoven was obliged to rely on grants and commissions from wealthy and aristocratic patrons.
But he was never owned by them. He was not a musical courtier, as Haydn was at the court of the Esterhazy family. What they thought of this strange man is not known. But the greatness of enquete maken his music ensured him of commissions and essay on virtual therefore a livelihood. Brand Case India. He must have felt completely out of place. He despised convention and orthodoxy. He was not in the least interested in his appearance or surroundings. On Virtual Communities. Beethoven was a man who lived and breathed for pathos logos, his music and was unconcerned with worldly comforts. His personal life was chaotic and unsettled, and could be described as Bohemian. He lived in the utmost squalor.
His house was always a mess, with bits of food lying around, and even unemptied chamber pots. His attitude to the princes and nobles who paid him was conveyed in a famous painting. The composer is shown in the course of a stroll with the essay on virtual communities poet Goethe, the Archduchess Rudolph and the Empress. While Goethe respectfully gave way to the royal pair, politely removing his hat, Beethoven completely ignored them and continued walking without even acknowledging the greetings of the imperial family. This painting contains the whole spirit of the man, a fearless, revolutionary, uncompromising spirit.
Suffocating in the bourgeois atmosphere of Vienna he wrote a despairing comment: “ As long as the Austrians have their brown beer and little sausages, they will never revolt.”  The world into which Beethoven was born was a world in turmoil, a world in transition, a world of wars, revolution and maken counter-revolution: a world like our own world. In 1776, the American colonists succeeded in winning their freedom through a revolution which took the form of a war of national liberation against Britain. This was the first act in a great historical drama. The American Revolution proclaimed the ideals of on virtual communities individual freedom that were derived from the brand management case French Enlightenment. Just over on virtual a decade later, the ideas of the Rights of needs its nerds Man returned to France in an even more explosive manner. The storming of the Bastille in July 1789 marked a decisive turning point in world history. In its period of ascent the French Revolution swept away all the accumulated rubbish of feudalism, brought an entire nation to its feet and confronted the whole of Europe with courage and determination. The liberating spirit of the Revolution in France swept like wildfire through Europe. Such a period demanded new art forms and new ways of expression. This was achieved in communities the music of Beethoven, which expresses the spirit of the age better than anything else. In 1793 King Louis of France was executed by the Jacobins.
A wave of shock and fear swept through all the courts of Europe. Attitudes towards revolutionary France hardened. Those liberals who had initially greeted the Revolution with enthusiasm, now slunk away into the corner of america needs reaction. The antagonism of the on virtual communities propertied classes to France was voiced by Edmund Burke in his Reflections on india the Revolution in France. Essay On Virtual. Everywhere the supporters of the revolution were regarded with suspicion and persecuted. It was no longer safe to be a friend of the French Revolution. These were stormy times. Essay Writing Company. The revolutionary armies of the young French republic defeated the essay on virtual armies of feudal-monarchist Europe and were counter-attacking all along the line. The young composer was from the beginning an ardent admirer of the maken met thesistools French revolution, and was appalled at the fact that Austria was the leading force in the counter-revolutionary coalition against France.
The capital of the Empire was infected by a mood of terror. The air was thick with suspicion; spies were ever-present and essay free expression was stifled by censorship. But what could not be expressed by the written word could find an expression in great music. His studies with Haydn did not go very well. He was already developing original ideas about music, which did not go down well with the the best essay company old man, firmly wedded to the old courtly-aristocratic style of classical music. It was a clash of the essay communities old with the new. Logos In Essays. The young composer was making a name for himself as a pianist. His style was violent, like the age that produced it. It is said that he hit the keys so hard he broke the strings. He was beginning to be recognised as a new and original composer. He took Vienna by storm.
He was a success. Life can play the cruellest tricks on men and essay women. In Beethoven's case, fate prepared a particularly cruel destiny. In 1796-7 Beethoven fell ill – possibly with a type of meningitis – which affected his hearing. He was 28 years old, and at the peak of his fame. Using Logos. And he was losing his hearing.
About 1800 he experienced the first signs of deafness. Although he did not become completely deaf till his last years, the essay awareness of his deteriorating condition must have been a terrible torture. He became depressed and even suicidal. He wrote of his inner torment, and how only brand management study india, his music held him back from taking his own life. This experience of intense suffering, and the struggle to overcome it, suffuses his music and imbues it with a deeply human spirit. Beethoven as a young man. His personal life was never happy.
He had the habit of falling in love with the daughters (and wives) of his wealthy patrons – which always ended badly, with new fits of depression. After one such spell of depression he wrote: “ Art, and only art, has saved me! It seems to me impossible to leave this world without having given everything I have felt germinating within me .” At the beginning of 1801 he passed through a severe personal crisis. According to communities, the Heiligenstadt Testament , he was on the verge of suicide. Having recovered from his depression, Beethoven threw himself with renewed vigour into the work of custom article writing musical creation. On Virtual Communities. A lesser man would have been destroyed by these blows. But Beethoven turned his deafness – a crippling disability for and ethos in essays, anyone, but a catastrophe for a composer – to an advantage. His inner ear provided him with all that was necessary to compose great music. In the very year of his most devastating crisis (1802) he composed his great Eroica symphony. The dynamics of Beethoven's music were entirely new. Earlier composers wrote quiet parts and loud parts.
But the two were kept completely separate. In Beethoven, on the contrary, we pass rapidly from one to on virtual communities, another. This music contains an america its nerds essay inner tension, an unresolved contradiction which urgently demands resolution. It is the music of communities struggle . The sonata form is a way of brand case study india elaborating and structuring musical matter. It is based on a dynamic vision of musical form and on virtual communities is dialectical in essence. The music develops through a series of needs essay opposing elements. By the essay end of the 18th century the sonata form dominated much of the music composed. Although it is not new, the sonata form was developed and consolidated by Haydn and Mozart.
But in the compositions of the phd dissertation help computer science 18th century we have only the bare potential of the sonata form, not its true content. In part (but only in part) this is a question of technique. The form that Beethoven used was not new, but the way in which he used it was. The sonata form begins with a quick first movement, followed by a slower second movement, a third movement which is merrier in character (originally a minuet, later a scherzo , which literally means a joke), and ending, as it began, with a fast movement. Basically, the sonata form is based on the following line of development: A-B-A. It returns to the beginning, but on a higher level. This is essay on virtual communities, a purely dialectical concept: movement through contradiction, the negation of the negation. It is essay, a kind of musical syllogism: exposition-development-recapitulation, or expressed in other terms: thesis-antithesis-synthesis.
This kind of development is present in each of the movements. But there is also an overall development in which there are conflicting themes which are finally reconciled in essay communities a happy ending. In the final coda we return to using pathos in essays, the initial key, creating the sensation of a triumphal apotheosis. This form contains the germ of essay on virtual communities a profound idea, and help has the potential for essay on virtual communities, serious development. It can also be expressed by a wide range of instrumental combinations: piano solo, piano and violin, string quartet, symphony.
The success of the phd dissertation computer science sonata form was helped by the invention of a new musical instrument: the pianoforte. On Virtual. This was able to express the full dynamic of romanticism, whereas the organ and harpsichord were restricted to play music written according to the principles of polyphony and counterpoint. The development of the sonata form was already far advanced in the late 18 th century. It reached its high point in met thesistools the symphonies of essay on virtual communities Mozart and Haydn, and in one sense it could be argued that the symphonies of Beethoven are only a continuation of america needs this tradition. But in reality, the formal identity conceals a fundamental difference. In its origins, the form of the sonata predominated over its real content. The classical composers of the 18th century were mainly concerned with getting the form right (though Mozart is an exception).
But with Beethoven, the essay on virtual real content of the sonata form finally emerges. His symphonies create an overwhelming sense of the logos in essays process of struggle and development through contradictions. Here we have the most sublime example of the dialectical unity of form and essay communities content. This is the secret of all great art. Such heights have rarely been reached in the history of custom article writing service music. The symphonies of Beethoven represent a fundamental break with the past.
If the forms are superficially similar, the content and on virtual spirit of the music is radically different. With Beethoven - and the Romantics who followed in his footsteps - what is important is not the management study india forms in themselves, the formal symmetry and inner equilibrium, but the content. Indeed, the equilibrium is frequently disturbed in Beethoven. There are many dissonances, reflecting inner conflict. In 1800 he wrote his first symphony, a work that still has its roots in the soil of Haydn. It is a sunny work, quite free from the communities spirit of conflict and struggle that characterises his later works. It really gives one no idea of what was to come. The Pathetique piano sonata (opus 13) is altogether different. It is quite unlike the article piano sonatas of Haydn and Mozart.
Beethoven was influenced by Schiller's theory of essay tragedy and maken tragic art, which he saw not just as human suffering, but above all as a struggle to resist suffering, to on virtual, fight against it. The message is clearly expressed in writing company the first movement, which opens with complex and dissonant sounds (listen). These mysterious chords soon give way to a central agitated passage which suggests this resistance to suffering. This inner conflict plays a key role in Beethoven's music and gives it a character completely different to that of 18th century music. It is the on virtual voice of the best a new epoch: a thunderous voice that demands to essay communities, be heard.
The question that must be posed is: how do we explain this striking difference? The short and easy answer is that this musical revolution is the product of the mind of a genius. That is correct. Probably Beethoven was the greatest musical genius of all time. But it is an answer that really answers nothing. Why did this entirely new musical language emerge precisely at this moment and not 100 years earlier? Why did it not occur to Mozart, Haydn, or, for using and ethos, that matter, to Bach? The sound world of Beethoven is not one composed of beautiful sounds, as was the music of Mozart and Haydn. It does not flatter the ear or send the listener away tapping his feet and whistling a pleasant tune. On Virtual. It is a rugged sound, a musical explosion, a musical revolution that accurately conveys the spirit of the times.
Here there is maken, not only variety but conflict . Beethoven frequently uses the direction sforzando – which signifies attack. This is violent music, full of movement, rapidly shifting moods, conflict, contradiction. With Beethoven the sonata form advances to a qualitatively higher level. He transformed it from a mere form to a powerful and at the same time intimate expression of essay on virtual his innermost feelings. Phd Dissertation Computer Science. In some of his piano compositions he wrote the instruction: sonata, quasi una fantasia , indicating that he was looking for absolute freedom of expression through the medium of the sonata. Here the dimension of the sonata is greatly expanded in comparison to its classical form. The tempi are more flexible, and even change place. Above all, the finale is no longer merely a recapitulation, but a real development and culmination of all that has gone before. When applied to his symphonies the sonata form as developed by Beethoven reaches an unheard-of level of sublimity and power.
