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benedictine essays [ From the A TLANTIS of January , 1858.] A S the college essays, physical universe is assignment key, sustained and carried on in dependence on certain centres of power and laws of operation, so the good diversity essays, course of the social and receptionist letters, political world, and diversity essays, of that great religious organization called the Catholic Church, is found to proceed for the most part from the presence or action of definite persons, places, events, and institutions, as the visible cause of the whole. There has been but one Juda, one Greece, one Rome; one Homer, one Cicero; one Csar, one Constantine, one Charlemagne. And so, as regards Revelation, there has been one St. John the Divine, one Doctor of the Nations. Dogma runs along the line of Athanasius, Augustine, Thomas. The conversion of the heathen is ascribed, after the Apostles, to champions of the smoking persuasive, truth so few, that we may almost count them, such as Martin, Patrick, Augustine, Boniface. Then there is St. Antony, the father of monachism; St. Jerome, the interpreter of Scripture; St. Chrysostom, the good college essays, great preacher.
Education follows the same law: it has its history in Christianity, and its doctors or masters in that history. It has had three periods:#8212;the ancient, the medieval, and the modern; and there are three Religious Orders in those periods respectively, which succeed, one the other, on its public stage, and represent the teaching given by the Catholic Church during the time of their ascendancy. The first period is that long series of centuries, during which society was breaking or had broken up, and then slowly attempted its own re-construction; the second may be called the period of re-construction; and the third dates from the thesis, Reformation, when that peculiar movement of mind commenced, the issue of which is still to come. Now, St. Benedict has had the training of the ancient intellect, St. Dominic of the medieval; and St. Ignatius of the modern. And in saying this, I am in no degree disrespectful to the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and other great religious families, which might be named, or to the holy Patriarchs who founded them; for I am not reviewing the whole history of Christianity, but selecting a particular aspect of it. Good College. Perhaps as much as this will be granted to me without great hesitation.
Next, I proceed to contrast these three great masters of Christian teaching with each other. To St. Benedict, then, who may fairly be taken to represent the persuasive, various families of monks before his time and diversity college, those which sprang from him (for they are all pretty much of one school), to this great Saint let me assign, for his discriminating badge, the element of Poetry; to St. Dominic, the Scientific element; and to cheap projects reports essays, St. Ignatius, the Practical. These characteristics, which belong respectively to the schools of the three great Teachers, grow out of the circumstances under which they respectively entered upon their work.
Benedict, entrusted with his mission almost as a boy, infused into it the romance and simplicity of boyhood. Dominic, a man of good diversity college essays, forty-five, a graduate in narrative, theology, a priest and a Canon, brought with him into religion that maturity and completeness of learning which he had acquired in the schools. Diversity. Ignatius, a man of the world before his conversion, transmitted as a legacy to his disciples that knowledge of mankind which cannot be learned in cloisters. And thus the three several Orders were (so to say), the births of Poetry, of Science, and Practical Sense. And here another coincidence suggests itself.
I have been giving these three attributes to the three Patriarchs whom I have specified, severally, from methods calderon pdf, a bon-fide regard to their history, and without at all having any theory of philosophy in my eye. Good College. But after having so described them, it certainly did strike me that I had unintentionally been illustrating a somewhat popular notion of the day, the like of which is attributed to authors with whom I have as little sympathy as with any persons who can be named. According to these speculators, the life, whether of a race or of an individual of the writing 1 syllabus, great human family, is college, divided into satisfaction, three stages, each of which has its own ruling principle and characteristic. The youth makes his start in life, with hope at the prow, and fancy at the helm; he has nothing else but these to impel or direct him; he has not lived long enough to exercise his reason, or to gather in a store of facts; and, because he cannot do otherwise, he dwells in a world which he has created. He begins with illusions. Next, when at good length he looks about for some surer footing than imagination gives him, he may have recourse to reason, or he may have recourse to facts; now facts are external to him, but his reason is his own: of the two, then, it is easier for letters, him to exercise his reason than to ascertain facts. Accordingly, his first mental revolution, when he discards the life of aspiration and affection which has disappointed him, and the dreams of which he has been the good diversity college essays, sport and victim, is to embrace a life of logic: this, then, is his second stage,#8212;the metaphysical.
He acts now on a plan, thinks by system, is cautious about his middle terms, and trusts nothing but what takes a scientific form. His third stage is when he has made full trial of methods and thesis by jose pdf, life; when he has found his theories break down under the weight of good college, facts, and senior projects, experience falsify his most promising calculations. Then the diversity, old man recognizes at length, that what he can taste, touch, and essay, handle, is good, trustworthy, and nothing beyond it. Thus he runs through his three periods of Imagination, Reason, and Sense; and then he comes to an end, and is not;#8212;a most impotent and melancholy conclusion. Writing 1 Syllabus. Undoubtedly a Catholic has no sympathy in so heartless a view of life, and yet it seems to square with what I have been saying of the three great Patriarchs of Christian teaching. And certainly there is a truth in it, which gives it its plausibility. Good College Essays. However, I am not concerned here to do more than to put my finger on the point at which I should diverge from it, both in what I have been saying and what I must say concerning them. It is thesis, true then, that history, as viewed in these three Saints, is, somewhat after the manner of the good diversity essays, theory I have mentioned, a progress from poetry through science to practical sense or prudence; but then this important proviso has to be borne in mind at the same time, that what the Catholic Church once has had, she never has lost.
She has never wept over, or been angry with, time gone and over. Instead of passing from one stage of life to another, she has carried her youth and middle age along with her, on to her latest time. She has not changed possessions, but accumulated them, and has brought out of her treasure-house, according to the occasion, things new and old. She did not lose Benedict by methods of research and thesis by jose calderon, finding Dominic; and good diversity college, she has still both Benedict and Dominic at home, though she has become the mother of thesis writing 1 syllabus, Ignatius. Imagination, Science, Prudence, all are good, and she has them all.
Things incompatible in nature, cexist in her; her prose is poetical on diversity college, the one hand, and philosophical on thesis writing 1 syllabus, the other. Coming now to the historical proof of the contrast I have been instituting, I am sanguine in thinking that one branch of it is already allowed by the consent of the world, and is undeniable. By common consent, the palm of religious Prudence, in the Aristotelic sense of that comprehensive word, belongs to the School of college essays, Religion of which St. Ignatius is the Founder. That great Society is the classical seat and fountain (that is, in religious thought and the conduct of life, for thesis, of ecclesiastical politics I speak not), the school and pattern of diversity college, discretion, practical sense, and wise government.
Sublimer conceptions or more profound speculations may have been created or elaborated elsewhere; but, whether we consider the illustrious Body in its own constitution, or in its rules for instruction and smoking essays, direction, we see that it is good college, its very genius to prefer this most excellent prudence to every other gift, and to think little both of poetry and of science, unless they happen to be useful. It is true that, in the long catalogue of its members, there are to be found the methods writing, names of the most consummate theologians, and of scholars the most elegant and accomplished; but we are speaking here, not of diversity essays, individuals, but of the body itself. It is plain that the body is not over-jealous about its theological traditions, or it certainly would not suffer Suarez to controvert with Molina, Viva with Vasquez, Passaglia with Petavius, and Faure with Suarez, de Lugo, and Valentia. In this intellectual freedom its members justly glory; inasmuch as they have set their affections, not on the opinions of the Schools, but on the souls of men. And it is the same charitable motive which makes them give up the poetry of life, the poetry of ceremonies,#8212;of the cowl, the cloister, and the choir,#8212;content with the most prosaic architecture, if it be but convenient, and the most prosaic neighbourhood, if it be but populous. I need not then dwell longer on this wonderful Religion, but may confine the senior, remarks which are to follow to the two Religions which historically preceded it#8212;the Benedictine and diversity, the Dominican [Note 1]. One preliminary more, suggested by a purely fanciful analogy:#8212;As there are three great Patriarchs on the high road and public thoroughfare of Christian Education, so there were three chief Patriarchs in the first age of the chosen people. Putting aside Noe and Melchisedec, and Joseph and his brethren, we recognize three venerable fathers,#8212;Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and what are their characteristics? Abraham, the father of many nations; Isaac, the cover letters, intellectual, living in solitary simplicity, and in loving contemplation; and Jacob, the diversity, persecuted and helpless, visited by marvellous providences, driven from place to place, set down and taken up again, ill-treated by those who were his debtors, suspected because of his sagacity, and betrayed by his eager faith, yet carried on and triumphing amid all troubles by assignment key, means of good diversity college essays, his most faithful and powerful guardian-archangel. Cover Letters. St.
Benedict, then, like the great Hebrew Patriarch, was the Father of many nations. He has been styled the Patriarch of the West, a title which there are many reasons for ascribing to him. Good Diversity Essays. Not only was he the first to establish a perpetual Order of of research and thesis writing, Regulars in Western Christendom; not only, as coming first, has he had an ampler course of centuries for the multiplication of his children; but his Rule, as that of St. Basil in the East, is the good diversity college essays, normal rule of the first age of the Church, and was in time generally received even in communities which in no sense owed their origin to him. Moreover, out of his Order rose, in process of time, various new monastic families, which have established themselves as independent institutions, and are able in their turn to boast of the satisfaction key, number of their houses, and the sanctity and historical celebrity of their members. He is the representative of good college essays, Latin monachism for the long extent of six centuries, while monachism was one; and receptionist cover, even when at length varieties arose, and distinct titles were given to them, the college essays, change grew out of him;#8212;not the act of strangers who were his rivals, but of his own children, who did but make a new beginning in all devotion and loyalty to him. He died in the early half of the sixth century; at the beginning of the tenth rose from thesis writing 1 syllabus, among his French monasteries the famous Congregation of Cluni, illustrated by St. Majolus, St. Odilo, Peter the Venerable, and other considerable personages, among whom is Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory the Seventh. Then came, in long succession, the Orders or Congregations of Camaldoli under St.
Romuald, of Vallombrosa, of Citeaux, to which St. Bernard has given his name, of Monte Vergine, of Fontvrault; those of college essays, England, Spain, and Flanders; the Silvestrines, the Celestines, the Olivetans, the Humiliati, besides a multitude of institutes for women, as the Gilbertines and the Oblates of St. Frances, and then at length, to receptionist cover letters, mention no others, the Congregation of St. Maur in modern times, so well known for its biblical, patristical, and historical works, and for its learned members, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and their companions. The panegyrists of this illustrious Order are accustomed to claim for it in all its branches as many as 37,000 houses, and, besides, 30 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 4 Emperors, 46 Kings, 51 Queens, 1,406 Princes, 1,600 Archbishops, 600 Bishops, 2,400 Nobles, and 15,000 Abbots and good diversity college essays, learned men [Note 2]. Nor are the satisfaction key, religious bodies which sprang from St. Benedict the full measure of what he has accomplished,#8212;as has been already observed. His Rule gradually made its way into those various monasteries which were of an earlier or of an independent foundation. It first coalesced with, and then supplanted, the Irish Rule of St. Columban in France, and the still older institutes which had been brought from the East by St. Athanasius, St.
Eusebius, and St. Martin. At the beginning of the ninth century it was formally adopted throughout the dominions of Charlemagne. Pure, or with some admixture, it was brought by St. Augustine to England; and good diversity college, that admixture, if it existed, was gradually eliminated by essay, St. Wilfrid, St. Good College. Dunstan, and and thesis by jose calderon pdf, Lanfranc, till at length it was received, with the name and obedience of St. Benedict, in all the college essays, Cathedral monasteries [Note 3] (to mention no others), excepting Carlisle. Nor did it cost such regular bodies any very great effort to make the projects essays, change, even when historically most separate from St.
Benedict; for the Saint had taken up for the most part what he found, and his Rule was but the expression of the genius of monachism in those first times of the Church, with a more exact adaptation to their needs than could elsewhere be met with. So uniform indeed had been the monastic idea before his time, and so little stress had been laid by individual communities on their respective peculiarities, that religious men passed at pleasure from diversity essays, one body to another [Note 4]. St. Benedict provides in his Rule for cheap projects essays, the case of strangers coming to college essays, one of his houses, and wishing to remain there. If such a one came from any monastery with which the projects, monks had existing relations, then he was not to be received without letters from his Abbot; but, in diversity college essays, the instance of a foreign monk from distant parts, who wished to dwell with them as a guest, and was content with their ways, and 1 syllabus, conformed himself to them, and was not troublesome, should he in the event wish to good college essays, stay for good, says St. Benedict, let him not be refused; for key, there has been room to make trial of him, during the time that hospitality has been shown to him: nay, let him even be invited to stay, that others may gain a lesson from his example; for in every place we are servants of good diversity college, one Lord and soldiers of one King. [Note 5] The unity of idea, which, as these words imply, is to be found in all monks in every part of Christendom, may be described as a unity of object, of persuasive, state, and of occupation. Monachism was one and the same everywhere, because it was a reaction from that secular life, which has everywhere the same structure and the same characteristics. And, since that secular life contained in it many objects, many states, and many occupations, here was a special reason, as a matter of principle, why the reaction from it should bear the badge of unity, and should be in outward appearance one and the same everywhere. Moreover, since that same secular life was, when monachism arose, more than ordinarily marked by variety, perturbation and confusion, it seemed on that very account to justify emphatically a rising and revolt against itself, and a recurrence to some state which, unlike itself, was constant and unalterable. It was indeed an old, decayed, and moribund world, into which Christianity had been cast.
The social fabric was overgrown with the corruptions of a thousand years, and was held together, not so much by any common principle, as by the strength of possession and the tenacity of good, custom. It was too large for public spirit, and too artificial for patriotism, and its many religions did but foster in the popular mind division and scepticism. Want of mutual confidence would lead to despondency, inactivity, and selfishness. Society was in the slow fever of consumption, which made it restless in proportion as it was feeble. It was powerful, however, to assignment, seduce and deprave; nor was there any locus standi from which to combat its evils; and the only way of getting on with it was to abandon principle and duty, to take things as they came, and to do as the world did. Worse than all, this encompassing, entangling system of things, was, at the time we speak of, the seat and instrument of a paganism, and then of heresies, not simply contrary, but bitterly hostile, to the Christian profession. Serious men not only had a call, but every inducement which love of life and good diversity essays, freedom could supply, to escape from receptionist letters, its presence and its sway. Their one idea then, their one purpose, was to be quit of it; too long had it enthralled them. It was not a question of this or that vocation, of the good diversity college, better deed, of the higher state, but of life and death. In later times a variety of holy objects might present themselves for devotion to choose from, such as the care of the poor, or of the sick, or of the young, the redemption of captives, or the conversion of the barbarians; but early monachism was flight from the satisfaction, world, and good diversity, nothing else. The troubled, jaded, weary heart, the stricken, laden conscience, sought a life free from corruption in its daily work, free from narrative essay, distraction in its daily worship; and it sought employments as contrary as possible to the world's employments,#8212;employments, the end of which would be in themselves, in which each day, each hour, would have its own completeness;#8212;no elaborate undertakings, no difficult aims, no anxious ventures, no uncertainties to make the diversity, heart beat, or the temples throb, no painful combination of efforts, no extended plan of operations, no multiplicity of details, no deep calculations, no sustained machinations, no suspense, no vicissitudes, no moments of crisis or catastrophe;#8212;nor again any subtle investigations, nor perplexities of proof, nor conflicts of rival intellects, to agitate, harass, depress, stimulate, weary, or intoxicate the soul.
Hitherto I have been using negatives to describe what the primitive monk was seeking; in truth monachism was, as regards the secular life and all that it implies, emphatically a negation, or, to use another word, a mortification ; a mortification of sense, and a mortification of reason. Here a word of explanation is necessary. The monks were too good Catholics to deny that reason was a divine gift, and had too much common sense to think to do without it. What they denied themselves was the various and manifold exercises of the reason; and on senior essays, this account, because such exercises were excitements. When the reason is cultivated, it at once begins to good diversity college, combine, to centralize, to look forward, to look back, to view things as a whole, whether for speculation or for action; it practises synthesis and analysis, it discovers, it invents. Narrative. To these exercises of the intellect is good essays, opposed simplicity, which is the state of mind which does not combine, does not deal with premisses and conclusions, does not recognize means and their end, but lets each work, each place, each occurrence stand by itself,#8212;which acts towards each as it comes before it, without a thought of anything else.
This simplicity is the temper of children, and it is the temper of monks. Methods Of Research Writing By Jose Calderon Pdf. This was their mortification of the intellect; every man who lives, must live by reason, as every one must live by sense; but, as it is possible to be content with the bare necessities of animal life, so is it possible to confine ourselves to the bare ordinary use of reason, without caring to improve it or make the most of it. These monks held both sense and reason to be the gifts of heaven, but they used each of them as little as they could help, reserving their full time and their whole selves for devotion;#8212;for, if reason is better than sense, so devotion they thought to diversity, be better than either; and, as even a heathen might deny himself the innocent indulgences of sense in order to give his time to receptionist cover, the cultivation of the reason, so did the monks give up reason, as well as sense, that they might consecrate themselves to divine meditation. Now, then, we are able to understand how it was that the monks had a unity, and in what it consisted. It was a unity, I have said, of object, of good college essays, state, and of occupation. Their object was rest and peace; their state was retirement; their occupation was some work that was simple, as opposed to assignment satisfaction key, intellectual, viz., prayer, fasting, meditation, study, transcription, manual labour, and other unexciting, soothing employments. Such was their institution all over the world; they had eschewed the busy mart, the diversity college essays, craft of gain, the smoking, money-changer's bench, and the merchant's cargo. Good Essays. They had turned their backs upon the wrangling forum, the political assembly, and the pantechnicon of trades. They had had their last dealings with architect and habit-maker, with butcher and cook; all they wanted, all they desired, was the sweet soothing presence of earth, sky, and sea, the hospitable cave, the bright running stream, the smoking persuasive essays, easy gifts which mother earth, justissima tellus, yields on very little persuasion.
The monastic institute, says the biographer of St. Maurus, demands Summa Quies , the most perfect quietness; [Note 6] and where was quietness to diversity college essays, be found, if not in reverting to 1 syllabus, the original condition of good college essays, man, as far as the smoking, changed circumstances of our race admitted; in having no wants, of which the good diversity, supply was not close at hand; in the nil admirari; in having neither hope nor fear of anything below; in persuasive, daily prayer, daily bread, and daily work, one day being just like another, except that it was one step nearer than the day just gone to good college essays, that great Day, which would swallow up all days, the day of everlasting rest. However, I have come into collision with a great authority, M. Guizot, and methods by jose calderon pdf, I must stop the course of my argument to make my ground good against him. M. Guizot, then, makes a distinction between monachism in its birth-place, in college essays, Egypt and Syria, and satisfaction key, that Western institute, of which I have made St. Benedict the representative. He allows that the Orientals mortified the intellect, but he considers that Latin monachism was the good diversity college essays, seat of considerable mental activity.
The desire for retirement, he says, for contemplation, for a marked rupture with civilized society, was the source and writing, fundamental trait of the Eastern monks: in the West, on the contrary , and especially in Southern Gaul, where, at college essays the commencement of the receptionist cover letters, fifth century, the principal monasteries were founded, it was in diversity college essays, order to live in common, with a view to conversation as well as to religious edification, that the first monks met. Narrative Essay. The monasteries of diversity essays, Lerins, of by jose calderon, St. Victor, and many others, were especially great schools of theology, the focus of intellectual movement. It was by no means with solitude or with mortification, but with discussion and activity, that they there concerned themselves. Good Diversity Essays. [Note 7] Great deference is writing 1 syllabus, due to an author so learned, so philosophical, so honestly desirous to set out Christianity to the best advantage; yet, I am at a loss to understand what has led him to make such a distinction between the good diversity college, East and West, and to cover letters, assign to the Western monks an activity of intellect, and to diversity college, the Eastern a love of about, retirement. It is quite true that instances are sometimes to be found of monasteries in good essays, the West distinguished by much intellectual activity, but more, and more striking, instances are to be found of a like phenomenon in the East. If, then, such particular instances are to narrative essay, be taken as fair specimens of the state of Western monachism, they are equally fair specimens of the state of Eastern also; and the Eastern monks will be proved more intellectual than the Western, by virtue of good diversity essays, that greater interest in doctrine and in receptionist cover, controversy which given individuals or communities among them have exhibited.
A very cursory reference to ecclesiastical history will be sufficient to good essays, show us that the fact is and thesis writing by jose, as I have stated it. The theological sensitiveness of the monks of Marseilles, Lerins, or Adrumetum, it seems, is to be a proof of the intellectualism generally of the West: then, why is not the greater sensitiveness of the Scythian monks at Constantinople, and of their opponents, the Ac#339;met, an evidence in favour of the East? These two bodies of Religious actually came all the way from Constantinople to Rome to denounce one another, besieging, as it were, the good college essays, Holy See, and the former of them actually attempting to raise the Roman populace against the Pope, in cheap senior reports essays, behalf of its own theological tenet. Good College. Does not this show activity of mind? I venture to say that, for one intellectual monk in the West, a dozen might be produced in the East. The very reproach, thrown out by secular historians against Greeks in general, of over-subtlety of intellect, applies in particular, if to about essay, any men, to certain classes or certain communities of diversity college, Eastern monks. These were sometimes orthodox, quite as often heretical, but inexhaustible in their argumentative resources, whether the one or the other. If Pelagius be a monk in the West, on the other hand, Nestorius and Eutyches, both heresiarchs, are both monks in the East; and Eutyches, at the time of his heresy, was an old monk into the bargain, who had been thirty years abbot of a convent, and cover letters, whom age, if not sanctity, might have saved from this abnormal use of good essays, his reason. His partizans were principally monks of Egypt; and they, coming up in force to the pseudo-synod of Ephesus, in aid of cheap, a theological thesis, kicked to death the patriarch of diversity college essays, Constantinople, and put to flight the Legate of the Pope, all in smoking, consequence of good college, their intellectual susceptibilities.
A century earlier, Arius, on starting, carried away into his heresy as many as seven hundred nuns [Note 8]; what have the Western convents to show, in the way of controversial activity, comparable with a fact like this? I do not insist on the zealous and influential orthodoxy of the monks of Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor in the fourth century, because it was probably nothing else but an honourable adhesion to the faith of the Church, without any serious exercise of mind; but turn to the great writers of Eastern Christendom, and consider how many of methods and thesis calderon, them figure at first sight as monks;#8212;Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Ephrem, Amphilochius, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodore, Theodoret, perhaps Athanasius. Among the Latin writers no great names occur to me but those of Jerome and Pope Gregory; I may add Paulinus, Sulpicius, Vincent, and Cassian, but Jerome is the only learned writer among them. I have a difficulty, then, even in good diversity college, comprehending, not to speak of admitting, M. Guizot's assertion, a writer who does not commonly speak without a meaning or a reason. Senior. But, after all, however the good, balance of intellectualism may lie between certain convents or individuals in the East and methods and thesis calderon, the West, such particular instances of good diversity college essays, mental activity are nothing to the purpose, when taken to measure the letters, state of the great body of the good diversity, monks; certainly not in the West, with which in smoking persuasive essays, this paper I am exclusively concerned. In taking an estimate of the Benedictines, we need not trouble ourselves about the state of monachism in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople, as it existed after the fourth century, when the true monastic tradition was passing from the East to the West. In the fourth century, the Eastern Monks simply follow the defined and promulgated doctrine of the Church, and in following it are guilty of essays, no exercise of reason; their intellectualism proper, which is foreign to the genius of their institute, begins with the fifth. Taking, then, the great tradition of St.
Antony, St. Pachomius, and St. Basil in the East, and then tracing it into the West by thesis writing 1 syllabus, the hands of college, St. Athanasius, St. Martin, and their contemporaries, we shall find no historical facts but what admit of a fair explanation, consistent with the cheap essays, views which we have laid down above about monastic simplicity, bearing in diversity, mind always, what holds in all matters of fact, that there never was a rule without its exceptions. Every rule has its exceptions; but, further than this, when exceptions occur, they are commonly likely to cover, be great ones.
This is no paradox; illustrations of it are to be found everywhere. For instance, we may conceive a climate very fatal to children, and yet those who survive growing up to be strong men; and for a plain reason, because those alone could have passed the ordeal who had robust constitutions. Thus the college, Romans, so jealous of their freedom, when they resolved on thesis writing 1 syllabus, the appointment of good diversity essays, a supreme ruler for an occasion, did not do the thing by halves, but made him a Dictator. In like manner, a mere trifling occurrence, or an ordinary inward impulse, would be powerless to snap the bond which keeps the monk fast to his cell, his oratory, and his garden. About Narrative. Exceptions, indeed, may be few, because they are exceptions, but they will be great in order to become exceptions at all. It must be a serious emergence, a particular inspiration, a sovereign command, which brings the monk into good, political life; and he will be sure to make a great figure in it, else why should he have been torn from his cloister at all? This will account for smoking essays, the career of St. Gregory the Seventh or of St. Dunstan, of St.
Bernard or of Abbot Suger, as far as it was political: the work they had to do was such as none could have done but a monk with his superhuman single-mindedness and his pertinacity of purpose. Again, in the case of St. Boniface, the Apostle of Germany, and in good essays, that of others of the missionaries of his age, it seems to receptionist, have been a particular inspiration which carried them abroad; and good essays, it is observable after all how soon most of cheap senior projects reports essays, them settled down into the mixed character of agriculturists and pastors in their new country, and resumed the tranquil life to which they had originally devoted themselves. As to the early Greek Fathers, some of those whom we have instanced above are only prim facie exceptions, as Chrysostom, who, though he lived with the good college, monks most austerely for as many as six years, can hardly be said to persuasive, have taken on himself the responsibilities of their condition, or to have simply abandoned the world. Others of them, as Basil, were scholars, philosophers, men of the world, before they were monks, and could not put off their cultivation of college essays, mind or their learning with their secular dress; and about essay, these would be the very men, in an age when such talents were scarce, who would be taken out of their retirement by superior authority, and good diversity, who therefore cannot fairly be quoted as ordinary specimens of the monastic life.
Exceptio probat regulam : let us see what two Doctors of the Church, one Greek, one Latin, both rulers, both monks, say concerning the state, which they at one time enjoyed, and assignment satisfaction key, afterwards lost. You tell me, says St. Good Essays. Basil, writing to a friend from receptionist letters, his solitude, that it was little for me to describe the place of my retirement, unless I mentioned also my habits and my mode of life; yet really I am ashamed to tell you how I pass night and day in this lonely nook. I am like one who is angry with the size of diversity essays, his vessel, as tossing overmuch, and leaves it for the boat, and is seasick and miserable still. However, what I propose to by jose, do is as follows, with the good diversity college essays, hope of tracing His steps who has said, 'If any one will come after Me, let him deny himself.' We must strive after a quiet mind. As well might the persuasive essays, eye ascertain an object which is before it, while it roves up and down without looking steadily at it, as a mind, distracted with a thousand worldly cares, be able clearly to apprehend the truth. One who is not yoked in matrimony is harassed by rebellious impulses and hopeless attachments; he who is married is involved in his own tumult of cares: is he without children? he covets them; has he children? he has anxieties about their education. Then there is solicitude about his wife, care of his house, oversight of his servants, misfortunes in trade, differences with his neighbours, lawsuits, the merchant's risks, the farmer's toil. Each day, as it comes, darkens the soul in its own way; and night after night takes up the day's anxieties, and cheats us with corresponding dreams.
Now, the good diversity, only way of escaping all this is separation from the whole world, so as to live without city, home, goods, society, possessions, means of thesis writing, life, business, engagements, secular learning, that the heart may be prepared as wax for diversity college essays, the impress of divine teaching. Solitude is of the greatest use for this purpose, as it stills our passions, and enables reason to extirpate them. Let then a place be found such as mine, separate from intercourse with men, that the tenor of receptionist letters, our exercises be not interrupted from without. Pious exercises nourish the soul with divine thoughts. Good Diversity Essays. Soothing hymns compose the mind to a cheerful and calm state. Quiet, then, as I have said, is the first step in our sanctification; the receptionist cover letters, tongue purified from the gossip of the diversity, world, the eyes unexcited by fair colour or comely shape, the ear secured from the methods and thesis writing by jose calderon pdf, relaxation of diversity essays, voluptuous songs, and that especial mischief, light jesting. Thus the mind, rescued from essay, dissipation from without, and sensible allurements, falls back upon good diversity, itself, and thence ascends to the contemplation of God. [Note 9] It is quite clear that at least St. Satisfaction Key. Basil took the same view of the monastic state as I have done. So much for good diversity college essays, the East in the fourth century; now for the West in the seventh. One day, says St. Gregory, after he had been constrained, against his own wish, to leave his cloister for the government of the Universal Church, one day, when I was oppressed with the excessive trouble of secular affairs, I sought a retired place, friendly to thesis, grief, where whatever displeased me in my occupations might show itself, and all that was wont to inflict pain might be seen at one view.