The virile energy that propels his fifth and third symphonies is sufficient proof of this. This is not music for essay, easy listening or entertainment. It is music that is designed to move, to shock and to inspire to action. It is the voice of rebellion cast in music. This is no accident, for essay writing, Beethoven’s revolution in music echoed a revolution in essay on virtual communities real life. Beethoven was a child of his age – the age of the French Revolution. He wrote most of his greatest work in the midst of revolution, and the spirit of revolution impregnates every note of it. It is utterly impossible to using in essays, understand him outside this context. Beethoven boldly swept aside all existing musical conventions, just as the French revolution cleaned out the essay communities Augean stables of the feudal past. His was a new kind of music, music that opened many doors for future composers, just as the French revolution opened the door to company, a new democratic society. The inner secret of Beethoven’s music is the most intense conflict.
It is a conflict that rages in most of on virtual communities his music and reaches its most impressive heights in his last seven symphonies, beginning with the Third symphony, known as the Eroica . This was the real turning-point in needs its nerds the musical evolution of essay on virtual communities Beethoven and also of the history of music in general. And the roots of this revolution in brand music must be found outside of music, in society and history. A decisive turning-point both in Beethoven's life and in the evolution of western music was the compsition of his third symphony (the Eroica ). Up till now, the musical language of the first and second symphonies did not depart substantially from the on virtual sound world of management case india Mozart and Haydn. But from the very first notes of the Eroica we enter an entirely different world. The music has a political sub-text, the origin of which is well known. Beethoven was a musician, not a politician, and his knowledge of on virtual events in France was necessarily confused and incomplete, but his revolutionary instincts were unfailing and in the end always led him to the correct conclusions. Logos. He had heard reports of the rise of a young officer in the revolutionary army called Bonaparte.
Like many others, he formed the impression that Napoleon was the continuer of the revolution and defender of the rights of man. He therefore planned to dedicate his new symphony to Bonaparte. This was an error, but quite understandable. On Virtual. It was the same error that many people committed when they assumed that Stalin was the real heir of Lenin and the defender of the ideals of the October revolution. But slowly it became clear that his hero was departing from the ideals of the Revolution and consolidating a regime that aped some of the worst features of the old despotism. In 1799, Bonaparte's coup signified the definitive end of the period of the best essay revolutionary ascent. In August of 1802 Napoleon secured the consulate for life, with power to name his successor. An obsequious senate begged him to re-introduce hereditary rule “to defend public liberty and maintain equality”.
Thus, in the name of “liberty” and on virtual communities “equality” the French people were invited to place their head in a noose. It is always the way with usurpers in every period in history. The emperor Augustus maintained the outward forms of the Roman Republic and publicly feigned a hypocritical deference to the Senate, while systematically subverting the republican constitution. Not long afterwards, his successor Caligula made his prize horse a senator, which was a far more realistic appraisal of the situation. Stalin, the leader of the enquete maken met thesistools political counter-revolution in essay on virtual Russia, proclaimed himself the needs faithful disciple of Lenin while trampling all the traditions of Leninism underfoot. Communities. Gradually the norms of proletarian soviet democracy and egalitarianism were replaced by inequality, bureaucratic and totalitarian rule. In the army, all the old rank and privileges abolished by the October revolution were reintroduced. The virtues of the using logos and ethos in essays Family were exalted.
Eventually, Stalin even discovered a role for the Orthodox Church, as a faithful servant of his regime. In all this, he was only treading a road that had already been traversed by communities Napoleon Bonaparte, the gravedigger of the French Revolution. Case Study India. In order to find some kind of sanction and respectability for his dictatorship, Napoleon began to on virtual communities, copy all the custom outward forms of the old regime: aristocratic titles, splendid uniforms, rank and, of course, religion. The French revolution had practically wiped out the Catholic Church. The mass of the people, except in the most backward areas like the Vendee, hated the Church, which they correctly identified with the rule of the old oppressors. Now Napoleon attempted to enlist the essay on virtual support of the the best essay writing company Church for his regime, and signed a Concordat with the Pope. From afar, Beethoven followed the developments in France with growing alarm and essay on virtual despondency. Already by 1802 Beethoven’s opinion of the best company Napoleon was beginning to change. In a letter to a friend written in that year, he wrote indignantly: “ Everything is trying to slide back into the old rut after Napoleon signed the Concordat with the Pope .” But far worse was to essay on virtual, come.
On May 18 1804 Napoleon became Emperor of the French. The coronation ceremony took place at the cathedral of Notre Dame on December 2 nd . As the Pope poured holy oil over the head of the usurper, all traces of the old Republican constitution were washed away. In place of the old austere Republican simplicity all the ostentatious splendour of the maken met thesistools old monarchy reappeared to mock the on virtual communities memory of the Revolution for custom article writing service, which so many brave men and women had sacrificed their lives. When Beethoven received news of these events he was beside himself with rage. He angrily crossed out his dedication to Napoleon in the score of communities his new symphony. The manuscript still exists, and we can see that he attacked the page with such violence that it has a hole torn through it. He then dedicated the computer science symphony to an anonymous hero of the revolution: the on virtual communities Eroica symphony was born.
Beethoven’s orchestral works were already beginning to produce new sounds that had never been heard before. They shocked the Viennese public, used to the genteel tunes of Haydn and brand management Mozart. Yet Beethoven’s first two symphonies, though very fine, still look back to on virtual, the relaxed, easy-going aristocratic world of the 18 th century, the world as it was before it was shattered in 1789. The Eroica represents a tremendous breakthrough, a great leap forward for music, a real revolution. Sounds like these had never been heard before. The unfortunate musicians who had to play this for writing, the first time must have been shocked and completely bewildered.
The Eroica caused a sensation. Up till then, a symphony was supposed to last at most half an hour. Essay Communities. The first movement of the needs its nerds essay Eroica lasted as long as an entire sypmphony of the 18th century. And it was a work with a message: a work with something to say. The dissonances and violence of the on virtual first movement are clearly a call to struggle. That this means a revolutionary struggle is clear from the phd dissertation help original dedication. Trotsky once observed that revolutions are voluble affairs. The French Revolution was characterised by its oratory. Here were truly great mass orators: Danton, Saint-Just, Robespierre, and even Mirabeau before them. Essay On Virtual Communities. When these men spoke, they did not just address an audience: they were speaking to posterity, to history.
Hence the rhetorical character of their speeches. They did not speak, they declaimed. Their speeches would begin with a striking phrase, which would immediately present a central theme which would then be developed in different ways, before making an emphatic re-appearance at the end. America Needs Its Nerds. It is just the same with the Eroica symphony. It does not speak, it declaims. The first movement of this symphony opens with two dissonant chords that resemble a man striking his fist on on virtual a table, demanding our attention, just like an impassioned orator in a revolutionary assembly. Pathos And Ethos. Beethoven then launches into a kind of musical cavalry charge, a tremendously impetuous forward thrust that is interrupted by clashes, conflict and on virtual struggle, and using and ethos in essays even momentarily halted by moments of sheer exhaustion, only to resume its triumphant forward march (listen).
In this movement we are in essay on virtual the thick of the Revolution itself, with all its ebbs and flows, its victories and defeats, its triumphs and its despairs. It is the French Revolution in music. The second movement is a funeral march – in memory of a hero. It is a massive piece of the best essay work, as weighty and solid as granite (listen). The slow, sad tread of the essay on virtual communities funeral march is interrupted by a section that recaptures the using glories and triumphs of one who has given his life for the revolution (listen).
The central passage creates a massive sound edifice that creates a sensation of unbearable grief, before finally returning to essay, the central theme of the funeral march. This is one of the greatest moments in the music of Beethoven – or any music. The final movement is in an entirely different spirit. The symphony ends on a note of supreme optimism. After all the article defeats, setbacks and disappointments, Beethoven is saying to us: “ Yes, my friend, we have suffered a grievous loss, but we must turn the page and open a new chapter.
The human spirit is strong enough to rise above all defeats and continue the struggle. And we must learn to laugh at adversity .” Like the essay on virtual communities great French revolutionaries, Beethoven was convinced that he was writing for posterity. When (as frequently happened) musicians complained that they could not play his music because it was too difficult, he used to america its nerds, answer: Don't worry, this is music for the future . Beethoven's revolution in music was not understood by many of his contemporaries. They regarded this music as bizarre, hair-brained, even crazy. It jolted the philistines out of their comfortable reveries.
Audiences resented it precisely because it compelled them to think what the music was about. Instead of pleasant and easy tunes, Beethoven confronted the listener with meaningful themes, with ideas conveyed in music . This tremendous innovation later became the basis of all Romantic music, culminating in essay communities the Leitmotifs of Wagner's vast musical dramas. Study. The basis of all subsequent developments is Beethoven. Of course, there is no shortage of great lyrical moments in Beethoven, as in the Sixth ( Pastorale ) symphony and on virtual the third movement of the Ninth. Even in the fiercest of needs essay battles there are moments of essay lull, but the lull never lasts long and the best essay company is only the prelude to communities, new periods of the best essay writing company struggle. Such is the real significance of the slow movements in Beethoven. They are truly sublime moments, but they have no independent significance, separate and apart from the struggle. Beethoven's themes mean something.
Of course, this is not superficial programme music. The nearest thing to a descriptive programme is the Sixth Symphony, the Pastorale , where each movement is prefaced by a note that conveys a particular mood or setting (Pleasant feelings on arriving in the countryside; By the brook; Shephards' merrymaking and storm etc.). But this is an exception. The meaning of these themes is more abstract and general. Yet the implications are clear.
A revolutionary spirit moves every bar of communities Beethoven's symphonies, especially the Fifth. Essay. The celebrated opening bars of this work (listen) have been compared to essay, Fate knocking at the door. These hammer blows are perhaps the most striking opening of any musical work in history. The conductor Nikolaus Harnancourt, whose recorded cycle of the Beethoven symphonies has been widely acclaimed, has said of this symphony: This is not music; it is political agitation. It is saying to needs essay, us: the world we have is no good. Let us change it! Let's go! Another famous conductor and musicologist, John Elliot Gardener, has discovered that all the main themes in this symphony are based on French revolutionary songs. This is the first symphony to trace in essay on virtual a systematic manner the progress from the minor to the major key. Although this transition had been done before, the irresistible development from america needs, minor to major, its dialectical development, has no precedents. Like the revolution itself, the struggle that unfolds in communities the development of Beethoven's Fifth passes through a whole series of phases: from america needs its nerds essay, a tremendous forward thrust that sweeps all before it to moments of indecision and essay on virtual despair, leading up to the last movement with its glorious blaze of triumph.
The central message of Beethoven's Fifth is struggle and triumph over all the odds. As we have seen, the roots of this symphony are once more firmly in the French Revolution. Enquete Met Thesistools. Yet its message does not depend on essay on virtual this, or any other association. It can communicate itself to many people in different circumstances. But the brand management message is always the same: it is necessary to fight! Never surrender! In the end we will surely win! The Germans who listened to essay, it in Beethoven's lifetime derived inspiration to fight against the French occupiers of their native land.
During the Second World War, the opening bars of the Fifth (which by coincidence are the musical equivalent of the Morse code signal for V - meaning victory) were used to met thesistools, rally the French people to fight the German occupiers. Thus, great music speaks to us down the centuries, long after its true origins have been lost in the mists of time. Beethoven was a revolutionary in every sense of the word. The kind of essay communities music he wrote had never been heard before. Prior to this, music was mainly an aristocratic affair. Josef Haydn (whose father was a simple wheelwright) worked for the Esterhazy family for over thirty years.
His music was designed mainly to please his aristocratic audiences. It is great music, without doubt, but also undemanding. Beethoven’s symphonies are another world. Beethoven's only opera Fidelio was originally born as Leonora , with a woman as the central figure. Leonora was written in 1805 when the victorious French army had entered Vienna. America. On the essay on virtual first night most of the audience was made up of French officers and their ladies.
Like the Eroica , it also has clear revolutionary overtones, especially in the famous prisoners' chorus. The political prisoners who slowly emerge from the darkness of their dungeon into the light of day sing a moving chorus: Oh what joy to breathe free air. America Needs Essay. This is a veritable ode to Freedom, a constant element in Beethoven's thought and work. On Virtual Communities. Likewise, the incidental music to the play Egmont, based on the events of the revolt of the Netherlands against needs its nerds, Spanish rule, has an explicit revolutionary message. The historical Egmont was a Flemish nobleman in the 16 th century, that terrible period when the Netherlands languished under the essay heel of Spanish despotism. A gifted and courageous soldier, Egmont fought on the Spanish side in the wars of Charles V, and was even made governor of Flanders by the Spanish. But despite his services to the Spanish Crown, he fell under suspicion and was beheaded in enquete Brussels on June 5, 1568. Beethoven learned the story of Egmont from the tragedy of that name written by Goethe in 1788, one year before the French Revolution. Essay On Virtual. Here the man whose statue now stands in Brussels is presented as a hero of the war of national liberation of the Netherlands against the Spanish oppressors. Beethoven set Goethe’s play to music.
He saw Egmont as a symbol of the revolutionary struggle against tyranny at all times and in every country. By placing the enquete met thesistools action in the 16 th century, he could avoid the accusation of subversion, but subversive it was. Today only the famous Egmont Overture is well known. This is a pity because Beethoven’s Incidental Music to Egmont contains other marvellous material. Egmont’s final speech, as he goes calmly to his death, is a veritable denunciation of tyranny and a courageous call to the people to revolt and, if necessary, to give their lives to essay on virtual, the cause of freedom. It ends with the following lines: Forward, good people! The goddess. of victory leads you. And as the sea. breaks through your dikes, so. crush, tear down tyranny's. Essay Writing Company. ramparts, and sweep them, drowning, from the essay communities ground. which they usurp.
Listen, listen! How often this sound. Custom Article. would call me to step out on virtual communities eagerly. Using Pathos Logos And Ethos In Essays. towards the field of battle and. victory! How lightheartedly did. the comrades stride on their. Essay On Virtual Communities. perilous way! I too will step. from this dungeon towards an honourable. death: I die for the freedom which I. have lived and fought for, and to which I. Enquete Maken Met Thesistools. now offer myself up as sorrowful victim.
Yes, rally them all! Close your ranks, you do not. frighten me. I am used to. standing betwixt spears, and, beset by imminent death, to feel my courageous life blood. On Virtual Communities. coursing twice as quickly through my veins. Friends, pluck up courage! Behind you. are your parents, your wives, your children. But these people are driven on by their ruler's. empty words, not by their own inclination. Friends, defend what is yours! and. fall gladly to save those you love most, and follow as I lead. Article. These words are followed by the Victory Symphony , which ends the essay on virtual communities work in a blaze of fire (listen). But how can one end a tragedy on such a note?
How can one speak of victory when the leader of the rebellion has been executed? This little detail tells us all we need to know about Beethoven’s outlook. Here we have a stubborn and incorrigible optimist, a man who refuses to admit defeat, a man with a boundless confidence in the future of humanity. In this marvellous music he is saying to us: no matter how many defeats we suffer, no matter how many heroes perish, no matter how many times we are thrown to the ground, we will always arise again! You can never defeat us!
For you can never conquer our minds and souls. This music expresses the undying spirit of revolution. Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Beethoven’s revolutionary optimism was about to experience its most serious test. Despite the fact that Napoleon had restored all the outward forms of the Ancien Regime , the help fear and loathing for Napoleonic France in monarchist Europe was no less than before. The crowned heads of Europe feared the revolution even in the degenerate, twisted form of Bonapartism, just as later they feared and hated Stalin’s bureaucratic caricature of October. They conspired against it, launched attacks on it, tried by every means to strangle and suffocate it. Essay Communities. The advance of Napoleon’s armies on every front gave a material content to these feelings of alarm.
The reactionary monarchist regimes of Europe, led by England with its limitless supplies of gold, exerted every nerve and sinew to writing, confront the threat from France. We enter into a convulsive period of war, foreign conquest and national liberation struggles, which, with ebbs and flows, lasted more than a decade. Napoleon’s Grande Armee conquered almost the whole of Continental Europe before finally suffering a serious defeat in the frozen wastes of Russia in 1812. On Virtual Communities. Weakened by this heavy blow, Napoleon was finally defeated by an Anglo-Prussian force on the muddy fields of Waterloo. For Beethoven the writing service year 1815 was marked by two disasters: one on the world stage, the other of communities a personal character: the defeat of France at Waterloo and enquete met thesistools the death of the composer’s beloved brother Kasper. Deeply affected by essay the loss of his brother, Beethoven insisted on taking charge of the upbringing of essay company his son, Karl. This led to essay communities, a long and bitter wrangle with Karl’s mother over custody. The Congress of Vienna.
The period after 1815 was one of black reaction. Monarchist-feudal counter-revolution triumphed all along the line. The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) reinstated the rule of the Bourbons in France. Metternich and the Tsar of Russia launched a veritable crusade to overthrow progressive regimes everywhere. Revolutionaries, liberals and progressives were hunted down, imprisoned and executed. A reactionary ideology based on religion and the monarchist principle was imposed. Monarchist Austria and Prussia dominated Europe, backed up by the bayonets of tsarist Russia.
It is phd dissertation help science, true that the essay communities war against France contained elements of a war of national liberation in countries like Germany. Enquete Maken. But the outcome was entirely reactionary. The clearest case of this was Spain. Foreign rule was overthrown by a national movement, the main component of which was the dark masses - a downtrodden and illiterate peasantry, under the influence of a fanatical and reactionary clergy. Under the essay on virtual reign of Fernando VII, reaction reigned in Spain, where the experiment with a liberal constitution was crushed underfoot. Goya: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid (1814) The magnificent, tortured paintings of custom article writing service Goya’s last years reflect the on virtual communities essence of this turbulent period. Goya's paintings and etchings are a graphic reflection of the world he saw around him. Writing. Like the music of Beethoven, these paintings are more than art. They are a political statement. Essay Communities. They are an computer science angry protest against the prevailing spirit of reaction and on virtual obscurantism.
As if to underline his protest, Goya chose the road of voluntary self-exile from the repressive regime of the traitor king Fernando VII, his old protector. Custom Article Writing Service. Goya was not alone in his hatred of the Spanish monarch - Beethoven refused to send him his works. By 1814 - the date of the Congress of essay Vienna - Beethoven was at the pinnacle of his career. But the gathering reaction throughout Europe which buried the help computer science hopes of a generation had a dampening effect on Beethoven's spirit. In 1812, when Napoleon’s army was halted at the gates of Moscow, Beethoven was working on essay his Seventh and Eighth symphonies. Then, after 1815, silence. He wrote no more symphonies for enquete, almost a decade, when he wrote his last, and greatest symphony. The final defeat of what remained of the French Revolution buried all hopes and on virtual suffocated the creative drive. The years 1815-1820 saw a sharp decline in Beethoven’s output when compared to the tremendous outpouring of music in the previous period.
Only six works of writing company note were produced in as many years. They include the song cycle An der fernte Geliebte (To the distant loved one), the last sonatas for cello and piano, the opus 101 piano sonatas and the great Hammerklavier sonata, a work full of inner contradictions and discord, possibly reflecting the discord in essay on virtual his personal life. He was now profoundly deaf. We read heartbreaking stories of needs its nerds his struggle to hear something of his own compositions. These have an increasingly contemplative and introverted, philosophical character. The slow movement of the Hammerklavier sonata, for instance, is openly tragic, reflecting a sense of acceptance. Beethoven’s deafness condemned him to an agonising solitude, made worse by frequent periods of material want. He became ever more introverted, moody and suspicious, which only served to essay communities, isolate him still more from other people. After the death of his brother he developed an obsession with his nephew Karl and became convinced that he should be in charge of the boy’s upbringing. He used all his influence to get custody over his nephew and phd dissertation computer then denied Karl’s mother access to her son. Lacking any experience of parenthood, he treated Karl with excessive harshness and rigidity.
This eventually led Karl to essay communities, attempt suicide – a devastating blow for Beethoven. Later they became reconciled, but the using and ethos in essays whole business led only to great unhappiness and pain for everyone concerned. What was the reason for this strange obsession? Despite his passionate nature, Beethoven never succeeded in forming a satisfactory relationship with a woman and had no children of his own. All his emotions were poured into his music. This was to essay, the eternal benefit of humanity, but it undoubtedly left a void in Beethoven’s personal life. No longer a young man, deaf, lonely and facing the shipwreck of all his hopes, he was desperately seeking to fill the void in his soul.
Thwarted in the political sphere, Beethoven threw himself into what he imagined was the family life he had never had. This kind of situation is well known to revolutionaries. Whereas in times of revolutionary upsurge, personal and family matters seem to pale into insignificance, in periods of reaction, such things assume a far greater significance, inducing some people to drop out of the movement and to seek refuge in the bosom of the family. It is article, true that this affair does not show Beethoven in the best light, and essay on virtual some small-minded people have tried to use the logos in essays Karl episode to blacken Beethoven’s name. Such accusations bring to mind Hegel’s remark that no man is a hero to his valet, who sees all the essay faults of his personal life, his eccentricities and vices. But as Hegel comments, the valet may criticise these failings. His range of vision does not see any further than such trivial matters and that explains why he will only america needs its nerds, ever be a valet and not a great man. For all his failings (and failings are inevitable to all humans), Beethoven was one of the communities greatest men who ever lived. Despite everything, in this long, dark night of reaction, Beethoven never lost faith in phd dissertation computer the future of humanity and in the revolution. It has now become commonplace to refer to his great humanitarianism.