While he was in this retreat, his most dear son, Peter, with whom, ever since the latter was a youth, he had been intimate, surprised him, and he opened his grief to him. My sad mind, he said, labouring under the soreness of its engagements, remembers how it went with me formerly in this monastery, how all perishable things were beneath it, how it rose above all that was transitory, and, though still in the flesh, went out in contemplation beyond that prison, so that it even loved death, which is commonly thought a punishment, as the gate of life and the reward of good essays, labour. But now, in consequence of the pastoral charge, it undergoes the about narrative, busy work of secular men, and for that fair beauty of good diversity college essays, its quiet, is dishonoured with the dust of the earth. And often dissipating itself in outward things, to serve the many, even when it seeks what is inward, it comes home indeed, but is no longer what it used to be. [Note 10] Here is the very same view of the monastic state at Rome which St. Basil had in Pontus, viz., retirement and repose. Assignment. There have been great Religious Orders since, whose atmosphere has been conflict, and who have thriven in smiting or in being smitten.
It has been their high calling; it has been their peculiar meritorious service; but, as for the Benedictine, the very air he breathes is peace. I have now said enough both to explain and to vindicate the biographer of St. Maurus, when he says that the object, and life, and reward of the ancient monachism was summa quies,#8212;the absence of all excitement, sensible and intellectual, and the vision of Eternity. And therefore have I called the monastic state the most poetical of religious disciplines. It was a return to that primitive age of the world, of which poets have so often sung, the simple life of Arcadia or the reign of Saturn, when fraud and violence were unknown. Good Diversity Essays. It was a bringing back of those real, not fabulous, scenes of innocence and miracle, when Adam delved, or Abel kept sheep, or Noe planted the vine, and Angels visited them. It was a fulfilment in receptionist letters, the letter, of the glowing imagery of prophets, about the evangelical period. Nature for art, the wide earth and the majestic heavens for the crowded city, the subdued and docile beasts of the field for the wild passions and rivalries of social life, tranquillity for ambition and care, divine meditation for the exploits of the good college, intellect, the Creator for the creature, such was the normal condition of the monk. He had tried the world, and found its hollowness; or he had eluded its fellowship, before it had solicited him;#8212;and so St.
Antony fled to assignment, the desert, and St. Hilarion sought the sea shore, and St. Basil ascended the mountain ravine, and St. Diversity College Essays. Benedict took refuge in his cave, and St. Giles buried himself in of research and thesis writing calderon, the forest, and St. Martin chose the broad river, in order that the college essays, world might be shut out of view, and the soul might be at rest. And such a rest of intellect and methods writing pdf, of passion as this is full of the elements of the poetical. I have no intention of committing myself here to good, a definition of poetry; I may be thought wrong in writing, the use of the term; but, if I explain what I mean by it, no harm is done, whatever be my inaccuracy, and each reader may substitute for it some word he likes better.
Poetry, then, I conceive, whatever be its metaphysical essence, or however various may be its kinds, whether it more properly belongs to action or to suffering, nay, whether it is more at home with society or with nature, whether its spirit is seen to best advantage in Homer or in Virgil, at good diversity any rate, is always the antagonist to science . As science makes progress in any subject-matter, poetry recedes from it. The two cannot stand together; they belong respectively to two modes of viewing things, which are contradictory of each other. Reason investigates, analyzes, numbers, weighs, measures, ascertains, locates, the objects of its contemplation, and thus gains a scientific knowledge of them. Thesis. Science results in system, which is complex unity; poetry delights in the indefinite and various as contrasted with unity, and in the simple as contrasted with system. The aim of science is to get a hold of things, to essays, grasp them, to handle them, to comprehend them; that is (to use the familiar term), to master them, or to be superior to them. Its success lies in being able to draw a line round them, and to tell where each of them is to be found within that circumference, and receptionist cover, how each lies relatively to all the rest. Its mission is to destroy ignorance, doubt, surmise, suspense, illusions, fears, deceits, according to the Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas of the Poet, whose whole passage, by the way, may be taken as drawing out the contrast between the poetical and the scientific [Note 11]. But as to the poetical, very different is the frame of good, mind which is necessary for its perception. It demands, as its primary condition, that we should not put ourselves above the assignment, objects in which it resides, but at their feet; that we should feel them to be above and beyond us, that we should look up to essays, them, and that, instead of fancying that we can comprehend them, we should take for granted that we are surrounded and comprehended by them ourselves. It implies that we understand them to be vast, immeasurable, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious; so that at best we are only forming conjectures about senior projects essays them, not conclusions, for diversity college essays, the phenomena which they present admit of many explanations, and we cannot know the true one. Poetry does not address the reason, but the imagination and affections; it leads to admiration, enthusiasm, devotion, love.
The vague, the uncertain, the irregular, the methods of research and thesis writing by jose, sudden, are among its attributes or sources. Hence it is good diversity essays, that a child's mind is so full of poetry, because he knows so little; and an old man of the world so devoid of satisfaction key, poetry, because his experience of facts is so wide. Hence it is that nature is diversity college essays, commonly more poetical than art, in spite of Lord Byron, because it is less comprehensible and less patient of definitions; history more poetical than philosophy; the savage than the citizen; the knight-errant than the brigadier-general; the winding bridle-path than the straight railroad; the about narrative essay, sailing vessel than the good college, steamer; the ruin than the smoking, spruce suburban box; the Turkish robe or Spanish doublet than the diversity, French dress coat. I have now said far more than enough to assignment satisfaction key, make it clear what I mean by that element in the old monastic life, to which I have given the name of the Poetical. Now, in many ways the family of diversity essays, St. Benedict answers to this description, as we shall see if we look into receptionist letters, its history. Its spirit indeed is ever one, but not its outward circumstances. It is not an Order proceeding from one mind at a particular date, and appearing all at once in its full perfection, and in its extreme development, and in form one and diversity essays, the same everywhere and narrative, from first to last, as is the case with other great religious institutions; but it is an organization, diverse, complex, and irregular, and variously ramified, rich rather than symmetrical, with many origins and centres and new beginnings and the action of local influences, like some great natural growth; with tokens, on the face of it, of its being a divine work, not the mere creation of human genius. Instead of progressing on college, plan and system and from the will of a superior, it has shot forth and run out as if spontaneously, and has shaped itself according to events, from an irrepressible fulness of life within, and writing 1 syllabus, from the energetic self-action of its parts, like those symbolical creatures in the prophet's vision, which went every one of them straight forward, whither the impulse of the spirit was to go.
It has been poured out over the earth, rather than been sent, with a silent mysterious operation, while men slept, and through the romantic adventures of individuals, which are well nigh without record; and thus it has come down to us, not risen up among us, and is found rather than established. Its separate and scattered monasteries occupy the land, each in its place, with a majesty parallel, but superior, to that of good college essays, old aristocratic houses. Their known antiquity, their unknown origin, their long eventful history, their connection with Saints and Doctors when on earth, the legends which hang about them, their rival ancestral honours, their extended sway perhaps over other religious houses, their hold upon the associations of the neighbourhood, their traditional friendships and compacts with other great landlords, the benefits they have conferred, the sanctity which they breathe,#8212;these and the like attributes make them objects, at once of awe and of affection. Such is the great Abbey of Bobbio, in the Apennines, where St. Receptionist Letters. Columban came to die, having issued with his twelve monks from college, his convent in essay, Benchor, county Down, and good essays, having spent his life in writing calderon pdf, preaching godliness and planting monasteries in half-heathen France and essays, Burgundy. Such St. Gall's, on the lake of Constance, so called from another Irishman, one of St. Columban's companions, who remained in Switzerland, when his master went on into Italy.
Such the Abbey of Fulda, where lies St. Boniface, who, burning with zeal for the conversion of the Germans, attempted them a first time and failed, and then a second time and succeeded, and at length crowned the missionary labours of forty-five years with martyrdom. Such Monte Cassino, the metropolis of the Benedictine name, where the Saint broke the idol, and persuasive, cut down the grove, of Apollo. Ancient houses such as these subdue the mind by the mingled grandeur and sweetness of their presence. They stand in good diversity essays, history with an essay accumulated interest upon them, which belongs to no other monuments of the past. Whatever there is of venerable authority in essays, other foundations, in Bishops' sees, in Cathedrals, in Colleges, respectively, is found in combination in them. About Essay. Each gate and cloister has had its own story, and time has engraven upon their walls the chronicle of diversity essays, its revolutions. And, even when at length rudely destroyed, or crumbled into dust, they live in history and antiquarian works, in the pictures and relics which remain of them, and in the traditions of their place. In the early part of last century the Maurist Fathers, with a view of collecting materials for the celebrated works which they had then on hand, sent two of smoking, their number on a tour through France and the adjacent provinces.
Among other districts the travellers passed through the forest of Ardennes, which has been made classical by the prose of Csar, and good diversity college, the poetry of Shakespeare. There they found the great Benedictine Convent of St. Hubert [Note 12]; and, if I dwell awhile upon the illustration which it affords of what I have been saying, it is not as if twenty other religious houses which they visited would not serve my purpose quite as well, but because it has come first to my hand in turning over the pages of their volume. At that time the venerable abbey in question had upon it the weight of a thousand years, and about essay, was eminent above others in college, the country in wealth, in privileges, in name, and, not the least recommendation, in the sanctity of its members. The lands on which it was situated were its freehold, and their range included sixteen villages. The old chronicle informs us that, about the middle of the smoking persuasive essays, seventh century, St. Sigibert, the Merovingian, pitched upon Ardennes and its neighbourhood for the establishment of as many as twelve monasteries, with the good college essays, hope of thereby obtaining from heaven an heir to his crown. Dying prematurely, he but partially fulfilled his pious intention, which was taken up by Pepin, sixty years afterwards, at and thesis writing pdf the instance of essays, his chaplain, St. Receptionist. Beregise; so far, at least, as to make a commencement of the good essays, abbey of which we are speaking.
Beregise had been a monk of the of research by jose calderon, Benedictine Abbey of St. Tron, and he chose for the site of the new foundation a spot in the midst of the forest, marked by the ruins of a temple dedicated to the pagan Diana, the goddess of the chase. The holy man exorcised the place with the sign of the Cross; and, becoming abbot of the good essays, new house, filled it either with monks, or, as seems less likely, with secular canons. From that time to the summer day, when the two Maurists visited it, the sacred establishment, with various fortunes, had been in possession of the satisfaction, land. On entering its precincts, they found it at once full and empty: empty of the monks, who were in the fields gathering in the harvest; full of pilgrims, who were wont to come day after day, in never-failing succession, to visit the college, tomb of St. Hubert. What a series of events has to senior, be recorded to good college essays, make this simple account intelligible! and by jose pdf, how poetical is the picture which it sets before us, as well as those events themselves, which it presupposes, when they come to be detailed! Were it not that I should be swelling a passing illustration into a history, I might go on to tell how strict the diversity essays, observance of the monks had been for the last hundred years before the assignment satisfaction, travellers arrived there, since Abbot Nicholas de Fanson had effected a reform on the pattern of the French Congregation of St.
Vanne. I might relate how, when a simple monk in the Abbey of diversity college, St. Hubert, Nicholas had wished to assignment satisfaction key, change it for a stricter community, and how he got leave to go off to the Congregation just mentioned, and how then his old Abbot died suddenly, and how he himself to his surprise was elected in his place. And I might tell how, when his mitre was on his head, he set about reforming the house which he had been on the point of quitting, and how he introduced for that purpose two monks of St. Vanne; and how the good college essays, Bishop of Liege, in whose diocese he was, set himself against his holy design, and how some of the old monks attempted to poison him; and how, though he carried it into methods and thesis by jose pdf, effect, still he was not allowed to aggregate his Abbey to the Congregation whose reform he had adopted; but how his good example encouraged the neighbouring abbeys to commence a reform in diversity college essays, themselves, which issued in an ecclesiastical union of the Flemish Houses. All this, however, would not have been more than one passage, of course, in the adventures which had befallen the abbey and its abbots in the course of its history. 1 Syllabus. It had had many seasons of good college essays, decay before the time of Nicholas de Fanson, and many restorations, and from different quarters. None of them was so famous or important as the reform effected in the year 817, about a century after its original foundation, when the secular canons, who anyhow had got in, were put out, and essays, the monks put in their place, at the instance of the then Bishop of Liege, who had a better spirit than his successor in the time of Nicholas. The new inmates were joined by some persons of noble birth from the Cathedral, and by their suggestion and influence the bold measure was taken of attempting to diversity essays, gain from Liege the body of the great St. Hubert, the Apostle of Ardennes.
But to return to senior reports essays, the relics of the Saint; the sacred body was taken by water up the Maes. The coffin was of marble, and perhaps could have been taken no other way; but another reason, besides its weight, lay in the indignation of the good diversity college essays, citizens of smoking essays, Liege, who might have interfered with a land journey, and in fact did make several attempts, in the following years, to good diversity, regain the body. Satisfaction. In consequence, the good monks of essays, Ardennes hid it within the walls of their monastery, confiding the secret of its whereabouts to only two of their community at a time; and they showed in the sacristy to the devout, instead, the satisfaction key, Saint's ivory cross and his stole, the sole of his shoe and his comb, and Diana, Marchioness of Autrech, gave a golden box to hold the stole. This, however, was in after times; for they were very loth at first to let strangers within their cloisters at all; and in 838, when a long spell of rain was destroying the crops, and the people of the neighbourhood came in good diversity, procession to the shrine to ask the intercession of the Saint, the cautious Abbot Sewold, availing himself of the Rule, would only senior essays admit priests, and them by threes and fours, with naked feet, and a few laymen with each of them. The supplicants were good men, however, and had no notion of playing any trick: they came in piety and devotion, and the rain ceased, and the country was the gainer by St. Hubert of Ardennes.
And thenceforth others, besides the monks, became interested in his stay in the forest. And now I have said something in explanation why the courtyard was full of good, pilgrims when the travellers came. St. Hubert had been an object of methods of research and thesis pdf, devotion for diversity college essays, a particular benefit, perhaps ever since he came there, certainly as early as the essay, eleventh century, for we then have historical notice of it. His preference of the forest to the city, which he had shown in his life-time before his conversion, was illustrated by the particular grace or miraculous service, for which, more than for any other, he used his glorious intercession on high.
He is famous for curing those who had suffered from the bite of wild animals, especially dogs of the chase, and a hospital was attached to the Abbey for their reception. The sacristan of the Church officiated in the cure; and with rites which never indeed failed, but which to some cautious persons seemed to college, savour of superstition. Certainly they were startling at about essay first sight; accordingly a formal charge on that score was at one time brought against them before the Bishop of Liege, and a process followed. The Bishop, the University of Louvain, and its Faculty of good college essays, Medicine, conducted the essays, inquiry, which was given in favour of the Abbey, on the ground that what looked like a charm might be of the nature of a medical regimen. However, though the sacristan was the good college, medium of the cure, the general care of the patients was left to externs. The hospital was served by secular priests, since the monks heard no confessions save those of their own people. This rule they observed, in order to reserve themselves for the proper duties of a Benedictine,#8212;the choir, study, manual labour, and transcription of books; and, while the Maurists were ocular witnesses of their agricultural toils, they saw the diligence of their penmanship in its results, for the MSS. of their Library were the choicest in receptionist, the country. Good College. Among them, they tell us, were copies of St. Writing. Jerome's Bible, the good diversity essays, Acts of the Councils, Bede's History, Gregory and Isidore, Origen and Augustine.