This is correct as far as it goes but it does not go far enough. It places Beethoven on the same level as parsons, pacifists and well-meaning old ladies who dedicate their spare time to “worthy causes”. On Virtual. That is to say, it places a giant on the same level as a pygmy. Beethoven as an old man. Beethoven’s outlook was not just a vague humanitarianism which wishes the world were a better place but never gets beyond impotent hand-wringing and pious good intentions. Phd Dissertation Help. Beethoven was not a bourgeois humanist but a militant republican and an ardent supporter of the French Revolution. He was not prepared to on virtual communities, surrender to the prevailing reaction or to pathos, compromise with the status quo. This uncompromising revolutionary spirit never left him to the end of his days.
There was iron in this man’s soul which sustained him through all the trials and tribulations of life. His deafness lasted for the last nine years of his life. One by one he had lost his most trusted friends and was utterly alone. In this desperate solitude, Beethoven was reduced to communicating to people in essay on virtual writing. He neglected his appearance even more than before, and gave the appearance of a tramp when he went out.
Yet even in such tragic circumstances, he was working on his greatest masterpieces. Like Goya in his black period, he was now composing not for the public but for himself, finding expression for his innermost thoughts. The music of essay his last years is the product of the essay maturity of old age. It is not beautiful music but very profound. It transcends Romanticism and points the way forward to america its nerds, the tortured world of our own times. Far from being popular at this time, Beethoven’s works were profoundly unfashionable. They were against on virtual, the spirit of the times.
In times of reaction, the public does not want profound ideas. Thus, after the defeat of the Paris Commune, the frivolous light operettas of Offenbach were all the rage. The bourgeoisie of Paris did not want to be reminded of brand management study india storm and stress but to drink champagne and watch the antics of pretty chorus girls. The merry but superficial tunes of communities Offenbach reflected this spirit perfectly. In this period Beethoven wrote the Missa Solemnis , the Grosse Fuge and the late string quartets (1824-6), music far ahead of its time. This music delves far deeper into the depths of the human soul than almost any other musical composition.
Yet so extraordinarily original was this music that many people actually took it to mean that Beethoven had gone mad. Beethoven paid absolutely no attention to all this. He cared nothing for public opinion and was never discreet in expressing his views. Phd Dissertation Help Computer. This was dangerous. Only his status as a famous composer kept him out of prison.
We should bear in mind that at this time Austria was one of the essay on virtual main centres of European reaction. Not only maken, politics but also cultural life was suffocated. The emperor’s police spies were on on virtual communities every street corner. The censorship kept a vigilant eye on all activities that could be considered even mildly subversive. Under such circumstances, the respectable Viennese bourgeois did not want to needs its nerds, listen to music intended to rouse them to struggle for a better world. They preferred to have their ears gently tickled by essay on virtual communities the comic operas of Rossini – the composer of the hour. By contrast, Beethoven’s great Missa Solemnis was a flop. The torment in the great man’s soul found its reflection in that strange composition known as the Grosse Fuge . It is intensely personal music that undoubtedly tells us a lot about Beethoven’s state of mind at this time (listen) . Here we are in the presence of a world of conflict, dissonance and unresolved contradictions. It was not what the public wanted to hear.
Beethoven had long been considering the idea of a choral symphony, and took as his text from Schiller's Ode to Joy , which he had known since 1792. In fact, Schiller had originally considered an Ode to Freedom (Freiheit), but because of the enormous pressure of the reactionary forces, he changed the word to Joy (Freude). However, for Beethoven and his generation the message was quite clear. Custom Article Service. This was an Ode to Freedom . The first sketch for communities, the Ninth symphony dates back to 1816, one year after the battle of Waterloo. Met Thesistools. It was finished seven years later, in 1822-24, after the Philharmonic Society of London had offered the sum of 50 pounds for two symphonies. Instead they got this remarkable work which is much more than any two other symphonies ever written. The Ninth symphony even today has lost none of its ability to shock and inspire. This work,which has been called The Marseillaise of Humanity , was first performed in essay Vienna on May 7, 1824. In the midst of universal reaction, this music expresses the voice of the best revolutionary optimism.
It is the voice of a man who refuses to essay on virtual communities, admit defeat, whose head remains unbowed in management study adversity. Its long first movement arises gradually out of nebulous chords, so indistinct that they seem to emerge out of darkness, like the primaeval chaos that was supposed to precede Creation. It is like a man saying: “Yes, we have passed through a dark night when all seemed hopeless, but the human spirit is capable of emerging triumphant from the darkest night.” There follows the most amazing music full of essay dynamic change, forward movement, constantly checked by contradiction, but inexorably advancing. It is like the first movement of the Fifth, but on custom article writing an infinitely bigger scale. Like the Fifth, this is violent music, and it is revolutionary violence that tolerates no opposition, but sweeps everything before it. It denotes struggle that succeeds against incredible odds, leading to ultimate triumph. Essay Communities. Such music had never been heard before. It was something entirely new and computer science revolutionary.
It is impossible today to comprehend the impact it must have made on the audience. Communities. The final theme which pours out at the end like a burst of radiant sunshine through the clouds is, in fact, heard throughout the symphony in a variety of subtle disguises (listen). Maken Met Thesistools. The message of the final, choral, movement is unambiguous: All men shall be brothers! This is essay, Beethoven's final message to humanity. It is a message of help computer hope - and defiance. Beethoven, old, dishevelled, unkempt and completely deaf, conducted the symphony. He was unable even to keep time correctly, waving his arms furiously in essay on virtual communities the air, even after the orchestra had stopped playing. When the last note died away, he could not even hear the wild applause that greeted his work.
The great man stood facing the orchestra for a few moments. Then the contralto Karoline Unger gently took him by brand management study india the shoulders and turned him round to face the communities public. Such was its impact on needs its nerds essay the audience that they gave the composer no fewer than five ovations. So great was the on virtual communities tumult that the Vienna police – ever on the lookout for manifestations of dangerous public demonstrations – finally had to america needs, intervene to stop it. After all, three ovations was considered the limit even for the emperor.
Would such a demonstration of enthusiasm not be considered an essay on virtual communities offence to His Majesty? The instinctive reaction of the police was not mistaken. There is indeed something profoundly subversive in the Ninth, from the first bar to the last. The Ninth symphony was a success, but it made no money. Beethoven was now in financial difficulties and his health was deteriorating. He caught pneumonia and america essay had to undergo an operation.
The wound became infected and his last days were spent in agony. Beethoven died in Vienna on March 27, 1827, at the age of only 56, his health undermined, and his personal life dogged by tragedy. Goya, who was also deaf, died in essay communities the same year. 25,000 people turned out for his funeral - a fact which shows the extent to which his genius had been recognised in his lifetime. Yet he remains alive today, as vibrant and relevant as ever. As was the man, so was his music. In his music we feel we have the whole man. We feel that we have known and phd dissertation help loved him all our lives. Beethoven's greatness consists in the fact that in his music the individual is at one with the universal.
This is music which constantly suggests a struggle to overcome all obstacles and essay on virtual communities rise to a higher state. His music was revolutionary because in its searing intensity, it cast light on aspects of the human condition never before expressed in music. It was truth expressed in music. The Ninth symphony was Beethoven’s last word – a fearless challenge to the apparently triumphant reaction that seemed to be all-powerful after the defeat of the america its nerds essay French armies in 1815. That apparently final victory of the forces of on virtual communities reaction led to a wave of pathos and ethos despondency and defeatism that suffocated the hopes of the generation that looked for salvation to the French Revolution. Many former revolutionaries fell into despair, and more than one went over to the side of the enemy. It is a very familiar picture to our own generation, with uncanny parallels to the situation that followed the on virtual collapse of the Soviet Union.
Then also it seemed that Europe lay prostrate at the feet of enquete royalist reaction. Who could stand against such a power as the united monarchical powers of Europe, with the might of the Russian Tsar behind every throne and police spies on essay every street corner? Despotism and religious obscurantism were triumphant. Everywhere there was silence as of the grave. And yet, in the midst of this terrible desolation, a brave man raised his voice and gave the world a message of hope. He himself never heard this message, except inside his head, where it was born.
But the custom writing defeat of France and the re-imposition of the Bourbons could not prevent the rise of capitalism and the bourgeoisie, nor halt the tide of revolution, which broke out again and again: in 1830, 1848, 1871. The system of essay on virtual production which had triumphed in England now began to penetrate other European countries. Industry, the power loom, the railways, the steamship, were the motor forces of universal and irresistible change. The ideas of the French Revolution – the ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity, and the rights of man – continued to grip the article service imagination of the new generation. But increasingly the old revolutionary ideas were filled with a new class content. The rise of capitalism meant the development of industry and the working class – the bearer of a new idea and a new stage in human history – socialism. The music of communities Beethoven was the writing starting point for a new school of music, Romanticism, which was inextricably linked to Revolution. In April 1849, in the heat of on virtual revolution in Germany, the brand management study india young composer Richard Wagner conducted Beethoven’s Ninth symphony in Dresden. In the audience was the Russian anarchist, Bakunin, whose ideas influenced Wagner in his youth. Enthused by the music, Bakunin told Wagner that if there was anything worth saving from the ruins of the old world, this score would be it.
Just ninety years after the death of Beethoven the Russian Tsar was himself overthrown by communities the working class. The October Revolution was to play a role similar to that of the French Revolution. It inspired generations of men and women with a vision of a new and better world. True, the enquete met thesistools Russian Revolution degenerated, under conditions of frightful backwardness, into a monstrous caricature that Trotsky, using an historical analogy with the French Revolution, characterised as proletarian Bonapartism. Essay On Virtual. And just as Napoleon’s dictatorship undermined the French Revolution and led to the restoration of the Bourbons, so the Stalinist bureaucratic dictatorship in Russia has led to the restoration of capitalism. Today, in a world dominated by the forces of triumphant reaction, we face a similar situation to that faced by Beethoven and his generation after 1815. Now, as then, many former revolutionaries have abandoned the essay writing company struggle. Essay On Virtual Communities. We will not join the camp of the company cynics and sceptics, but prefer to follow the example of Ludwig van Beethoven. Essay Communities. We will continue to proclaim the inevitability of the socialist revolution. And history will prove us right.
Those who predict the end of history have been proved wrong many times. History is brand case study, not so easy to stop! Only three years after Beethoven’s death the essay communities French Bourbons were overthrown by the July Revolution. This was followed by revolutions all over Europe in 1848-9. Then there was the Paris Commune of 1871, the first genuine workers’ revolution in history, which paved the way for the Bolshevik Revolution in america 1917. Essay On Virtual Communities. Therefore, we see no reason for pessimism.
The present world crisis confirms the Marxist analysis that the capitalist system is in a historical blind alley. We confidently predict that the collapse of the Soviet Union, far from being the end of america needs history, is only the essay communities prelude to its first act. The second act will be the overthrow of capitalism in one country or another, which will prepare the way for a new revolutionary wave on enquete maken met thesistools a scale never before seen in history. The decline of capitalism is not only expressed in economic and political terms. The impasse of the essay communities system is reflected not only in the stagnation of the productive forces but also in a general stagnation of phd dissertation computer science culture. Yet, as always happens in essay communities history, beneath the surface new forces are struggling to phd dissertation computer science, be born.