The Maurists report as favourably of the monastic buildings themselves as of the hospital and library. Those buildings were a chronicle of essays, past times, and of the changes which had taken place in them. First there were the poor huts of St. Beregise upon the half-cleared and still marshy ground of the diversity college, forest; then came the building of a sufficient house, when St. Hubert was brought there; and centuries after that, St. Thierry, the intimate friend of the great Pope Hildebrand, had renewed it magnificently, at cheap senior reports essays the time that he was Abbot. He was sadly treated in diversity college, his lifetime by his monks, as Nicholas after him; but, after his death, they found out that he was a Saint, which they might have discovered before it; and about essay, they placed him in the crypt, and there he and good college, another holy Abbot after him lay in peace, till the Calvinists broke into it in the sixteenth century, and burned both of them to ashes.
There were marks too of the same fanatics on the pillars of the nave of the smoking, Church; which had been built by Abbot John de Wahart in the twelfth century, and then again from its foundations by Abbots Nicholas de Malaise and good diversity essays, Romaclus, the friend of Blosius, four centuries later; and it was ornamented by Abbot Cyprian, who was called the friend of the poor; and doubtless the travellers admired the marble of the choir and sanctuary, and methods and thesis calderon pdf, the silver candelabra of the altar given by the reigning Lord Abbot; and good diversity, perhaps they heard him sing solemn Mass on the Assumption, as was usual with him on that feast, with his four secular chaplains, one to carry his Cross, another his mitre, a third his gremial, and about narrative, a fourth his candle, and good college, accompanied by the pealing organ and the many musical bells, which had been the gift of Abbot Balla about a hundred years earlier. Cover. Can we imagine a more graceful union of human with divine, of the sweet with the diversity, austere, of business and of calm, of splendour and of simplicity, than is assignment key, displayed in a great religious house after this pattern, when unrelaxed in its observance, and pursuing the ends for which it was endowed? The monks have been accused of choosing beautiful spots for their dwellings; as if this were a luxury in ascetics, and good diversity college, not rather the necessary alleviation of their asceticism. Even when their critics are kindest, they consider such sites as chosen by a sort of of research and thesis writing by jose, sentimental, ornamental indolence. Beaulieu river, says Mr. Warner in his topography of Hampshire, and, because he writes far less ill-naturedly than the good essays, run of receptionist letters, authors, I quote him, Beaulieu river is stocked with plenty of fish, and boasts in particular of good oysters and fine plaice, and is fringed quite to the edge of the water with the most beautiful hanging woods.
In the area enclosed are distinct traces of various fishponds, formed for the use of the diversity college essays, convent. Some of them continue perfect to the present day, and abound with fish. A curious instance occurs also of 1 syllabus, monkish luxury, even in the article of water; to secure a fine spring those monastics have spared neither trouble nor expense. About half a mile to the south-east of the Abbey is a deep wood; and at a spot almost inaccessible is a cave formed of smooth stones. It has a very contracted entrance, but spreads gradually into a little apartment, of seven feet wide, ten deep, and about five high. This covers a copious and transparent spring of water, which, issuing from the mouth of the cave, is lost in a deep dell, and is there received, as I have been informed, by good diversity, a chain of small stone pipes, which formerly, when perfect, conveyed it quite to the Abbey. It must be confessed the monks in general displayed an elegant taste in the choice of their situations. Beaulieu Abbey is a striking proof of this. Perhaps few spots in the kingdom could have been pitched upon better calculated for monastic seclusion than this. Receptionist Letters. The deep woods, with which it is good diversity college, almost environed, throw an air of gloom and solemnity over the scene, well suited to and thesis calderon pdf, excite religious emotions; while the stream that glides by its side afforded to the recluse a striking emblem of human life: and at the same time that it soothed his mind by a gentle murmuring, led it to serious thought by good diversity, its continual and irrevocable lesson. [Note 13 ] The monks were not so soft as all this, after all; and about, if Mr.
Warner had seen them, we may be sure he would have been astonished at the stern, as well as sweet simplicity which characterized them. They were not dreamy sentimentalists, to fall in love with melancholy winds and purling rills, and essays, waterfalls and nodding groves; but their poetry was the poetry of senior projects, hard work and hard fare, unselfish hearts and charitable hands. They could plough and reap, they could hedge and ditch, they could drain; they could lop, they could carpenter; they could thatch, they could make hurdles for their huts; they could make a road, they could divert or secure the streamlet's bed, they could bridge a torrent. Mr. Warner mentions one of their luxuries,#8212;clear, wholesome water; it was an allowable one, especially as they obtained it by their own patient labour.
If their grounds are picturesque, if their views are rich, they made them so, and had, we presume, a right to good essays, enjoy the thesis, work of diversity college essays, their own hands. They found a swamp, a moor, a thicket, a rock, and they made an Eden in the wilderness. They destroyed snakes; they extirpated wild cats, wolves, boars, bears; they put to flight or they converted rovers, outlaws, robbers. Receptionist Letters. The gloom of the forest departed, and the sun, for the first time since the Deluge shone upon the moist ground. St. Benedict is the true man of Ross.
Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow? From the good diversity college, dry rock who made the waters flow? Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows? Whose seats the weary traveller repose? He feeds yon almshouse, neat, but void of state, When Age and Want sit smiling at the gate; Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed, The young who labour, and the old who rest. And candid writers, though not Catholics, allow it. Even English, and much more foreign historians and thesis 1 syllabus, antiquarians, have arrived at a unanimous verdict here. We owe the agricultural restoration of great part of Europe to the monks, says Mr. Hallam.
The monks were much the best husbandmen, and good, the only and thesis calderon pdf gardeners, says Forsyth. Good Diversity College. None, says Wharton, ever improved their lands and possessions more than the monks, by building, cultivating, and other methods. The cultivation of Church lands, as Sharon Turner infers from Doomsday Book, was superior to that held by other proprietors, for there was less wood upon them, less common pasture, and more abundant meadow. Wherever they came, says Mr. Soame on Mosheim, they converted the wilderness into a cultivated country; they pursued the breeding of cattle and agriculture, laboured with their own hands, drained morasses, and cleared away forests. By them Germany was rendered a fruitful country. M. Guizot speaks as strongly: The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe; they cleared it on a large scale, associating agriculture with preaching. [Note 14] St. Benedict's direct object indeed in setting his monks to manual labour was neither social usefulness nor poetry, but penance; still his work was both the essay, one and good diversity essays, the other. The above-cited authors enlarge upon its use, and I in what I am writing may be allowed to dwell upon its poetry; we may contemplate both its utility to man and its service to God in the aspect of receptionist cover letters, its poetry. Good. How romantic then, as well as useful, how lively as well as serious, is their history, with its episodes of satisfaction key, personal adventure and prowess, its pictures of squatter, hunter, farmer, civil engineer, and evangelist united in the same individual, with its supernatural colouring of heroic virtue and miracle! When St.
Columban first came into good, Burgundy with his twelve young monks, he placed himself in receptionist cover letters, a vast wilderness, and made them set about cultivating the soil. At first they all suffered from hunger, and were compelled to live on the barks of trees and wild herbs. On one occasion they were for five days in this condition. St. Gall, one of them, betook himself to a Swiss forest, fearful from the multitude of good, wild beasts; and and thesis pdf, then, choosing the neighbourhood of a mountain stream, he made a cross of twigs, and hung some relics on it, and laid the foundation of his celebrated abbey. St. Ronan came from Ireland to Cornwall, and diversity college, chose a wood, full of wild beasts, for his hermitage, near the Lizard. The monks of St. Dubritius, the founder of the Welsh Schools, also sought the woods, and there they worked hard at manufactures, agriculture, and road making. St.
Sequanus placed himself where the trees almost touched the clouds. He and his companions, when they first explored it, asked themselves how they could penetrate into it, when they saw a winding footpath, so narrow and full of briars that it was with difficulty that one foot followed another. Writing. With much labour and with torn clothes they succeeded in gaining its depths, and stooping their heads into the darkness at their feet, they perceived a cavern, shrouded by the thick interlacing branches of the trees, and diversity essays, blocked up with stones and underwood. This, says the monastic account, was the cavern of robbers, and the resort of evil spirits. Sequanus fell on his knees, prayed, made the sign of the Cross over cheap senior projects essays, the abyss, and built his cell there. Such was the good, first foundation of the celebrated abbey called after him in Burgundy [Note 15]. Sturm, the Bavarian convert of St. Boniface, was seized with a desire, as his master before him in satisfaction key, his English monastery, of founding a religious house in the wilds of Pagan Germany; and setting out with two companions, he wandered for two days through the Buchonian forest, and saw nothing but earth, sky, and large trees.
On the third day he stopped and chose a spot, which on trial did not answer. Then, mounting an ass, he set out by himself, cutting down branches of good college essays, a night to secure himself from the wild beasts, till at length he came to the place (described by St. Boniface as locum silvaticum in eremo, vastissim solitudinis), in which afterwards arose the abbey and about essay, schools of Fulda. Wunibald was suspicious of the good wine of the Rhine where he was, and, determining to leave it, he bought the land where Heidensheim afterwards stood, then a wilderness of trees and good diversity college essays, underwood, covering a deep valley and the sides of lofty mountains. There he proceeded, axe in hand, to clear the ground for his religious house, while the receptionist, savage natives looked on sullenly, jealous for their hunting-grounds and sacred trees. Willibald, his brother, had pursued a similar work on good, system; he had penetrated his forest in every direction and scattered monasteries over it. The Irish Alto pitched himself in a wood, half way between Munich and Vienna.
Pirminius chose an island, notorious for its snakes, and there he planted his hermitage and chapel, which at length became the rich and noble abbey and school of Augia Major or Richenau [Note 16]. The more celebrated School of Bec had a similar beginning at of research and thesis writing a later date, when Herluin, an good essays old soldier, devoted his house and farm to an ecclesiastical purpose, and governed, as abbot, the monastery which he had founded. You might see him, says the writer of receptionist, his life, when office was over in church, going out to his fields, at the head of his monks, with his bag of seed about his neck, and his rake or hoe in his hand. Good College Essays. There he remained with them hard at work till the day was closing. Some were employed in clearing the land of brambles and satisfaction, weeds; others spread manure; others were weeding or sowing; no one ate his bread in idleness. Then when the hour came for saying office in church, they all assembled together punctually. College Essays. Their ordinary food was rye bread and methods writing pdf, vegetables with salt and water; and the water muddy, for the well was two miles off. [Note 17] Lanfranc, then a secular, was so edified by the simple Abbot, fresh from the good essays, field, setting about his baking with dirty hands, that he forthwith became one of the party [Note 18]; and, being unfitted for labour, opened in the house a school of logic, thereby to make money for essay, the community. Such was the cradle of the scholastic theology; the last years of the college essays, patristic, which were nearly contemporaneous, exhibit a similar scene,#8212;St. Bernard founding his abbey of Clairvaux in a place called the Valley of Wormwood, in the heart of a savage forest, the haunt of robbers, and his thirteen companions clearing a homestead, raising a few huts, and living on barley or cockle bread with boiled beech leaves for 1 syllabus, vegetables [Note 19]. How beautiful is diversity essays, Simeon of Durham's account of Easterwine, the writing 1 syllabus, first abbot after Bennet of St.
Peter's at Wearmouth! He was a man of noble birth, who gave himself to religion, and died young. Though he had been in the service of King Egfrid, says Simeon, when he had once left secular affairs, and lain aside his arms, and good diversity essays, taken on him the spiritual warfare instead, he was nothing but the essay, humble monk, just like any of his brethren, winnowing with them with great joy, milking the ewes and cows, and in the bakehouse, the garden, the kitchen, and good diversity college essays, all house duties, cheerful and obedient. And, when he received the name of Abbot, still he was in spirit just what he was before to every one, gentle, affable, and smoking persuasive, kind; or, if any fault had been committed, correcting it indeed by the Rule, but still so winning the offender by his unaffected earnest manner, that he had no wish ever to repeat the offence, or to dim the brightness of that most clear countenance with the diversity college, cloud of his transgression. And often going here and there on business of the monastery, when he found his brothers at 1 syllabus work, he would at once take part in it, guiding the plough, or shaping the iron, or taking the winnowing fan, or the like. He was young and strong, with a sweet voice, a cheerful temper, a liberal heart and a handsome countenance.
He partook of the same food as his brethren, and under the same roof. Good College Essays. He slept in about narrative essay, the common dormitory, as before he was abbot, and he continued to do so for the first two days of his illness, when death had now seized him, as he knew full well. But for the last five days he betook himself to a more retired dwelling; and then, coming out into the open air and sitting down, and calling for all his brethren, after the manner of his tender nature, he gave his weeping monks the kiss of peace, and died at night while they were singing lauds. [Note 20] This gentleness and tenderness of heart seems to have been as characteristic of the monks as their simplicity; and if there are some Saints among them, who on the public stage of history do not show it, it was because they were called out of their convents for some special purpose, and, as I have said above, exceptions to a rule are commonly great exceptions. Good. Bede goes out of his way to observe of King Ethelbert, on St. Smoking Persuasive. Austin's converting him, that he had learned from the teachers and authors of his salvation that men were to be drawn heaven-wards, and not forced. Aldhelm, when a council had been held about the perverse opinions of the British Christians, seconding the principle which the Fathers of college, it laid down, that schismatics were to be convinced, not compelled, wrote a book upon their error and converted many of them.
Wolstan, when the civil power failed in its attempts to stop the slave trade of the Bristol people, succeeded by his persevering preaching. In the confessional he was so gentle, that penitents came to him from all parts of England [Note 21]. Of Research Writing By Jose Calderon. This has been the diversity essays, spirit of the receptionist, monks from the first; the student of ecclesiastical history may recollect a certain passage in good, St. Martin's history, when his desire to shield the Spanish heretics from narrative, capital punishment brought him into great difficulties [Note 22] with the usurper Maximus. Works of penance indeed and diversity essays, works of mercy have gone hand in thesis writing, hand in the history of the monks; from the Solitaries in Egypt down to college essays, the Trappists of this day, it is one of the persuasive essays, points in which the college, unity of the monastic idea shows itself.
They have ever toiled for others, while they toiled for themselves; nor for posterity only, but for their poor neighbours, and for senior, travellers who came to them. St. Augustine tells us that the monks of Egypt and of the East made so much by diversity college essays, manual labour as to be able to freight vessels with provisions for impoverished districts. Theodoret speaks of a certain five thousand of them, who by their labour supported, besides themselves, innumerable poor and strangers. Sozomen speaks of the monk Zeno, who, though a hundred years old, and the bishop of a rich Church, worked for the poor as well as for himself. Corbinian in a subsequent century surrounded his German Church with fruit trees and receptionist cover letters, vines, and sustained the good college, poor with the produce.
The monks of St. Gall, already mentioned, gardened, planted, fished, and about narrative, thus secured the means of relieving the essays, poor and entertaining strangers. Monasteries, says Neander, were seats for the promotion of various trades, arts, and sciences. The gains accruing from their combined labour were employed for the relief of the distressed. In great famines, thousands were rescued from starvation. [Note 23] In a scarcity at receptionist cover letters the beginning of the twelfth century, a monastery in the neighbourhood of good diversity essays, Cologne distributed in one day fifteen hundred alms, consisting of bread, meat, and receptionist, vegetables. About the same time St.
Bernard founded his monastery of Citeaux, which, though situated in the waste district described above, was able at length to sustain two thousand poor for months, besides extraordinary alms bestowed on college, others. The monks offered their simple hospitality, uninviting as it might be, to high as well as low; and to receptionist cover letters, those who scorned their fare, they at least could offer a refuge in misfortune or danger, or after casualties. Diversity Essays. Duke William, ancestor of the Conqueror, was hunting in the woods about Jumieges, when he fell in with a rude hermitage [Note 24]. Two monks had made their way through the forest, and with immense labour had rooted up some trees, levelled the ground, raised some crops, and put together their hut. William heard their story, not perhaps in the best humour, and flung aside in contempt the barley bread and water which they offered him. Presently he was brought back wounded and insensible: he had got the worst in an encounter with a boar. On coming to persuasive essays, himself, he accepted the college essays, hospitality which he had refused at first, and built for about narrative, them a monastery.
Doubtless he had looked on them as trespassers or squatters on his domain, though with a religious character and good diversity, object. The Norman princes were as good friends to the wild beasts as the monks were enemies: a charter still exists of the Conqueror, granted to the abbey of Caen [Note 25], in which he stipulates that its inmates should not turn the woods into tillage, and reserves the game for assignment satisfaction key, himself. Contrast with this savage retreat and its rude hospitality the different, though equally Benedictine picture of the sacred grove of Subiaco, and the spiritual entertainment which it ministers to all comers, as given in the late pilgrimage of Bishop Ullathorne: The trees, he says, which form the venerable grove, are very old, but their old age is vigorous and healthy. Their great grey roots expose themselves to view with all manner of good essays, curling lines and wrinkles on them, and the rough stems bend and twine about with the vigour and ease of gigantic pythons . Of how many holy solitaries have these trees witnessed the meditations! And then they have seen beneath their quiet boughs the irruption of mailed men, tormented by the thirst of plunder and the passion of blood, which even a sanctuary held so sacred could not stay. And then they have witnessed, for twelve centuries and more, the greatest of the Popes, the Gregories, the Leos, the Innocents, and the Piuses, coming one after another to refresh themselves from their labours in a solitude which is steeped with the inspirations and redolent with the smoking persuasive essays, holiness of St. Benedict. [Note 26] What congenial subjects for his verse would the sweetest of all poets have found in scenes and histories such as the foregoing, he who in his Georgics has shown such love of a country life and country occupations, and good diversity college essays, of the themes and trains of thought which rise out of the country!
Would that Christianity had a Virgil to describe the old monks at their rural labours, as it has had a Sacchi or a Domenichino to paint them! How would he have been able to set forth the adventures and the hardships of the missionary husbandmen, who sang of the Scythian winter, and the murrain of the cattle, the stag of Sylvia, and the forest home of Evander! How could he have pourtrayed St. Paulinus or St. Serenus in his garden, who could draw so beautiful a picture of the old Corycian, raising amid the thicket his scanty pot-herbs upon methods of research calderon, the nook of land, which was not good for tillage, nor for pasture, nor for vines! How could he have brought out the poetry of those simple labourers, who has told us of that old man's flowers and fruits, and of the satisfaction, as a king's, which he felt in diversity essays, those innocent riches! He who had so huge a dislike of smoking essays, cities, and great houses, and high society, and sumptuous banquets, and the canvass for office, and the hard law, and the noisy lawyer, and the statesman's harangue,#8212;he who thought the country proprietor as even too blessed, did he but know his blessedness, and who loved the valley, winding stream, and wood, and the hidden life which they offer, and the deep lessons which they whisper,#8212;how could he have illustrated that wonderful union, of prayer, penance, toil, and literary work, the true otium cum dignitate, a fruitful leisure and a meek-hearted dignity, which is exemplified in the Benedictine!
That ethereal fire which enabled the Prince of Latin poets to take up the Sibyl's strain, and to adumbrate the glories of a supernatural future,#8212;that serene philosophy, which has strewn his poems with sentiments which come home to the heart,#8212;that intimate sympathy with the good diversity essays, sorrows of human kind and and thesis calderon, with the action and passion of human nature,#8212;how well would they have served to illustrate the patriarchal history and office of the monks in diversity college, the broad German countries, or the deeds, the words, and the visions of a St. Odilo or a St. Aelred! What a poet deliberately chooses for the subject of his poems must be in its own nature poetical. A poet indeed is but a man after all, and in his proper person may prefer solid beef and pudding to all the creations of his own fine frenzy, which, in satisfaction, his character of good diversity essays, poet, are his meat and key, drink. But no poet will ever commit his poetical reputation to the treatment of subjects which do not admit of poetry.
When, then, Virgil chooses the country and rejects the town, he shows us that a certain aspect of the town is uncongenial with poetry, and that a certain aspect of the country is congenial. Repose, intellectual and moral, is diversity essays, that quality of country life which he selects for essay, his praises; and effort, and bustle, and excitement is that quality of a town life which he abhors. Herein then, according to Virgil, lies the poetry of good diversity college, St. Benedict, in the secura quies et nescia fallere vita, in the absence of anxiety and methods and thesis calderon pdf, fretfulness, of schemes and scheming, of hopes and fears, of doubts and disappointments. Such a life,#8212;living for the day without solicitude for the morrow, without plans or objects, even holy ones, here below; working, not (so to say) by diversity college, the piece, but as hired by the hour; sowing the ground with the certainty, according to the promise, of cover letters, reaping; reading or writing this present week without the consequent necessity of reading or writing during the next; dwelling among one's own people without distant ties; taking each new day as a whole in diversity college essays, itself, an addition, not a complement, to the past; and doing works which cannot be cut short, for they are complete in every portion of them,#8212;such a life may be called emphatically Virgilian. They, on the contrary, whose duty lies in what may be called undertakings , in science and system, in sustained efforts of the intellect or elaborate processes of action,#8212;apologists, controversialists, disputants in the schools, professors in the chair, teachers in the pulpit, rulers in the Church,#8212;have a noble and meritorious mission, but not so poetical a one.
When the bodily frame receives an injury, or is seized with some sudden malady, nature may be expected to set right the thesis writing, evil, if left to itself, but she requires time; science comes in to shorten the good college, process, and is violent that it may be certain. This may be taken to illustrate St. Benedict's mode of counteracting the miseries of life. He found the world, physical and social, in ruins, and his mission was to methods of research and thesis pdf, restore it in the way, not of science, but of nature, not as if setting about to do it, not professing to college, do it by any set time or by any rare specific or by any series of strokes, but so quietly, patiently, gradually, that often, till the persuasive essays, work was done, it was not known to be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visitation, correction, or conversion. Diversity College. The new world which he helped to create was a growth rather than a structure. Silent men were observed about the country, or discovered in the forest, digging, clearing, and building; and senior projects, other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister, tiring their eyes, and keeping their attention on the stretch, while they painfully deciphered and copied and re-copied the manuscripts which they had saved.
There was no one that contended, or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by degrees the woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an abbey, a village, a seminary, a school of diversity essays, learning, and a city. Roads and bridges connected it with other abbeys and cities, which had similarly grown up; and what the haughty Alaric or fierce Attila had broken to pieces, these patient meditative men had brought together and made to assignment satisfaction key, live again. College Essays. And then, when they had in the course of senior essays, many years gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invader came, and with fire and sword undid their slow and persevering toil in an hour. The Hun succeeded to the Goth, the Lombard to the Hun, the college essays, Tartar to the Lombard; the Saxon was reclaimed only that the Dane might take his place. Down in the dust lay the labour and civilization of centuries,#8212;Churches, Colleges, Cloisters, Libraries,#8212;and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they did without grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and tranquilly, as if it were by reports, some law of nature that the restoration came, and they were like the good college, flowers and shrubs and fruit trees which they reared, and which, when ill-treated, do not take vengeance, or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves, or blossoms, perhaps in greater profusion, and with richer quality, for the very reason that the old were rudely broken off. If one holy place was desecrated, the monks pitched upon another, and by this time there were rich or powerful men who remembered and thesis 1 syllabus, loved the past enough to good college essays, wish to have it restored in the future. Thus was it in the case of the monastery of Ramsey after the ravages of the about essay, Danes. A wealthy Earl, whose heart was touched, consulted his Bishop how he could best promote the divine glory: the essays, Bishop answered that they only were free, serene, and unsolicitous, who renounced the world, and that their renunciation brought a blessing on their country. Smoking Persuasive. By their merit, he said, the anger of the Supreme Judge is abated; a healthier atmosphere is granted; corn springs up more abundantly; famine and pestilence withdraw; the state is better governed; prisons are opened; the fetters unbound; the shipwrecked relieved. College. He proceeded to advise him, as the best of courses, to give ground for a monastery, and to build and methods of research and thesis writing by jose calderon pdf, endow it.
Earl Alwin observed in college, reply, that he had inherited some waste land in the midst of marshes, with a forest in the neighbourhood, some open spots of good turf, and others of meadow; and he took the Bishop to see it. It was in fact an island in the fens, and as lonely as religious men could desire. The gift was accepted, workmen were collected, the pious peasants round about gave their labour. Twelve monks were found from another cloister; cells and a chapel were soon raised. Materials were collected for a handsome church; stones and cement were given; a firm foundation was secured; scaffolding and machinery were lent; and in course of time a sacred edifice and two towers rose over the desolate waste, and thesis writing 1 syllabus, renewed the past;#8212;a learned divine from France was invited to preside over the monastic schools [Note 27]. Here then I am led, lastly, to diversity essays, speak of the literary labours of the Benedictines, but I have not room to do more than direct attention to the peculiar character of their work, and must leave the subject of their schools for some future opportunity. Here, as in other respects above noticed, the thesis 1 syllabus, unity of monachism shows itself. What the Benedictines, even in their latest literary developments, have been, in St. Maur in the seventeenth century, and at Solesme now, such were the monks in their first years. One of the chief occupations of the disciples of St.
Pachomius in Egypt was the diversity essays, transcription of books. It was the sole labour of the monks of essay, St. Martin in Gaul. The Syrian solitaries, according to St. Chrysostom, employed themselves in making copies of the Holy Scriptures. It was the occupation of the good diversity essays, monks of St. Equitius and of Cassiodorus, and of the nunnery of St. Csarius. We read of assignment satisfaction key, one holy man preparing the skins for writing, of another selling his manuscripts in order to essays, gain alms for the poor, and of an thesis abbess writing St.
Peter's Epistles in letters of gold. St. David had shown the same reverence to St. John's Gospel. Abbot Plato filled his own and other monasteries with his beautifully written volumes [Note 28]. During the short rule of good diversity essays, Abbot Desiderius at assignment Monte Cassino, his monks wrote out good college essays, St.
Austin's fifty Homilies, his Letters, his Comment upon the Sermon on the Mount, upon St. Paul and upon methods and thesis writing by jose calderon pdf, Genesis; parts of St. Jerome and St. Diversity College Essays. Ambrose, part of St. Bede, St. Cheap Senior Reports Essays. Leo's Sermons, the Orations of St. Good College Essays. Gregory Nazianzen; the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Apocalypse; various histories, including that of thesis, St. Gregory of Tours, and of Josephus on the Jewish War, Justinian's Institutes, and many ascetic and other works; of the Classics, Cicero de Natur Deorum, Terence, Ovid's Fasti, Horace, and Virgil.
Maurus Lapi, a Camaldolese, in the fifteenth century, copied a thousand volumes in diversity essays, less than fifty years. Jerome, a monk in an Austrian monastery, wrote so great a number of books that, it is said, a wagon with six horses would scarcely suffice to persuasive essays, draw them. Othlon, in the eleventh century, when a boy, wrote so diligently that he nearly lost his sight. That was in France; he then went to Ratisbon, where he wrote nineteen missals, three books of the Gospel, two books of Epistle and Gospel, and many others. Many he gave to his friends, but the list is too long to finish. The Abbot Odo of Tournay used to exult, according to his successor, in the number of writers which the Lord had given him. Had you gone into his cloister, you might have seen a dozen young men sitting in perfect silence, writing at tables constructed for the purpose. All Jerome's Commentaries on the Prophets, all the works of St. Good Essays. Gregory, all that he could find of Austin, Ambrose, Isidore, Bede, and writing 1 syllabus, the Lord Anselm, Abbot of Bec, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he caused to be diligently transcribed. [Note 29]
These tranquil labourers found a further field in the illumination and binding of the transcribed volumes, as they had previously been occupied in the practice necessary for the then important art of calligraphy. It was not running hand that the monks had to learn; for it was no ephemeral expression of their own thoughts which their writing was to convey, but the essays, formal transcript, for the benefit of posterity, of the words of inspired teachers and and thesis writing pdf, Doctors of the Church. They were performing what has been since the printer's work; and it is said that from the English monks is derived the small letter of the modern Roman type. In France the abbeys of diversity college essays, Fontenelle, Rheims, and Corbie were especially famed for beauty of key, penmanship in the age of Charlemagne [Note 30], when literature was in its most depressed state. Books intended for presents, such as that which the good diversity essays, mother of senior reports, Leo the essays, Ninth presented to St. Hubert, and, much more, if intended for sacred uses, were enriched with gold and receptionist cover, silver plates and precious stones. Here was a commencement of the cultivation of the fine arts in those turbulent times,#8212;a quiet, unexciting occupation, which went on diversity college, inside the monasteries, whatever rivalries or heresies agitated Christendom outside of them, and which, though involving, of course, an improvement in the workmanship as time went on, yet in the case of every successive specimen, whatever exact degree of skill or taste each exhibited, had its end in itself, as though there had been no other specimen before or after. Brower, in his work on the Antiquities of Fulda, gives us a lively picture of the various tranquil occupations which were going on smoking essays, at one time within the monastic walls. As industrious bees, he says, their work never flagging, did these monks follow out their calling. Some of them were engaged in describing, here and there upon the parchment, the special letters and characters which were to be filled in; others were wrapping or binding the manuscripts in handsome covers; others were marking out in red the remarkable sentences or the heads of the chapters. Good Essays. Some were writing fairly what had been thrown together at random, or had been left out in receptionist cover, the dictation, and were putting every part in fair order.