These forces require a voice, an idea, a banner around which to gather and fight. That will come in time, and when it does it will not only come in the shape of political programmes. It will find its expression in music and art, in novels and poetry, in the theatre and cinema. For Beethoven and Goya showed us long ago that art can be a weapon of the revolution. Essay. Like the great French revolutionaries – Robespierre, Danton, Marat and Saint-Juste – Beethoven was convinced that he was writing for posterity. When (as frequently happened) musicians complained that they could not play his music because it was too difficult, he used to answer: Don't worry, this is music for the future . We can say the same about the ideas of socialism. They represent the future, while the discredited ideas of the bourgeoisie represent the enquete maken past. For those who find this difficult to communities, understand, we say: don’t worry, the future will show who is right! In the future, when men and women look back on its nerds essay the history of revolutions and the repeated attempts to create a genuinely human society based on true freedom, equality and fraternity, they will remember the man who, using for his medium music that he could not hear, fought for a better tomorrow that he would never see. They will relive the great battles of the past and they will understand the on virtual communities language of enquete maken met thesistools Beethoven: the universal language of the fight for the establishment of a world fit for free men and essay on virtual communities women to live in.
First of May, 2006.  Beethoven was wrong about the Austrians. Two decades after his death, the Austrian working class and using in essays youth rose up in essay the revolution of 1848.
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Use active verb forms and short sentences or bullet points when describing things like skills or achievements. Find places to cut or reword. It’s okay to use sentence fragments in your bullet points. Not only do these points make your resume look good, they also make it more likely that a prospective employer will read all of management study, it. We have a variety of free simple resume examples to suit your needs, including chronological, functional, and combination resumes. Using what you’ve just learned in essay on virtual communities, this guide, look through these templates and choose one that suits your current job search best. Then customize it to america needs its nerds reflect what you have to offer as a unique job candidate.
Good use of white space gives this professional resume template an open feel while subtle colours add design touch. On Virtual Communities. Two main sections let you detail your experiences and phd dissertation computer science, education in communities, a reverse chronological order. Size: 183 B Downloads: 103484 Filename: upfront.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:18:00 / 6327. Very compact and neat professional layout. Notice how the use of red text draws the eye. Enquete Maken Met Thesistools. Just the on virtual communities right amount in the right places can be really helpful to the reader. Size: 183 B Downloads: 102722 Filename: neat.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:38:00 / 4968.
Traditional format with light orange headers and maken, subtle gray titles. Great sample resume for graphic designers, corporate writers, or administrative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 52371 Filename: subtle-creativity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:42:00 / 6315. Margin column for titles and headings provides lots of space for detailed, paragraph statements. Perfect resume example for business, industrial, or vocational professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 34023 Filename: broad-appeal.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:48:00 / 6348. Labor, manufacturing, educational, and essay, service industry skills template. Enquete Met Thesistools. Good use of white space to essay on virtual catch the eye with blue section divider lines and essay company, large, bold section titles.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 17057 Filename: commencing.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 22:42:00 / 6409. Just a bit of colour and creative use of indent make add a creative twist to on virtual this very traditional straight-forward design. Computer. Indented text helps the essay communities headings stand out. Size: 183 B Downloads: 16031 Filename: indent-line.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:22:00 / 5631. Excellent sample for those with lots of company, skills and training and maybe not a lot of experience. On Virtual. Bold headings with vertical divider lines and case study india, blue titles provide focus for the reader. Size: 183 B Downloads: 15296 Filename: fresh-take.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:54:00 / 6092. Conventional, two-page layout with profile photo and red and essay on virtual communities, blue fonts add design touch.
Plus signs used for bullet points. Great for technology, engineering, or financial career seekers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 14440 Filename: creative-conventions.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:32:00 / 6023. Two-page format with a two-column layout offers much space for the best company, multiple sections. Light blue titles and essay, dashed section lines add design touch. Give all of your details here.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 13267 Filename: point-left.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:57:00 / 6354. Subtle red titles and block, sans serif fonts give this template a stately feel. Great use of white space complements paragraph descriptions of your experiences, strengths, and objectives. Size: 183 B Downloads: 13061 Filename: stately.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:19:00 / 6065. Touches of red shadings and phd dissertation help computer science, gray background really draw in the reader#039;s focus.
Plus signs used for bulleted lists with room for multiple sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 12896 Filename: bold-red-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:34:00 / 6345. Check box bullets tick off all of essay, your great career highlights in this two-page resume with blue section divider lines. The Best Company. Excellent resume style for very experienced and accomplished professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 12721 Filename: accomplished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:47:00 / 6135. Perfect use of typography to essay on virtual communities draw attention to your name and a short message. Essay Writing. Horizontal and vertical lines help to divide up the information for an easy read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10147 Filename: important-message.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:46:00 / 4977.
Small profile picture and thin, blue-shaded headers add design to on virtual this classic format with lots of help, space for summary texts and on virtual, bulleted lists. Help. Business, health and IT professionals benefit here. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9064 Filename: packed-classic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:53:00 / 5908. Light brown headings and essay, vertical bright green dashed lines catch the eye and essay company, break content into essay, easy to phd dissertation help computer science read sections. Bold titles bring focus to key experiences and skills.
Great sample for communities, marketing, public relations, or communications professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 8744 Filename: beaming.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:15:00 / 6278. Bold, open squares and thin black lines divide the pathos logos and ethos in essays two-column page layout. Communities. Dates and key words offset in the margins act as section intros. Excellent template for university and IT job seekers.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 8615 Filename: checkmark-timeline.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:18:00 / 5929. Thin and the best essay writing, thick blue lines define each squared section with headings in bold, white fonts to give this template pop. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7114 Filename: blue-pop.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:24:00 / 5795. Offset one-column layout with red and orange colours and bold, large headers and titles with paragraph descriptions. Creative sample with a business feel. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7009 Filename: next-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:32:00 / 6342. Section titles offset in essay on virtual, the margin with blue and light gray fonts.
Small vertical lines used to phd dissertation help computer separate columns. Excellent template for on virtual, those who have been in one industry for several years. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6468 Filename: industry-lifer.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:49:00 / 6041. Dark black section dividers complement light green and blue fonts and bullets. Case Study. Large, three-columned Core Skills section for many key attributes. Serif font type completes mature, professional feel.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 5785 Filename: cosmopolitan.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:41:00 / 6032. A traditional format that portrays a simple elegance. An initialed ribbon provides a smart touch which can be personalized with you initials, your highest qualification or your most prestigious award. Bullet points help you to squeeze in a lot more information without making your resume too long. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5624 Filename: elegant-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:35:00 / 4958.
Two-page, one-column layout with red and essay on virtual communities, orange for headings and brand india, titles. Essay. Lots of using pathos and ethos in essays, space for on virtual communities, detailed, paragraph descriptions. Corporate and academia feel with this sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5623 Filename: tidy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:23:00 / 6287. Traditional layout with bold and the best essay writing company, italic font types. Large red square with white font provides good space for on virtual, objective. Great sample for corporate, IT, and using pathos in essays, nonprofit job seekers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5559 Filename: bold-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 13:37:00 / 5993. This simple block colour really makes a statement and is the perfect backdrop for the black text. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5114 Filename: pretty-pink.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:13:00 / 5665.
One look and everyone will know who you are. On Virtual. The placement size and the best essay, bold text really make the name on communities this resume stand out. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5103 Filename: name.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:44:00 / 4974. Large and small margins add white space while offering plenty of room for multiple sections. Bold orange and blues for titles focus the management case india reader. Essay On Virtual Communities. Great template for entry level positions or new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4692 Filename: offset.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:08:00 / 6056. Bold section titles with arrow points and light maroon titles give this sample a vivid touch. Full page layout for management case study india, multiple sections to let you list plenty of information.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4648 Filename: striking.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:38:00 / 6080. This block and bulleted resume offers a professional-looking style. The enlarged font size for on virtual communities, the objective section clearly defines your goals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4500 Filename: professional-block.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:31:00 / 5711. The use of brand study, bold text, simple colours, underlines and spacing makes this a very easy read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4372 Filename: simple-underline.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:46:00 / 5649. Plus signs and lines outline each area with arrows providing the bulleted direction to essay communities your skills and experience. Scientific, data, and IT feel with this one.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4299 Filename: plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:46:00 / 5724. Easy to scan, one column template with section and management case study, title headings in communities, colour as well as all caps make your information quick to the best essay read. Large Skills Abilities section great for essay on virtual communities, the career changer. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4119 Filename: academia.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:17:00 / 5748. Open and airy one-column format centered on the page. Blue headings and bold titles with plus signs and outlined circle bullets provide subtle design appeal. Service and labour workers take a look here.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4079 Filename: breezy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:35:00 / 6026. Colour contrast and different font types dictate the style and impact of pathos and ethos, this resume. The use of the red always pulls you back to the name of the applicant. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3987 Filename: simple-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:02:00 / 5655. Oversized captions for key words or job titles. Small profile photo with blue shaded section headers. On Virtual. Excellent use of space for intern experience, new graduates, and custom writing, creative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3941 Filename: caption.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:00:00 / 6144. Want a different way to essay on virtual distinguish your sub-headings from your headings? This layout shows how different shades of the same colour can do this.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 3822 Filename: mono-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:48:00 / 4986. Light blue titles, bold headings, and carat bullets with good use of white space in its nerds essay, this basic resume template. Essay On Virtual Communities. Perfect example for service industry and labour staff as well as new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3332 Filename: burgeoning.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:52:00 / 6089. Simple layout with bold headings and thick lines to separate different sections. Not the best format if you have a lot of information to include. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3181 Filename: simple-central.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:10:00 / 5662. Offset sections balance out america this sample. Good use of white space helps focus the reader#039;s eye.
Orang titles provide design touch. Great format to essay on virtual communities take your few years of article writing, experience to the next level. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1180 Filename: moving.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:05:00 / 6147. Thin margins with stacked sections provide lots of area for all of your achievements. Unique Projects area lets you describe your accomplishments.
IT, project management, and essay on virtual communities, senior-level sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 167123 Filename: substantial.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:36:00 / 6077. Thin page border and section divider lines with red and bold, black titles and key words provide an executive feel. Project managers, directors, and senior VPs can do well with this example. Size: 183 B Downloads: 11557 Filename: top-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:42:00 / 6083. A compact resume format that draws the reader’s eye to the important information across different sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10803 Filename: in-a-nutshell.docx Uploaded: 2015-10-10 08:21:00 / 8305.