And not a few of them excelled in painting in college, all manner of colours, and in drawing figures. [Note 31] He goes on receptionist cover, to refer to an old manuscript there, which speaks of the monks as decorating their church, and of their carpenters' work, sculpture, engraving, and brass work. I have mentioned St. Dunstan in an earlier page, as called to political duties, which were out of keeping with the traditionary spirit of his Order; here, however, he shows himself in the simple character of a Benedictine. He had a taste for the arts generally, especially music. He painted and embroidered; his skill in diversity college essays, smith's work is recorded in the well-known legend of his combat with the evil one. And, as the monks of Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard and his Cistercians joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and painting as directly expressive or suggestive of devotion.
He excelled in writing, painting, moulding in assignment key, wax, carving in wood and bone, and in work in gold, silver, iron, and good diversity, brass, says the about, writer of his life in Surius. And he used his skill in musical instruments to charm away from himself and good diversity college, others their secular annoyances, and to rouse them to about, the thought of diversity college, heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words with which he accompanied his airs, and by the concord of those airs themselves. [Note 32] And then he goes on to mention how on one occasion, when he had hung his harp against essay the wall, and good college, the wind brought out from its strings a wild melody, he recognized in it one of the antiphons in methods of research by jose, the Commune Martyrum, Gaudete in C#339;lis, etc., and used it for good college, his own humiliation. As might be expected, the cheap projects reports essays, monasteries of the South of Europe would not be behind the North in accomplishments of this kind. Those of St. Gall, Monte Cassino, and diversity, Solignac, are especially spoken of smoking persuasive essays, as skilled in the fine arts.
Monte Cassino excelled in illumination and in mosaic, the Camaldolese in painting, and the Olivetans in wood-inlaying [Note 33]. While manual labour, applied to these artistic purposes, ministered to good diversity, devotion, on key, the other hand, when applied to the transcription and multiplication of books, it was a method of instruction, and that peculiarly Benedictine, as being of a literary, not a scientific nature. Systematic theology had but a limited place in diversity essays, ecclesiastical study prior to the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Scripture and thesis writing 1 syllabus, the Fathers were the received means of education, and these constituted the very text on which the pens of the monks were employed. And thus they would be becoming familiar with that kind of knowledge which was proper to their vocation, at the same time that they were engaged in good diversity, what was unequivocally a manual labour; and, in about essay, providing for the religious necessities of posterity, they were directly serving their own edification. And this again had been the practice of the good essays, monks from the first, and is included in the unity of their profession. St.
Chrysostom tells us that their ordinary occupation in his time was to sing and pray, to read Scripture, and to thesis, transcribe the sacred text. [Note 34] As the works of the early Fathers gradually became the literary property of the Church, these, too, became the subject-matter of the essays, reading and the writing of the monks. For him who is going on essay, to perfection, says St. Benedict in his Rule, there are the lessons of the good diversity college, Holy Fathers, which lead to its very summit. For what page, what passage of the Old or New Testament, coming as it does with divine authority, is not the very exactest rule of life? What book of the Holy Catholic Fathers does not resound with this one theme, how we may take the shortest course to our Creator? But I need not here insist on this characteristic of monastic study, which, especially as regards the study of Scripture, has been treated so fully and so well by Mr. Maitland in his Essays on the Dark Ages. The sacred literature of the monks went a step further. They would be naturally led by their continual perusal of the Scriptures and satisfaction key, the Fathers to attempt to compare and adjust these two chief sources of theological truth with each other.
Hence resulted the peculiar character of the religious works of what may be especially called the diversity college essays, Benedictine period, the five centuries between St. Gregory and cheap senior reports essays, St. Good Diversity College Essays. Anselm. The age of the Fathers was well nigh over; the age of the Schoolmen was yet to come; the ecclesiastical writers of the intervening centuries employed themselves for the most part in arranging and digesting the patristical literature which had come down to them; they either strung together choice passages of the Fathers in caten , as a running illustration of the inspired text, or they formed them into a comment upon it. The Summ Sententiarum of the same centuries were works of a similar character, while they also opened the way to the intellectual exercises of the scholastic period; for they were lessons or instructions arranged according to a scheme or system of doctrine, though they were still extracted from the key, works of the Fathers, and though the diversity essays, matter of those works suggested the divisions or details of the system. Moreover, such labours, as much as transcription itself, were Benedictine in their spirit, as well as in their subject-matter; for where there was nothing of cover, original research, nothing of brilliant or imposing result, there would be nothing to dissipate, elate, or absorb the mind, or to violate the diversity essays, simplicity and tranquillity proper to the monastic state. The same remark applies to a further literary employment in which the Benedictines allowed themselves, and which is the last I shall here mention, and that is the compilation of chronicles and annals, whether ecclesiastical, secular, or monastic. So prominent a place does this take in their literature, that the author of the Asceticon , in the fourth volume of Dom Francois's Bibliothque des Ecrivains Bndictins, does not hesitate to point to the historical writings of his Order as constituting one of its chief claims, after its Biblical works, on letters, the gratitude of posterity. This, he says, is the praise especially due to the monks, that they have illustrated Holy Scripture, rescued history, sacred and profane, from the barbarism of the times and have handed down to posterity so many lives both of Saints and of Bishops. [Note 35] Here again is a fresh illustration of the Benedictine character; for first, those histories are of the most simple structure and good college essays, most artless composition, and next, from the circumstance of senior essays, their being commonly narratives of contemporary events, or compilations from a few definite sources of information which were at hand, they involved nothing of that laborious research and excitement of mind which is diversity essays, demanded of the writer who has to record a complex course of history, extending over many centuries and countries, and who aims at the discovery of cheap reports, truth, in the midst of good diversity, deficient, redundant, or conflicting testimony.
The men who wrote history, says Mr. Dowling, speaking of the times in question, did not write by rule; they only put down what they had seen, what they had heard, what they knew. Very many of them did what they did as a matter of moral duty. Cover Letters. The result was something sui generis ; it was not even what we call history at all. It was, if I may so speak, something more, an good diversity essays actual admeasurement rather than a picture; or, if a picture, it was painted in a style which had all the minute accuracy and homely reality of the most domestic of the Flemish masters, not the lofty hyperbole of the Roman school, nor the obtrusive splendour, not less unnatural, of the Venetian. In a word, history, as a subject of thesis, criticism, is an art, a noble and beautiful art ; the historical writings of the middle ages is nature . [Note 36] Mention is diversity college essays, made in this passage of the peculiarity in monastic historiography, that it proceeded from the motive of religious duty. This must always have been the about, case in consequence of the monastic profession; however, we have here, in addition to diversity, the presumption, actual evidence, and not on methods of research and thesis writing by jose calderon, one occasion only, of the importance which the good diversity, Benedictine Order attached to these notices and memorials of past times. In the year 1082, for instance, the letters, Abbot Marquand of good diversity college essays, New Corbie, in Saxony, seems to have sent an order to all churches and monasteries subject to his rule to send to him severally the chronicles of methods of research and thesis pdf, their own places. Abbot Wichbold repeated the good essays, order sixty years later, and Abbot Thierry in 1337 addressed to the provosts and rectors subject to him a like injunction [Note 37]. Again, in 1481 the Abbot of Erfurdt addressed a letter to the Fathers of the Reform of Bursfeld, with the smoking, view of persuading them to take part in a similar work.
If you were to agree among yourselves, he says, and make a statute to the effect that every Prelate is under an obligation to compose annals and histories of his monastery, what could be better, what more useful, what more interesting, whether for knowing or for reading? [Note 38] It is easier to conjecture what those literary works would be, in which a Benedictine would find himself at liberty to engage, than to good diversity, pretend to point out those from which his vocation would debar him; yet Mabillon, equally with de Ranc, implied that all subjects do not come alike to him. Here we are recalled to cover, the well-known controversy between these two celebrated men. The Abbot of La Trappe, the Cistercian de Ranc, writing to his own people, put forth some statements on the subject of the studies proper to a monk, which seemed to reflect upon the learned Maurists. Good Diversity. Mabillon, one of them, replied, in a learned vindication of himself and his brethren. The Abbot had maintained that study of thesis writing, whatever kind should be kept in strict subordination to manual labour, and college, should not extend to any books except the Scriptures and the ascetic treatises of the Fathers. Projects Reports. Mabillon, on the other hand, without denying the necessity of manual labour, to which the Maurists themselves devoted an good college hour a day, seemed to allow to the Benedictine the free cultivation of the assignment satisfaction, intellect, and an unlimited range of studies. When they explained themselves, each combatant would appear to diversity college essays, have asserted more than he could successfully maintain; yet after all there was a considerable difference of view between them, which could not be removed. The critical question was whether certain historical instances, which Mabillon urged in his favour, were to be considered exceptions or not to assignment, the rule of St. Diversity. Benedict. I have certainly maintained in an earlier page of this Essay that such instances as Alcuin, Paschasius, or Lanfranc are no fair specimens of the Benedictine profession, and must not be taken to represent the monks generally. Lest, however, in saying this, I may be thought to be evading the testimony of history, as adduced by a writer, authoritative at once by his learning and as spokesman of the about narrative essay, great Congregation of St.
Maur, I think it well to extract in my behalf some of his own admissions, which seem to good diversity, me fully to bear out what I have been laying down above about the spirit and mission of his Order. For instance, he frankly concedes, or rather maintains, that the scholastic method of writing, teaching theology and philosophy is foreign to the profession of good diversity college essays, a Benedictine, as such. Why, he asks, need we cultivate these sciences in the way of disputation? Why not as positive sciences, explaining questions and resolving doubts as they occur? Why is thesis 1 syllabus, it not more than enough for religious pupils to be instructed in the more necessary principles of the science, and thereby to make progress in the study of the Scriptures and the Fathers? What need of diversity, this perpetual syllogizing in form, and sharp answers to innumerable objections, as is the custom in the schools? Elsewhere he contrasts the mode of cheap senior projects, teaching a subject, as adopted by the early Fathers, with that which the Schoolmen introduced. The reasonings of the Fathers, he says, are so full, so elegantly set forth, as to be everywhere redolent of the sweetness and vigour of good essays, Christian eloquence, whereas scholastic theology is absolutely dry and sterile. Elsewhere he says that in the study of essays, Holy Scripture consists the entire science of monks. Again, he says of Moral Theology, As monks are rarely destined to the cure of souls, it does not seem necessary that they should give much time to the science of Morals.
And though of course he does not forbid them the study of history, which we have seen to be so congenial to their calling, yet he observes of this study, when pursued to its full extent, It seems to cause much dissipation of mind, which is prejudicial to college essays, that inward compunction of heart, which is so especially fitting to the holy life of a monk. Again, observing that the examination of ancient MSS. was the special occupation of the Maurists in his time, he says, They who give themselves to this study have the assignment, more merit with God, in that they have so little praise with men. Moreover, it obliges them to devote the more time to solitude, which ought to be their chief delight. I confess it is good diversity college, a most irksome and unpleasant labour; however, it gives much less trouble than transcription, which was the most useful work of persuasive essays, our early monks. Elsewhere, speaking of the good diversity college, celebrated Maurist editions of the Fathers, he observes, Labour, such as this, which is undergone in silence and in quietness, is especially compatible with true tranquillity of mind and projects reports essays, the mastery of the passions, provided we labour as a duty, and not for good diversity college, glory. [Note 39] I trust the reader will be so good as to keep in satisfaction, mind that I am all along speaking of the Benedictine life historically , and as I might speak of any other historical fact ; not venturing at all on what would be the extreme presumption of any quasi-doctrinal or magisterial exposition of it, which belongs to those only who have actually imbibed its tradition. This being clearly understood, I think I may interpret Mabillon to mean that (be the range of good diversity college, studies lawful to a monk what it may) still, whatever literary work requires such continuous portions of time as not to admit of being suspended at a moment's notice, whatever is so interesting that other duties seem dull and heavy after it, whatever so exhausts the power of attention as to incapacitate for attention to other subjects, whatever makes the mind gravitate towards the creature, is inconsistent with monastic simplicity.
Accordingly, I should expect to find that controversy was uncongenial to the Benedictine, because it excited the mind, and metaphysical investigations, because they fatigued it; and, when I met such instances as St. Paschasius or St. Anselm, I should deal with them as they came and as I could. Moreover, I should not look to a Benedictine for any elaborate and by jose calderon, systematic work on the history of doctrine, or of heresy, or for any course of good diversity, patristical theology, or any extended ecclesiastical history, or any philosophical disquisitions upon history, as implying a grasp of innumerable details, and the labour of using a mass of phenomena to the elucidation of a theory, or of bringing a range of multifarious reading to bear upon about narrative, one point; and that, because such efforts of mind require either an college essays energetic memory devoted to matters of persuasive essays, time and place, or, instead of the good diversity college, tranquil and plodding study of assignment key, one book after another, the presence of a large library, and the distraction of a vast number of books handled all at once, not for perusal, but for reference. Perhaps I am open to the charge of refining, in attempting to illustrate the good diversity college essays, principle which I seem to myself to detect in the Benedictine tradition; but the principle itself which I have before me is clear enough, and is expressed in the advice which is given to us by a sacred writer: The words of the wise are as goads, and cheap senior projects essays, nails deeply fastened in; more than these, my son, require not : of making many books there is no end, and much study is an college affliction of the cover letters, flesh.
To test the truth of this view of the good diversity essays, Benedictine mission, I cannot do better than appeal as a palmary instance to the Congregation of St. Maur, an intellectual school of Benedictines assuredly. Now what, in matter of fact, is the character of thesis 1 syllabus, its works? It has no Malebranche, no Thomassin, no Morinus; it has no Bellarmine, no Suarez, no Petavius; it has no Tillemont or Fleury,#8212;all of whom were more or less its contemporaries; but it has a Montfaucon, it has a Mabillon, it has a Sainte Marthe, a Coustant, a Sabbatier, a Martene,#8212;men of good diversity, immense learning and literary experience; it has collators and publishers of of research writing calderon, MSS. and of inscriptions, editors of the text and of the versions of Holy Scripture, editors and biographers of the Fathers, antiquarians, annalists, paleographists,#8212;with scholarship indeed, and criticism, and theological knowledge, admirable as often as elicited by the particular subject on which they are directly employed, but conspicuously subordinate to it. If we turn to other contemporary Congregations of St. Benedict we are met by the same phenomenon. Their labours have been of the good diversity college, same modest, patient, tranquil kind. The first name which occurs to me is that of Augustine Calmet, of the Congregation of St. Vanne. His works are biblical and antiquarian;#8212;a literal Comment on Scripture with Dissertations, a dictionary of the Bible, a Comment on the Benedictine Rule, a history of Lorraine.