Two well-defined columns give this sample structure. Thick, orange-coloured bar graphs make your capabilities pop on the page and the italicized, muted gray job titles add the professionalism. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10048 Filename: raise-bar.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:28:00 / 5758. What stands out in this sample is the Skills section. This format provides an instant snapshot of your skill levels that looks very professional and easy to read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9651 Filename: self-assessment.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4980.
Entry-level workers ready for the next step here. Conventional sections with blue headers and phd dissertation help computer, light gray arrows and open circular bullets point all of your strengths and skills. On Virtual. Plenty of room for goals, key word lists, and more. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7393 Filename: space.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:38:00 / 6029. A very smart style that gets straight down to business.
Can you summarize your abilities into a couple of phd dissertation science, sentences? Most prospective employers don#039;t have a lot of time to read through lengthy resumes. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6464 Filename: classic-elegance.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:36:00 / 4961. Great use of contrasting text colour and communities, line thickness to differentiate between sets of information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5484 Filename: section-lines.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:49:00 / 5652. Small margins and thin gray shadowed headings with white fonts offer lots of room in this example. The Best Essay Writing Company. Multiple sections for your training, certifications, skills, and essay, other information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4857 Filename: traditional-plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 21:02:00 / 5836.
Just a bit of the best essay writing company, colour goes a long way in breaking up information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4615 Filename: nonsense.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:10:00 / 5698. Bold headings and shading flush out this sample with plus signs and open circles for essay on virtual, bullet points. Good skills resume for those with lots of writing company, experience and training outside the essay traditional job environment. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3893 Filename: skilled.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:05:00 / 5783. Bold, black headings and section dividers with light-gray lines used for bullets and blue font type for using, your name make this a non-traditional traditional template.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 3876 Filename: non-traditional-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:13:00 / 5923. Complimentary colours for communities, your personal information and the section headings catch the its nerds eye. Simple bullet list in essay, each section offer a straightforward, no nonsense approach. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3274 Filename: career-starter.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:34:00 / 5714. Gray shading and colorful section headers give this contemporary resume a bold and confident air. Here, your skills, strengths, awards, achievements, and career highlights take center stage. This resume lends a decisive and authoritative tone, while not being overbearing or fussy; it still allows your personality and background to shine. This is a perfect template for individuals seeking to change careers or industries, ex-military looking to enter the service civilian workforce, and others who want to emphasise their talents and strengths, and not their previous job titles or employers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 40745 Filename: bulletin.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:20:00 / 6162. Standard Europass CV / Resume Template used in Europe.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 30410 Filename: europass-cv-template.doc Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:26:00 / 7451. Free Modern Resume templates that will get you noticed. Essay On Virtual Communities. Simple, elegant, discreetly modern, with a touch of essay writing, color and essay communities, creativity. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30374 Filename: discreetly-modern.docx Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:09:00 / 7448. Very classy and professional full-page two-column sample. Lots of sections included for key skills, awards, and attributes. Red and blue titles add touch of colour. Great example for those with substantial work experience.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 12926 Filename: firm.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:48:00 / 6086. Two column layout for full page with sections styled into various columns. Light gray divider lines and red and blue titles. Stylish with a corporate feel for america its nerds, marketing director, senior VPs, and principal managers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9107 Filename: aristocratic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:05:00 / 6104.
Two-column layout with profile photo. Large Awards section to list your sales, academic, or artistic achievements. Great sample for advertising, creative, sales, or communication professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 8417 Filename: award-winner.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:15:00 / 6062. Traditional classic layout with a high-end executive feel. Great use of bordered headings, indented bullets and essay on virtual, tabbed text to create an elegant professional look.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 7018 Filename: executive-elegant.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4983. A round portrait option makes this sample a bit different. Then a strong opening statement in bold lettering is great for impact, and makes the reader want to phd dissertation help science find out more about you. At the end of the resume a simple scale allows you to give a snapshot of your levels of competence. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6910 Filename: bold-simplicity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:32:00 / 4946.
Two-column format used for essay on virtual communities, the whole page offers lots of section areas. Light grays for headers and dashed section dividers as well as shaded background to highlight key work experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6670 Filename: split-page.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:47:00 / 6038. Bold headings shaded with olive and dark greens for maken, a sophisticated template. Managers, administrators, directors, and accountants take advantage of the three-columned skills area and essay communities, oversized sections for essay writing, experience, certificates, and essay on virtual communities, licenses. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6547 Filename: polished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:43:00 / 5812. Functional two-page sample with three-column core skills lists and case india, areas for professional experience, work history and on virtual, more. Science. Great resume style for those looking to switch industries. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6157 Filename: new-agenda.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:00:00 / 6098. Checkmarks for bullets with blue, green, and gray fonts catch the on virtual communities eye.
Underlines connect job titles to dates. Analysts, developers, academia, or health care template. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4745 Filename: check.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:51:00 / 6044. Deep and light blue headers with bold font titles add pop for america, this traditional template. Three-column key word section and two-column bulleted experience lists offer space for everything. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4368 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the focus to be on your opening statement? This resume does that.
Make your pitch for on virtual, this job a real eye opener. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3181 Filename: inverse.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:33:00 / 4949. Two-column layout with block paragraph descriptions. Light blues and grays for the best essay, headers, dates, and essay, titles. Excellent sample for business, IT, administrative, or counselling. Size: 183 B Downloads: 2807 Filename: solid-segments.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:43:00 / 6035. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.
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Virtual Community Essay - Eric Nehrlich
Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, and DADA essay. Symbolism has widely been used as a means of representation of gender roles, which have become critical in the modern day society. This has especially been done with regard to enhancing expression of feminine and masculine nude elements found in the common layman societal view. This has ultimately resulted in essay communities, the enhancement and establishment of female and male nude tendencies that are currently used in enquete maken met thesistools, the definition of human perceptions concerning the on virtual same (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 23). The concept essentially takes into account the phenomenal differences that exist among their midst. An expression of symbolism with regard to nudity can be seen in the bath water vase depicting Pelops and Hippodameia on a Chariot in which there is essay writing a picture of a nude youth accompanied by a woman who is draped in cloth (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of essay communities, Fine Art”). This serves to pathos and ethos in essays, bring out symbolic expression of erotic association in the enhancement of male-female relationships. Fauvism is an art movement, which was started back in 1905, and it emphasized on the expression of art forms through the discreet of rare unnatural colors combined into simple forms.
The utilization of numerous colors in this manner gives the work of art a different expression especially when the combinations used are non-standard formulas. This is evident in Henri Matisse’s painting in his work “Blue nude” in which a woman lies down on the ground while emphasis is put on her body features (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 28). The color combination shows a mixture of blue, green, white and orange among others. These colors have been placed in the background in a bid to make the woman’s body look more prominent. Similarly, in Kees van Dongen’s painting “the woman with large hat”, the color combination used projects on the woman’s breast features as opposed to the hat like the essay communities title suggests (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 35). This further serves to emphasize more on the woman’s beauty.
Cubism essentially refers to an artistic movement which begun in the French and has characteristics of phd dissertation help, geometry explained in terms of planes. It is essentially an avant-garde art movement that whose pioneers are Gorge Braque and Pablo Picasso. In addition, other pioneers who contributed to this discovery were Delaunay and Le Fauconnier. These pioneers essentially led to the start of the revolution period concerning the western painting and sculptural representations, and specifically European style of art. It involves portraying two-dimensional art forms in an artistic format that gives them three-dimensional form (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 92). This type of art received accolade from many artists in the global scene. Picasso, for instance, combines visual and tactile perceptions into a single mode, he understands the fact that the essay on virtual picture is not necessarily a transposition of the portrayed diagram but it essentially encompasses elements of sense, idea that contribute to enhancement of its total image (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 185). There are many instrumental examples that serve to support this fundamental view. A good example would be Edgar Degas’ painting ‘the woman in birth’ which portrays a nude woman bathing in an old setting as she bends over showing her back (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 33).
The paint serves to bring out a different aspect of nudity in balancing gender roles in needs its nerds, the fact that there is no explicit depiction of women in a disrespectful manner. The fact that bathing is a private affair serves to portray visible elements as well as tactile elements. The viewer of the picture gets the feeling of what is actually going on in the background from a sensual approach. This positive depiction serves to cement the communities impending relationships between traditional feminine and masculine derived roles. Brand Case! Another example of is essay on virtual Pablo Picasso’s ‘Blue nude’, which shows a woman sitting her with legs crossing as she leans on her elbow by placing one of her elbows on her knees (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 37). This picture portrays a woman under some form of distress and she is barely trying to phd dissertation help, let out her emotions in on virtual, order to america needs its nerds essay, lay matters to rest. This shows the manner in which women are essentially isolated from essay on virtual communities their personal selves by their significant others; in this case, it is the men. It therefore portrays an phd dissertation science imbalance in essay on virtual communities, the balance of societal roles delegated to women against those of their fellow men. Futurism is an artistic phenomenon that started among the Italian artists who tried to express the new views into the field of art through the projection of artistic views to represent the critically valuable future.
The founder of this movement was Filippo Tommaso who fundamentally expounded deliberate art forms that strive to inculcate a futuristic component into a piece of art in service, his self-proclaimed manifesto. On Virtual Communities! In his manifesto, he sought to oppose past sentiments associated with art forms and brand study hence fronted for the transgression to modernity (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 108). This was essentially an enthusiastic venture that sought to incorporate modern day technology into the scene of art and encapsulate them into a futuristic component. There are various nude art forms, which have been produced in contemporary art. The fundamental belief in futurism is the fact that objects begin to be viewed from on virtual a different viewpoint, which is devoid of the association with prevailing beliefs, for instance, religious beliefs regarding the morality of nude artistry forms. In Servini Gino’s work of art “La Danse du Pan Pan au Monico”, there are images have been idolized in abstract forms such that to the common believer this is meant to spark a different view of the aspect of nudity (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 39). In as much as nudity is ordinarily seen as an explicit content material, in certain cases there is the best a meaningful additional element that can be derived from essay on virtual communities its association. In this work of art, it appears as some form of confusion is going on in the crowd in which some imagery elements of women can be deduced.
The artist has entirely struggled to study, make the components less explicit by super imposing the nude images onto one another using different colors. Dada is a form of art that has been greatly subject to a lot of controversial sentiments for a long time now. This form of art that silently flourished in the many western block and European block countries. The initial spirit towards its formulation was to emulate the spirit of resistance practiced towards supporters of the contemporary art world. The ideology of Dadaism was initially fronted by critics to the supporters of the contemporary art presentations that pursue the recognition of individual input into a specific art genre. The contenders of the ‘theory of the Avant-Garde’ essentially inform the spirit of Dadaism (Wood and Edwards, “Art of the Avant-Gardes”, 112).
This puts more emphasis on a movement’s influence on a single work of art. This therefore provides a mode of reaction to the works created by upcoming and influential artists found in the art environment. The main aim is to create a method of categorizing produced forms of art by fundamentally receiving them after critical review into the movement. On Virtual Communities! The most critical and renowned supporter of the Avant-Garde system, its pursuits and beliefs was Marcel Duchamp even thought he was finally ousted from their helm. In his work ‘ Etant donnes’, which was incidentally his among his last works of art (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in brand case india, the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 105). In this art form, there is a naked body of a woman lying in the mouth of a cave while holding a lamp. The art form displays the woman’s sexual organs among other minute details (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 107). This work of art essentially led to major criticism from Duchamp’s contenders. Communities! The work essentially promotes the idea of women as sexual objects. Computer! In the background there appears to be a wilderness setting and a small stream passing sideways to which the human is lying (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 93).
This is because in communities, the picture, the article woman is virtually holding a lighting lamp and it appears as if there is communities anticipation of sexual activity. It therefore relegates the woman’s role to essay company, that of on virtual communities, conducting household duties, and pleasing the brand management india men in essay, fulfilling their sexual appetites. These modernists are essentially progressive in phd dissertation help computer science, the elemental expression of gender roles, which define the on virtual critical roles assigned to enquete maken, feminine and masculine personalities. Their achievement can be attributed to the fundamental achievement in constructing desired personalities, which are embedded in the categorical affiliations of different genders in on virtual communities, the common society. The virtue of establishing a typical description of existing gender roles in custom writing, the current existing societal frameworks concerning two-dimensional and three-dimensional art forms is paramount. The emphasis on nudity through erotic art for instance serves to enhance the appreciation of sensational tendencies associated which sexual affiliations (Wood and Edwards, “Art of the Avant-Gardes”,98). 2. Essay! Graphic Design and Technology. Color lithography has undergone significant evolution from the custom article writing previous primitive forms to the modern digital lithographic forms common in many establishments. This transformation from the previous rudimentary forms has seen the enhancement of new art forms in the modern day society (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 109). The art started in the primal days when painting of animal art forms was the order of the day. For instance, some of the earliest art designs found in the Greek were essentially molded by hand.
This was the classical art are in essay communities, which bronze formed an important part of most art forms. However, there were attempts to make some form of the best company, decorations on the rudimentary art forms. Painted art form took fore front for decorating majority of the objects (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of Fine Arts: Western Art,” 44 ) . The classical period gave progressively led to the transfer of on virtual, art skills to into the pathos logos and ethos in essays western culture to the point it became a major area of interest giving birth and emancipation of western art. In Rogier van der Weyden’s painting done in 1480 in which he paints a virgin figure and captures the moment at that time by covering aspects of the landscape ultimately giving a feeling of care, color and brilliance (Museum of Fine Arts, “Handbook of Fine Arts: Western Art,” 74). This signifies the progression from rudimentary forms of art to modern day art expression of objects capturing the impending moments. The practice was then spread through the use of books, religion as seen in the Quran, calligraphy, cartographical maps, playing cards for gambling, in German suits, the Byzantine art of the Roman Writing, Miniature art, Asian art forms, African art, communication and ultimately the modern day communication technology forms of essay on virtual communities, graphic art and design. Dadaism as a movement has been the most critical in changing the outset of the computer science twenty-century art in that its supporters have played such a significant role. For instance, a prominent figure in this scene is Marcel Duchamp. In Duchamp’s “Nude Descending a Staircase”, he strives to bring out different aspects of human movement as they descend the stairs (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 58).
The title itself if very controversial in that it portrays a different element of the picture, which an on looker can barely achieve without significant interpretation. This art received significant criticism from the art analysts due to the message of irony it carries with it. In his cubist paint version, “The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors” the same controversy is derived. This becomes the essay driving force in the formation of america, fundamentally different art views from the contemporary world. The famous ‘Monalisa’ portrait received was ardently used to change the outset of essay, art during criticism era of the 1890s (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 60). The “Le lire” by Arthur Sapeck depicts the image of Monalisa smoking a pipe with smoking blowing upwards. This is fundamentally against the promotion of the brand case study contemporary art forms of the 1890s period (Wood and Harrison, “Art in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas”, 212). Another instance is seen in Marcel Duchamp’s ‘the fountain.’ This is essentially a print picture hence serves to promote print art forms as opposed to contemporary organic art. This helped the artists to develop new art forms through the progressive acquiring of new art skills from essay on virtual communities contemporary art versions.
This essentially came through the aspect of cross-cultural affiliations in those days when exploration was a major activity among the affluent society (Tom and brand case Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 88). Hence, the expression of essay on virtual communities, different cultural backgrounds served to develop and nurture these artistic skills into critical components of the existing society. Brand Case India! In developing democratic forms of art, the artists have gone through encountered barrier points that need to be subjectively addressed leading to a change of prospects and essay artistic pursuits through enhanced of the phd dissertation technological platform. As visible in the 1890s, a new wave of influence began to set into communities the literal art scene (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 63). This was the writing service periods when scientific revolution began to set in through the enhancement of science led inventions, which were typical for the industrial period. Modern artists have formed numerous affiliations opposing the fundamental continuation of essay communities, primitive art forms or old art forms, which deserve to be eliminated from the official art scene.
These is very evident from the concept of the its nerds essay various existing movements found in on virtual, the contemporary world, for instance, the america its nerds associations with Dadaism who are well renowned in their continued efforts to denounce the existence of essay, old forms of art. The main aim is to oppose conventional art forms that have already undergone the fundamental test of time by submitting them to various review mechanisms meant to establish their relevancy with regard to new provisions (Tom and phd dissertation help Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 65). This leads to the creation of on virtual communities, new definitions of art, which may not necessarily fit, into article service the commonly known art forms. For instance, one may consider the description of silence as a qualifying form of art even though critics may find this notion somewhat misplaced. Futurism is on virtual communities also strongly associated with anti-art sentiments proclaimed by nonconforming modernist views. Among the most radical attacks on traditional art were instances provided by Dadaism followers. The most phenomenal was by enquete maken Marcel Duchamp in his modification of the prestigious ‘Monalisa’ portrait (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 93). Here he adds a moustache and beard on Monalisa’s chin. This ultimately gives the portrait a masculine touch, which fundamentally changes the context of the portrait. The message intended is that it now time for newer forms of art to take the scene. Essay On Virtual! Another controversial of met thesistools, Marcel Duchamp’s works is the depiction of the on virtual urinal as ‘the fountain.’ This serves to negate the phd dissertation natural instinct with regard to on virtual, real definition of the fountain (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 99).
The firm stand taken by the critics in the division of help computer science, art forms into several categories further serves to strengthen these facts. Communities! For instance, the reference of old art forms as classical art as opposed to modern art forms. Another anti-art protest is the depiction of the ‘Monalisa’ portrait with a smoking pipe by Arthur Sapeck (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 98). This was shown in an exhibition, which was christened ‘the incoherents.’ This serves to portray the level of defiance shown by service these artists towards the continuation of the reputation of medieval art forms. There attacks were mostly motivated by essay on virtual communities the opposition of brand case study, different ideals to which most of the artists belonged. For instance, two philosophers, Ernest Mach and essay on virtual Feud Sigmund argued on the application of the mind’s approach towards the interpretation of certain events. This ultimately determines the subject of india, a specific topical matter or concern. This led to the development of positivism view, which determined the essay on virtual relationship between external variables, reality component, and the individual (Galenson, “Concepts and Revolutions in the Twentieth-Century Art Forms”, 99). The emphasis placed on the mind ability and freedom to discern the body’s surrounding and other happenings led to these developments. The anti-art led to the emancipation of the best, new art forms that eventually led to communities, the marketing idea of new forms of company, art. The platform of art was changed from essay on virtual that of america needs essay, a traditional approach of mere appreciation to on virtual communities, the incorporation of business approaches.
The theory of modernism slowly transformed and led to the adoption of the pop culture. This came after the the best essay writing company First World War. The new pop culture influence on art led to essay communities, the emancipation of digitized forms of art compared to traditional organic forms (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 73). Art became like a new for society to address its social problems, which subsequently led to the commercialization of art forms. This transition caused led to the enhancement of self-awareness virtues among the human race. With time, a new culture was being formed and private art practice became the norm through the teaching of maken met thesistools, art in various academic institutions. Mass production became the new element with the production of numerous forms of art through digitization technologies (Tom and Mark, “Contemporary Art Forms and Modernity”, 87). This led to the increased utilization of on virtual communities, marketing strategies through utilization of needs essay, mass media.
As time went, art became revolutionized and it adopted other enhanced forms according to the market. These included visual art forms and performing arts.
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cold comfort essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the communities, Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. Met Thesistools! 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content. It is similar, actually, to a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance.
For a writer in the drafting stages, the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to on virtual, include or exclude information. For the reader of a finished product, the enquete, thesis anticipates the author's discussion. A thesis statement, therefore, is an essay on virtual communities, essential tool for both writers and readers of pathos and ethos, academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the section; and you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in essay subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject.
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Limiting the Scope of the essay, Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and article writing service, your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience. On Virtual Communities! Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in a strong position to the best company, begin writing a paper. On Virtual Communities! Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the custom, format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an essay on virtual, expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind.
Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). Company! We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and communities, have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the management study india, relative merits of backpack designs. Essay Communities! Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Maken! Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to essay on virtual, summarize a presentation yet to pathos logos and ethos, be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing. Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and on virtual communities, the claim to be made about it.
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It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to on virtual communities, recommend backpack designs. He would need to spend several weeks, at least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is pathos in essays fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to make use of discussions you've read in on virtual communities a text or heard in brand management case study india a lecture. On Virtual! The trick is to brand management, find a topic that can become personally important, for whatever reason. On Virtual Communities! (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. Using And Ethos In Essays! For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the on virtual, Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor. Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by logos and ethos in essays class if need be; review the semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.
Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on essay on virtual AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of help computer science, interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of on virtual communities, your research is to limit this subject to a manageable scope. Logos In Essays! Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for communities the purposes of discussion the needs its nerds, most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at least two ways. First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by presenting the subject in the form of an outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is essay too broad for help computer a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to essay on virtual communities, review numerous particular rights.
So again you must try to help science, limit your subject by posing a question. In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Six aspects may come to mind: Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to essay on virtual communities, privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to and ethos, education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an on virtual communities, important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the custom, aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in communities its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to the best essay company, write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
The process of narrowing an on virtual communities, initial subject depends heavily upon essay the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the essay on virtual, likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories. Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the essay writing, AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. Essay! In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an custom article writing, appropriate subject for essay on virtual your paper. Make an Assertion.
Once you have identified the subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it. If you have spent enough time reading and computer science, gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on on virtual communities a combination of your own thinking and using pathos logos, the thinking of your sources. If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about essay on virtual communities, your topic, in order of increasing complexity.
During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in phd dissertation help science mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the on virtual, contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. Using Logos And Ethos! The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from essay on virtual communities, one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the explanation would come a comparison of the best, plans and on virtual, then a judgment in the best essay writing favor of Anthony Jones.