I cast my eyes round the Library, in which I happen at the moment to be writing; what Benedictine authors meet them? There is about essay, Ceillier, also of the Congregation of St. Vanne; Bertholet, of the same Congregation; Cardinal Aguirre of diversity college essays, Salamanca; Cressy of Douai; Pez of Mlk on the Danube; Lumper of St. George in the Hercynian Forest; Brockie of the Scotch College at Ratisbon; Reiner of the English Congregation. Their Works are of the same complexion,#8212;historical, antiquarian, biographical, patristical,#8212;calling to mind the line of study traditionally pursued by a modern ecclesiastical congregation, the Italian Oratory. Receptionist Cover Letters. I do not speak of Ziegelbauer, Francois, and other Benedictines, who might be added, because they have confined themselves to Benedictine Antiquities, and every Order will write about itself.
And so of the Benedictine Literature from first to good, last. Ziegelbauer, who has just been mentioned, has written four folio volumes on the subject. Now one of them is devoted to thesis writing 1 syllabus, a catalogue and an account of Benedictine authors;#8212;of these, those on Scripture and Positive Theology occupy 110 pages; those on history, 300; those on scholastic theology, 12; those on polemics, 12; those on moral theology, 6. This surprising contrast may be an exaggeration of the good college, fact, because there is much of assignment satisfaction, repetition and digression in his survey, and his biographical notices vary in length; but, after all allowances for such accidental unfairness in the list, the result must surely be considered as strikingly confirmatory of the account which I have been giving. But I must cut short an investigation which, though imperfect for the illustration of its subject, is already long for the patience of the reader. Good Diversity College. All human works are exposed to vicissitude and decay; and that the great Order of which I have been writing should in the lapse of thirteen centuries have furnished no instances of that general law is the less to be expected, in proportion to the extent of smoking persuasive, its territory, the independence of its separate houses, and the local varieties of its constitution. Diversity Essays. To say that peace may engender selfishness, and humility become a cloak for indolence, and a country life may be an epicurean luxury, is only to enunciate the over-true maxim, that every virtue has a vice for its first cousin.
Usum non tollit abusus ; and the circumstance that Benedictine life admits of writing 1 syllabus, being corrupted into a mode of living which is not Benedictine, but its very contradictory, cannot surely be made an argument against its meritorious innocence, its resolute cheerfulness, and its strenuous tranquillity. We are told to be like little children; and where shall we find a more striking instance than is here afforded us of that union of simplicity and diversity, reverence, that clear perception of the unseen, yet recognition of the thesis writing 1 syllabus, mysterious, which is the characteristic of the first years of good diversity college essays, human existence? To the monk heaven was next door; he formed no plans, he had no cares; the ravens of his father Benedict were ever at his side. He went forth in his youth to his work and to his labour until the evening of life; if he lived a day longer, he did a day's work more; whether he lived many days or few, he laboured on to the end of them. He had no wish to see further in cheap senior, advance of his journey than where he was to make his next stage.
He ploughed and sowed, he prayed, he meditated, he studied, he wrote, he taught, and diversity, then he died and went to heaven. He made his way into the labyrinthine forest, and he cleared just so much of space as his dwelling required, suffering the high solemn trees and the deep pathless thicket to close him in. And when he began to assignment key, build, his architecture was suggested by the scene,#8212;not the scientific and masterly conception of a great whole with many parts, as the Gothic style in a later age, but plain and inartificial, the adaptation of received fashions to his own purpose, and an addition of chapel to chapel and good college, a wayward growth of cloister, according to the occasion, with half-concealed shrines and unexpected recesses, with paintings on the wall as by a second thought, with an absence of thesis 1 syllabus, display and a wild, irregular beauty, like that of the woods by which he was at first surrounded. And when he would employ his mind, he turned to Scripture, the book of books, and there he found a special response to diversity college essays, the peculiarities of projects essays, his vocation; for there supernatural truths stand forth as the trees and flowers of Eden, in a divine disorder, as some awful intricate garden or paradise, which he enjoyed the more because he could not catalogue its wonders. Next he read the Holy Fathers, and there again he recognized a like ungrudging profusion and good essays, careless wealth of about, precept and of consolation. And when he began to compose, still he did so after that mode which nature and revelation had taught him, avoiding curious knowledge, content with incidental ignorance, passing from subject to subject with little regard to system, or care to penetrate beyond his own homestead of thought,#8212;and writing, not with the sharp logic of disputants, or the subtle analysis of philosophers, but with the one aim of reflecting in his pages, as in a faithful mirror, the words and works of the Almighty, as they confronted him, whether in Scripture and the Fathers, or in that mighty maze of deeds and events, which men call the world's history, but which to him was a Providential Dispensation. Here the beautiful character in life and good essays, death of St. Bede naturally occurs to the mind, who is, in his person and his writings, as truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St. Thomas of a Dominican; and smoking persuasive essays, with an extract from the letter of Cuthbert to Cuthwin concerning his last hours, which, familiarly as it is good diversity essays, known, is always pleasant to read, I break off my subject for the present. He was exceedingly oppressed, says Cuthbert of St. Bede, with shortness of breathing, though without pain, before Easter Day, for about a fortnight; but he rallied, and was full of joy and smoking essays, gladness, and good diversity, gave thanks to Almighty God day and night and every hour, up to Ascension Day; and he gave us, his scholars, daily lectures, and passed the rest of the day in singing the Psalms, and the night too in smoking persuasive essays, joy and thanksgiving, except the scanty time which he gave to sleep.
And as soon as he woke, he was busy in his customary way, and he never ceased with uplifted hands giving thanks to God. I solemnly protest, never have I seen or heard of any one who was so diligent in thanksgiving. He sang that sentence of the blessed Apostle Paul, 'It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the Living God,' and many other passages of Scripture, in which he warned us to shake off the slumber of the soul, by anticipating our last hour. And he sang some verses of good college, his own in English also, to the effect that no one could be too well prepared for his end, viz., in calling to mind, before he departs hence, what good or evil he has done, and how his judgment will lie. And he sang too the persuasive essays, antiphons, of diversity college essays, which one is, 'O King of Glory, Lord of Angels, who this day hast ascended in triumph above all the heavens, leave us not orphans, but send the promise of the Father upon projects, us, the Spirit of Truth, alleluia.' And when he came to good college, the words, 'leave us not orphans,' he burst into tears, and wept much. Assignment Satisfaction Key. He said, too, 'God scourgeth every son whom He receiveth,' and, with St. Ambrose, 'I have not so lived as to be ashamed to have been among you, nor do I fear to diversity college essays, die, for we have a good Lord.' In those days, besides our lectures and methods of research and thesis, the Psalmody, he was engaged in two works; he was translating into English the Gospel of St. John, as far as the words, 'But what are these among so many,' and some extracts from the Not [Note 40] of Isidore. On the Tuesday before Ascension Day he began to suffer still more in his breathing, and his feet were slightly swollen. However, he went through the day, dictating cheerfully, and he kept saying from time to time, 'Take down what I say quickly, for I know not how long I am to last, or whether my Maker will not take me soon.' He seemed to good diversity essays, us to be quite aware of the time of thesis 1 syllabus, his going, and he passed that night in giving of essays, thanks, without sleeping.
As soon as morning broke, that is on cheap senior projects reports essays, the Wednesday, he urged us to good, make haste with the writing which we had begun. We did so till nine o'clock, when we walked in procession with the Relics of the Saints, according to the usage of that day. Senior Projects. But one of our party said to him, 'Dearest Master, one chapter is still wanting; can you bear our asking you about it?' He answered, 'I can bear it; take your pen and be ready, and write quickly.' At three o'clock he said to me, 'Run fast, and call our priests, that I may divide among them some little gifts which I have in my box.' When I had done this in much agitation, he spoke to each, urging and entreating them all to make a point of saying Masses and prayers for him. Thus he passed the day in joy until the evening, when the above-named youth said to him, 'Dear Master, there is yet one sentence not written;' he answered, 'Write quickly.' Presently the college essays, youth said, 'Now it is thesis 1 syllabus, written;' he replied, 'Good, thou hast said the truth; consummatum est ; take my head into thy hands, for it is very pleasant to me to sit facing my old praying place, and good essays, thus to call upon receptionist cover letters, my Father.' And so, on the floor of his cell, he sang, 'Glory be to Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,' and, just as he had said 'Holy Ghost,' he breathed his last, and went to the realms above. It is remarkable that this flower of the good college essays, Benedictine school died on assignment, the same day as St. Philip Neri,#8212;May 26; Bede on Ascension Day, and good diversity essays, Philip on senior reports essays, the early morning after the feast of Corpus Christi. It was fitting that two saints should go to diversity college, heaven together, whose mode of going thither was the same; both of assignment satisfaction, them singing, praying, working, and guiding others, in joy and exultation, till their very last hour. 1. Owing to diversity, the temporary suspension of the Atlantis , the article on the Dominican Order was not written. 2. Helyot, Hist. Mon.
Ziegelbauer, Litt. Hist. Soame's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 26. Brockie. Prf. ad Regul. Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, p. 81, etc., etc. Satisfaction. 3. Butler, June 22. 4. Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. i., p. 705.
Calmet, Reg. Ben., t. ii., p. Diversity Essays. 25. Mabillon, Acta Sc. iv., p. Key. 1, prf., p. xxx. Annal., t. i., prf., § 19. 6. Mabillon, Act Benedict., t. iv., p. 1, p. xxxvii. 7. History of Civilization, vol. ii., p. 65, Bohn; and so Ampre. 10. Dial., i. 1. Vid . Essays, vol. College. ii., p. 284.
Me ver primm dulces ante omnia Mus #8230; Accipiant, c#339;lique vias et sidera monstrent , etc., etc. Sin, has ne possim natur accedere partes, Frigidus obstiterit circm prcordia sanguis, Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes , etc. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas , etc. Fortunatus et ille , Deos qui novit agrestes, etc. 12. Voyage Littraire. Receptionist Cover Letters. Vid . also Calmet, Lorraine, t. i., p. 1043.
Moreri, art. S. Hubert. Good Diversity College Essays. Gallia Christ., t. Essay. iii. p. 966. Mabillon, Annal. Bened., t. ii., pp. 16, 441, 606. Bucherii, Gest. Tungr. etc., t. i., p. 153. Diversity. Helyot, Ordres Mon., t. Cover. vi., p. 296. Good. 13.
Vol. i., p. 237, etc. 14. Reports Essays. Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. Good Diversity. iii., p. 436. Forsyth, Antiqu., vol. i., pp. 37, 44, 179. Turner, Anglo-Sax., vol. ii., p. 167. Murdoch's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 21, etc. Guizot, Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. Satisfaction. 75, Bohn. 15. Neander, Memorials, pp.
436, 451, 473, Bohn. Rader, Bavaria Sacra. Calles, Arm. Germ., t. Good College. i., pp. 200, 276, 317, 318. About. Guizot, Civil., vol. ii., p 134. Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. Good Diversity Essays. ii., p. 196. Fosbroke, Antiq. p. 16. 16.
Meyrick's Willibald, p. 68. Persuasive. Bavaria Sacra, p.119. Diversity College. Petri, Suevia Eccles., p. 96. Calles Ann. Germ., t. Thesis Writing. i., p. 191. 17. Butler's Lives, Aug. 20. Good Diversity. 18. Apud. Mabillon Act. Bened. 19. Thomass. Disc. Eccl. t. iii., p. 513. 20. Letters. P. 93. The passage seems taken from Bede. 21. Bede, Hist. Eccles., i. 26. William of Malmesb. Ponfic. Angl. 23. Eccl. Hist., vol. vii., p. 331, Bohn. 24. Duchesne, Script. Diversity Essays. North., p. 236. 25. Turner, Middle Ages, vol. Thesis Writing 1 Syllabus. v., p. 89. 27. Vid . Turner, Anglo-Saxons, vol. iii., p. 468. 28. Good. Pallad, c. 39.
Cassian, Inst., iv., 12. Calmet, Reg., t. ii., p. 150. Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. About Narrative Essay. iii., p. College. 505. Ziegelbaum, Hist. Litt. Bened., t. ii., p. 510. 29. Annal.
Camald., t. vii., p. 300: vid . other instances in Maitland's Dark Ages, and Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, who, however, is deficient in reports essays, references. College Essays. 30. Thesis Writing 1 Syllabus. Guizot's Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. 236, Bohn. Diversity College Essays. 32.
Vid , also Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. i., p. 167, and the whole chapter. 33. Meehan's Marchese, p. xxiv. 34. Hist. Litter. de St. Maur. Essays. 1770, p. 21. Good Diversity College Essays. 35. P. 379. Printing, another tranquil work, was introduced into Italy by assignment satisfaction key, the Benedictines of Subiaco.
Vid . Dr. Good Diversity Essays. Ullathorne's Pilgrimage. 36. Introd. Eccles. Hist., p. Key. 56. Diversity Essays. 37. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 401. 38. Ibid ., t. i., p. 424. For lists of monastic histories, vid . Mr. Dowling, Introd.
E. H., p. Smoking Persuasive. 260; the Asceticon as above, § 26. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 398. Balmez., Prot. and diversity, Cath., p. 195. 39. Stud. Monast., ed. Methods Of Research And Thesis Calderon Pdf. 1732; t. College. i., pp. 52, 135; t. ii., p. 2; t. i., pp 145, 147, 191, 64. Cheap Senior Projects Reports Essays. 40. The Bollandists have not been able to determine which of St. Isidore's works is here intended.
Not means Musical Notes, according to Du Cange. According to good essays, Leb#339;uf in Ampre, Hist. Litter. t. iii., p. 253, the word means penmanship. Newman Reader #151; Works of John Henry Newman. Copyright © 2007 by The National Institute for Newman Studies. All rights reserved .
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Ways to Nail the Diversity Question in Your Application Essay
MATHEW BAKER AND THE ART OF THE SHIPWRIGHT. From the gentleman Thomas Digges, the focus now turns to an older contemporary, Mathew Baker. Baker (c.1530-1613) was a royal master shipwright under Elizabeth, and thus an important figure within the small but developing naval establishment. With one and sometimes two senior colleagues, he was responsible for constructing or rebuilding many of the ships which tackled the Spanish Armada of 1588. In 1605, his standing at the head of the ‘Art or Mystery of good diversity college essays building and making of Ships’ was confirmed when he was created first Master of the newly founded Company of Shipwrights.1.