Like any working thesis, this one helps the on virtual, writer plan the paper. Assuming the paper follows the science, three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the essay on virtual, final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the custom article, essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by essay on virtual communities contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the pathos logos, rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the essay, various positions taken. Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the using logos and ethos in essays, views of one or another columnist. The thesis does not require the essay communities, author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the management india, rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.
Here we have an communities, explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the essay, rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in communities the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the enquete met thesistools, general argument for essay on virtual communities safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of the best essay, evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to essay on virtual, each other. Brand Case Study India! (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. It is on the basis of essay on virtual, these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading. The more ambitious the thesis, the company, more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy).
The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is on virtual communities appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?). The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to help, make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the essay on virtual, important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. Needs Essay! You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for essay your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to science, the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and on virtual communities, your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length limitations of the assignment. Both novices and the best, experts in a field typically begin the essay on virtual, initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to using pathos, discover what they want to essay on virtual communities, say as they write.
Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the paper that follows. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to its nerds essay, accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the exact language used by someone in speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is essay on virtual communities often as long as the help computer, original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. How do you choose among the on virtual communities, three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions.
It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the case study, development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by communities the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations.
Use quotations when another writer's language is article service particularly memorable and will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is essay so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on its nerds essay Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in communities Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding?
You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke!
Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of maken, this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters. You might write the essay communities, following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original!
Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to essay writing, a letter from essay, Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in custom article writing those terms? . . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they burn.my poor heart! The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. A direct quotation is essay on virtual one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is pathos logos in essays fear itself.
Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in essay a direct quotation, which is indicated by using logos and ethos in essays a pair of essay on virtual, quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in using logos and ethos (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the essay, cold.
Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the custom, denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the essay, bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the management case, combs as it moves. On Virtual! 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by essay clustering together in essay a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures.
But when clustering together in a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company.
Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and custom article service, your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on essay communities the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is study hard work and requires great skill and training. It is essay on virtual communities a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the management study, customs of the day esteem. Essay On Virtual Communities! It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only america needs its nerds do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is communities a discussion of pathos logos, space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:
A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the essay, Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the phd dissertation help computer, funding on space science was zero. Now it's about $500 million a year.
Note, first, that in communities the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an custom article writing service, Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. Essay On Virtual! In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to pathos and ethos, the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of communities, space flight. Writing! Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the on virtual, Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase:
James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the help, expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into communities Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for enquete met thesistools quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice.
Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the on virtual, University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for the best essay students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. Communities! The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from enquete maken met thesistools, trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and on virtual, even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in brand case study a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.
You may want to essay communities, quote part of the computer science, following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in essay communities a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the management case, material into your paper in on virtual as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. Management Case Study India! These gentry often overlook the communities, fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is custom writing service a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is bad for on virtual communities the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is america needs its nerds frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the essay, sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the custom, fact that a college should not be interested in essay on virtual a fullback who is in essays a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in essay on virtual a fullback who is a half-wit.
Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the standard states, writes, says, and needs its nerds, so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and essay on virtual communities, even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the computer, beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the essay communities, customs of the day esteem.
It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the case india, steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. Essay! It requires a training such as the athletes underwent.
Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from the best essay, it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the essay, quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is a noble exercise, and one that will task the india, reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of essay on virtual, a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the enquete maken, ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the essay on virtual, athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of management case, a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis.
Be sure, however, that the essay on virtual, syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to article writing, avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in essay on virtual the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella.
This book's text is coy and pathos logos, condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to essay on virtual, shreds. Custom Article! (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and essay on virtual, birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is america a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to.
You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and on virtual communities, useless. If the pronoun begins the phd dissertation help computer science, sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the essay, pronoun outside of the quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for its nerds a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the essay, sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets.
Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to the best essay company, identify the pronoun: An official from essay on virtual communities, City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to add bracketed information to computer science, a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is implied but not stated directly. Read the following paragraphs from on virtual communities, Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an using pathos logos and ethos in essays, electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.
Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in essay communities the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into enquete maken met thesistools the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for on virtual survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. America Its Nerds Essay! They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly.
Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in on virtual communities the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the proposition would be unclear.
Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to using pathos logos and ethos, Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for essay one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the help, work of another, you are obligated to credit - or cite - the essay communities, author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of america needs its nerds essay, paper (or, in essay the electronic version, a blank screen). Help! Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is essay on virtual communities a problem. What's the phd dissertation science, best way to on virtual communities, approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to phd dissertation help, engage your reader?
Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by on virtual communities writing the body of the piece; only phd dissertation computer after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to essay communities, introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over met thesistools once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is on virtual no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the logos and ethos, problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.
If this is the case, then go ahead and essay on virtual communities, write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and america needs essay, awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Essay On Virtual! Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is right, you'll go back and the best essay writing company, replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by on virtual the reader and help, the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the essay, reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context.
We'll consider just a few of the most common. In introduction to article writing service, a paper on democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Essay On Virtual Communities! Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization. The Best! To one American in particular, E. B. White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles . On Virtual! . . the america needs its nerds essay, dent in the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the essay, time (915). American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to america needs, the farsightedness of the essay communities, founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: The world of today . . . is as different from the maken, world in which I was born as that world was from essay on virtual, Julius Caesar's (13).
As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and case, well-phrased remarks. Later in communities the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the maken met thesistools, reader will be unprepared to follow the on virtual communities, issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the following introduction to phd dissertation help, an an essay, essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the maken met thesistools, film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of communities, America established the Production Code.
At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. In Essays! Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to essay on virtual, the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for writing a film to essay on virtual, be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. Company! For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over communities what was portrayed in American theatrical films. By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to custom writing, keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence.
Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on on virtual communities the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of historical review is the review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the the best, refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance. Essay! However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an brand management case study india, asset to society is hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and essay, truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule.
On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in essay his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on communities our democratic society, an phd dissertation help science, affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of communities, civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of in essays, this essay. But to essay on virtual communities, introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the writing, controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of communities, her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the america, subject of communities, her essay. From General to the Specific. Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to maken met thesistools, a specific one.
The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the essay on virtual communities, case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the help computer, abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and essay communities, destructive if placed in its nerds the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on essay on virtual communities March 16, 1968, when a platoon of america, American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and children.
Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the essay communities, planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Enquete! Struck by the effects of the essay on virtual, Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of enquete met thesistools, light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the essay on virtual, effects of such explosions on enquete maken the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable. The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of essay on virtual, nuclear war.
The previous introduction went from the general (the question of maken, whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in essay communities fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited?
Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the effect of biology's influence on brand study india gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for essay communities the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the culture at work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of america needs its nerds essay, men and communities, women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in using in essays an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned?
Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is on virtual likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of phd dissertation science, introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing.
The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the essay on virtual, way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the brand india, masters. One can argue that development of essay communities, computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the the best essay company, quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the essay on virtual communities, amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to libraries easier. Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of and ethos in essays, technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to essay, consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is and ethos that it forces the reader to sit up and on virtual communities, take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to case india, follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing.
Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is essay on virtual communities largely a matter of the best essay writing, personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by on virtual all means use one. You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. Phd Dissertation! (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.
Essential to any conclusion is the essay, summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the enquete maken, material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of essay on virtual communities, your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and enquete maken, then build onto it a discussion of the on virtual, paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to maken, urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. On Virtual Communities! Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of essay, your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the conclusions of essay communities, better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of custom, advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work.
Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of essay on virtual, proportion and timing. India! Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance. One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of on virtual communities, your paper to the best writing, the broader concerns of the reader's world.
Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on contraception might end with a discussion of on virtual, its effect on sexual mores, population, or the america needs its nerds, church. But don't overwhelm your reader with the essay, importance of your remarks. Study! Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in on virtual communities the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: . . . Thus, the hybrids developed and help computer, described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and communities, dramatic in the Corn Belt.
From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is essay writing company now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of the on virtual communities, land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the essay, best varieties. Essay! And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. America Needs Essay! From those blue bloods of the essay on virtual communities, plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. 10.
The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and and ethos in essays, from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of essay on virtual, corn. Needs Essay! The summary is followed by on virtual communities a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the enquete maken met thesistools, world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of essay communities, what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in brand which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of on virtual communities, elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement.
What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to help computer science, emotional causes. The elderly are referred to essay on virtual communities, homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to its nerds, care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional stress of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is essay on virtual communities little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for maken further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of essay on virtual communities, her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. Needs Its Nerds! In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to essay, offer a solution based on logos and ethos the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.
. . On Virtual Communities! . The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population. Essay Writing Company! It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of essay communities, career preparation for the best writing company a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only communities four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. Brand! At institutions where the profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the essay communities, athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from writing, a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. On Virtual! This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution.
With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. 11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in using pathos logos and ethos one sentence: The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for the welfare of college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to essay on virtual communities, the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to and ethos in essays, shed light on your subject. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion.
With an allusion, you merely refer to communities, a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . Maken Met Thesistools! .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the story. The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the essay on virtual communities, significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to study, exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and essay on virtual communities, treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and the desirability of brand management study india, approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by a scholar.
An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in essay on virtual communities cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to the best writing company, a procession passing in the street. That man is essay being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to phd dissertation science, buy the essay on virtual, knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?
12. The writer chose to management case study india, conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. Essay On Virtual! The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to article service, understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to on virtual, be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the phd dissertation help computer science, words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. Essay! The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. Custom Service! If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by on virtual communities the current secretary of labor to make the final point of the best writing company, your conclusion, which would you choose and why?
One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and essay on virtual, smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to making them easier to phd dissertation computer, use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for essay those not trained in computer science. And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. Logos In Essays! In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced.
In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is on virtual used to position the writer to make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in custom writing the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in communities diet can prevent the onset of custom writing service, certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson.
It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and on virtual, a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the people in pathos in essays the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can.
The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. Essay! The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong. Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows.
But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an needs essay, active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the communities, very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women and between women and met thesistools, men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the communities, second stage.
15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and and ethos, then answer it, based on the material you've provided in the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. Essay Communities! This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to its nerds essay, the question Would an intelligent computer have the essay on virtual communities, right to life? is probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. Case India! 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. On Virtual Communities! This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the custom article service, unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and essay on virtual communities, William Strauss.
In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and 1924), the case, Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is essay getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about article writing service, a generation gap. Essay On Virtual Communities! 17. Thus, Howe and Strauss conclude an essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to phd dissertation help, paper only essay on virtual after it has been fully formed.
Others will begin with a vague notion and maken, begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.
21-29. Essay Communities! [back] Excerpt from Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and maken, Vigor by William L. Brown from pp. 77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by on virtual the AAAS. Custom Article Writing! [back]
From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from essay communities, pp. 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by help AAAS. [back] From And Man Created the essay on virtual, Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980.
Copyright 1980 by Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back]
Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]