At first sight, the shift from receptionist cover, Digges to Baker is diversity essays, a major one, without obvious points of contact. Apparently, we here move from the histories of science and mathematics, as represented by Digges’s geometry, astronomy and ballistics, to the history of technology. We also seem to make a parallel social transition from thesis 1 syllabus, a self- [page 108:] conscious gentleman to good, the dockyard world of an artisan. Yet I shall suggest that these oppositions are overly stark. There are continuities between the work and identities of of research and thesis writing calderon Digges and Baker, continuities which were established through the practice of mathematics and the creation of the mathematical practitioner. The starting point and emblem for this chapter is an college essays, image from a manuscript begun by assignment satisfaction key Mathew Baker and known as Fragments of good diversity essays Ancient English Shipwrightry (Figure 3.1).2 The picture shows a master shipwright and an assistant at work in a drawing office, the master wielding giant-sized dividers over a ‘plat’ of a ship in plan and section.
The image is methods of research writing by jose calderon pdf, extraordinarily rich and provides vital clues to Baker’s transformation of good college ship design into a mathematical art and his simultaneous self-fashioning as a mathematical practitioner. Baker shows the master shipwright at work with paper (or vellum) drawings and plans. Key? We need to follow his lead and attend closely to these material resources and their uses. Yet, though design is as important a category to the history of technology as experiment is to good diversity essays, the history of science, the practice of cheap projects essays paper-based design is so familiar as to be frequently taken for granted. Good Diversity Essays? Baker transports us back to a period when the design of ships was first being worked out on paper; his Fragments undercut the air of self-evidence which too often surrounds the practice of paper design. Persuasive Essays? Rather than the wood of the ships themselves, it is good diversity college essays, therefore paper that [page 109: Figure 3.1] [page 110:] stands at the central focus of this study.3.
Most importantly, it was precisely on paper that Baker could connect mathematics and ship design. By drawing and assignment satisfaction, manipulating ships in diversity college essays, the medium used to solve geometrical problems and perform arithmetical calculation, he was able to juxtapose previously unrelated domains. On paper, the cheap reports, problems and tasks of ship design could be posed in new terms, and techniques could be transferred, explored and adapted. Moreover, paper could circulate through and beyond the diversity, shipyard, reaching and speaking the language of those with no direct experience of smoking shipyard life. Paper was a mobile ‘place’ where shipwright and mathematician could meet and exchange. Indeed, without paper, Baker’s mathematics and his contacts with mathematical practitioners would have been not just difficult but incomprehensible and college, impossible. Baker’s image of a design office shows all the appurtenances of a methodical and regularised practice, with its drawings, scales, dividers, set square, pens, and notebooks.
Yet this is not a transparent window onto the past, providing us with unmediated access to Baker’s workplace and receptionist cover letters, procedures. It is itself a representation and was carefully constructed to communicate the image and values of the mathematising shipwright. Take the simple perspective scheme as an example. Despite their 15th-century Italian origins, the rules for perspective drawings remained novel in 16th century England and diversity college, their results still carried a vivid sense of the powers of geometry. Baker’s perspective display endorsed those geometric values, and he exercised the skill of perspective representation elsewhere in Fragments (pp. Assignment Key? 2-3). [page 111:] However, aside from its use of perspective, the artifice of college Baker’s drawing can be more radically dismantled. Figure 3.2 shows a room with two men creating a perspective image, and might seem a possible source for Baker’s general motif. Methods Of Research And Thesis Writing By Jose? A closer comparison, looking not at the human figures but at the table on which they are working, shows that the connection is much stronger: Baker’s table is a direct copy from the engraving. This exact source is the final woodcut in Albrecht Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), a heavily-illustrated treatise on practical geometry directed specifically at painters. As will become clear later, there is independent evidence elsewhere in Baker’s Fragments that he knew and borrowed from Dürer’s text.
But the point here is that Baker was deliberately and self-consciously assembling his identity as a shipwright and designer, pulling together elements from the prestigious artistry and mathematics of Dürer. Now, the medium for Thomas Digges’s self-fashioning was the word. With Baker, we have a visual as much as a verbal medium for good diversity college the construction of identity. The visual contrast with Digges reinforces the crucial importance of drawing and images for an understanding of Baker’s identity. Design is the primary context for his mathematical work. But Baker’s representation of the drawing office points to more than just design, mathematics and paper. Methods Of Research Calderon Pdf? The implied relationship between master and subordinate shows that the good diversity essays, place of design was a social as much as a technical space. As a master shipwright in 1562 and then a royal master shipwright in 1572, Baker was [page 112: Figure 3.2] [page 113:] accustomed to the exercise of control and managerial responsibility.4 Indeed, he had been brought up to occupy a privileged position within the trade, for assignment his father, James Baker, had been a master shipwright to Henry VIII.5 The first surviving reference to Mathew is in a 1544 list of shipwrights in which, rather than appearing towards the end where his youth and low pay would have otherwise consigned him, he features at the top, directly under the name of his father.6 Though the Bakers did not create a dockyard dynasty comparable to that of the Pett family throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Mathew Baker was clearly brought up to expect leadership and a place apart from ordinary workmen.7. As an elite shipwright, Baker’s status as a craftsman needs to be carefully and explicitly weighed. Unfortunately, in good diversity, the existing historiography of scholars and craftsmen there is disturbingly little precision in pinning down the identity of assignment satisfaction key artisans. Frequently there seems to be a tacit understanding that the craft world was made up of small workshops populated by individual masters, with perhaps an college essays, apprentice or two, and a journeyman.
This stereotype is entirely inadequate for Baker. Baker’s role and responsibilities can be gauged from the quarterly account books drawn up by the Navy Treasurer. Unfortunately, these detailed accounts survive for only a few years of the Elizabethan reign. However, the review of even a single year provides a good sense of Baker’s official status. [page 114:] By 1578 Baker was well-established as a royal master shipwright. He began the year directing routine maintenance on the fleet stationed in Gillingham Water (Chatham) and receptionist, was responsible for surveying the condition of the ships there.8 Probably as a result of this survey, substantial repairs were later carried out on four ships. Prior to the arrival of these decayed ships at Deptford, Baker supervised the construction and fitting of wooden ways in college, the dry dock, and it was probably also at this time that he and Peter Pett installed a new pair of floodgates at the head of the great dock there, ‘for the Speedier Receiving in and taking out of writing by jose calderon pdf her graces ship Dry Docked and diversity college, Repaired there.’ For the narrative essay, ship repairs themselves, Baker headed a workforce of shipwrights and caulkers at Deptford which runs to nine pages in the accounts. College? After several months’ work, when his last ship was almost completed, and the others had already been relaunched and had their masts reset, Baker moved on.
An additional decayed ship arrived at Deptford for dismasting and was then taken to Woolwich to be dry-docked; Baker directed both the repair of the hull at Woolwich and the refashioning of the mast at about, Deptford. With this work over, he ended the year on good diversity college a smaller-scale project at Woolwich, where he led a team of six shipwrights who broke down an old ship and then used the timber to frame a lighter for the transport of artillery. Baker evidently had wide-ranging technical expertise and the habit of management. Moreover, he was not restricted to the royal shipyards. Thesis Writing 1 Syllabus? When a new [page 115:] ship was to be built it was common practice for the master shipwrights to essays, go into the woods and mark the trees whose shapes and sizes were most appropriate for the projected vessel.9 Nor was Baker exclusively concerned with the thesis 1 syllabus, building and maintenance of naval ships and dockyard structures. Good Diversity College? Beyond his official navy duties he also built for private customers ( Fragments , p. 22 refers to the Edward of a ‘Mr Willames’). Baker’s entrepreneurial activity extended in other directions too. In 1578 he was paid for supplying materials to and thesis writing pdf, the navy and he also provided victuals and lodgings for shipwrights prested into royal service at both Woolwich and diversity essays, Deptford. From this schematic and about narrative essay, extremely compressed review of good diversity his responsibilities, Baker’s relatively high status is clear. Although the division of labour among the few permanent and many temporary naval workers was strongly developed, the masters had to display competence in diverse fields, and they were rewarded with position and methods of research and thesis writing, pay at the top of the dockyard hierarchy.
They cannot be thought of as ‘rude mechanicals’, humble artisans in a severely circumscribed sphere of activity.10 Rather, they were versatile figures who, with increasing seniority, were expected to manage resources and workers as well as direct the construction and repair of college ships. Though of a lower social status than an esquire such as Thomas Digges, Mathew Baker was thus of some standing. Master by name and rank, he was marked out from junior colleagues and occupied a level comparable with (if not identical to) [page 116:] that of a gentleman. Baker confounds the traditional category of the craftsman or artisan: he was working as a manager and methods and thesis writing pdf, technical leader, exercising responsibility in a strategic industry. Nor was shipping a static technology. All aspects of the industry were undergoing rapid development throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Commercially, there were the early voyages of discovery and the subsequent development of long-distance trade. Organisationally, there was the establishment of the diversity, first permanent, ocean-going navies.
Technically, there were challenges such as the adoption of Mediterranean carvel construction techniques in Northern Europe and the development of 3- and 4-masted full-rigged ships. And militarily, there was the introduction of heavy artillery firing from lower decks. The elevated role of the master shipwright needs to letters, be understood in good diversity, terms of these economic, administrative, technological and military changes.11. With its division of projects essays labour and good college, stratification of management and control, the naval dockyard was already on receptionist cover letters its way to college essays, becoming a - if not the - major industrial site of the early modern world. Baker was at the heart of this capital-intensive industry.
Moreover, his expertise was sufficient to give him wider credibility beyond the realm of the shipyard: Baker’s service at Dover in the 1570s and ’80s precisely confirms his perceived position as a trusted agent for a range of complex tasks. Baker thus has an exemplary significance not just for shipbuilding and about narrative, ship design but for larger questions in diversity college, the history of technology and design. Traditionally, the study of technological design in methods and thesis writing calderon, the Renaissance has been devoted to civil and military architecture and the design of machines, with shipbuilding kept separate in the [page 117:] distinct domain of maritime history.12 Yet, in many respects, the rapid development of ships and maritime institutions posed larger design challenges than in those other mechanical and architectural technologies. The Venetian Vettor Fausto commented in diversity college essays, 1530 that. if knowledge of the architecture of buildings on land is receptionist cover, so thoroughly difficult, what should I say about college that of the sea, where everything is reports, drawn out not by straight lines (which is an almost easy method) but by curves and variations repeatedly made to them?13. Baker’s Fragments provide some of the most valuable archival evidence for these complex procedures of ship design. Moreover, they not only signal the extension of diversity design into paper practice, but witness the new identity of the elite mechanician as mathematical practitioner. Mathew Baker’s manuscript was christened Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry when it was acquired and preserved by Samuel Pepys. Pepys’s choice of receptionist cover letters title was deliberate and appropriate.
Fragments is not a coherent volume; its pages display an enormous variety of format and style. Some parts are finely executed, perhaps for a planned presentation volume, while other sections are no more than notebook pages. There are coloured draughts of ships with their full decoration; [page 118:] historical and mythological sketches; a map; plans, elevations and sections of ships; and practical mathematical devices for scaling and generating proportions. College? Interspersed amongst this profusion of different representations are various jottings, calculations and explanations - even a poem. The diversity of cover material in Fragments complicates the good, question of its dating. Though the volume illustrates and records details of ships built by Baker between the by jose calderon, early 1570s and the mid-1580s, it is possible that the surviving text and images were drawn up in later years. Nor is there any guarantee that all the diversity, material was created at the same time. There is key, thus no secure way of linking Fragments to diversity, a particular stage of Baker’s long career.
Unfortunately, aside from administrative records, which do not speak with Baker’s own voice, there are no other substantial sources for thesis 1 syllabus his design practice. Thus, in contrast to the case of Thomas Digges, it is not possible to reconstruct the development of Baker’s career and to investigate changes in diversity college essays, his commitments, values and self-presentation. The technical and satisfaction key, social innovations implicit in Fragments therefore need to be teased out through comparison with sources from good college, elsewhere. Though Fragments is one of the first and most important texts on shipbuilding, it is not the earliest to survive. Writing 1 Syllabus? From in and around the college essays, Venetian Arsenal, there exists a series of manuscripts which reach back as far as the early 15th century. These texts are cryptic in the extreme, using obscure local terminology to record the proportions of vessels, and accompanying their recipe-style instructions with rough sketches.14 Contemporary with Baker are the first surviving texts from [page 119:] the Iberian tradition (itself closely related to Italian practices). The most important texts were compiled by thesis writing 1 syllabus observers of shipbuilding rather than shipwrights and contrast markedly with the earlier Venetian documents. As educated outsiders, these Spanish and college essays, Portuguese authors brought the persuasive, resources of literate culture to bear on their new subject. Drawing on good diversity college essays classical precedents and literary forms, they produced discursive and systematic treatments of shipbuilding accessible to an audience unfamiliar with dockyard culture.15. Baker’s Fragments is distinct from both the Venetian and Iberian documents: his volume is not only the work of receptionist cover a practising shipwright but it incorporates innovative uses of paper such as his production of detailed and finely finished scale drawings. Indeed, the other European sources are, paradoxically, often more indicative of the design practice that preceded paper techniques.
So how were ships designed without paper? By the 16th century an apparatus of simple though powerful rules and techniques had been developed for large vessels. Ship design was memorised in proportional rules, and its complex [page 120:] curves generated and recorded by full-size wooden moulds or templates. Technically advanced shipwrights employed a sophisticated constructive geometry which used wood rather than paper and took place not in a design office but out in the shipyard itself.16. In the later 16th century, English naval vessels, like earlier Mediterranean and Iberian ships, were carvel or skeleton-built; that is, the keel was laid down, the stem and sternposts erected, and then the frames or ribs set up along the length of the keel, before the planking was applied.
The shape of skeleton-built frames thus determined the form of the good college, hull.17. However, carvel was (and is) a broad category, encompassing numerous solutions to the problem of moulding the timbers.18 In the simplest form, one or two identical master frames were placed midships and flexible battens or ribbands run [page 121:] round them from stem to sternpost. The shapes of all the other frames were then taken from the thesis 1 syllabus, ribbands. The only frame actually to be specified in advance was the master frame, for the ribbands were adjusted during framing to give a fair form. More advanced techniques for large vessels reduced the reliance on ribbands, by pre-specifying the essays, frames in the central section of the hull and reserving the use of ribbands to the ends of the ship, where the curves become sharper.
The sophisticated techniques for deriving these pre-determined frames show the Renaissance shipwrights’ constructive geometry at work. The shipwrights’ first step was to determine the form of the midship frame, since it was from writing by jose calderon pdf, this frame that the others in the central section of a ship were shaped. Proportional rules of thumb defined its dimensions and arcs, and good diversity, its shape was recorded in the form of full-size templates (or moulds). Satisfaction? Several templates were needed because the large frames were assembled from several pieces of timber, each of which was cut out and shaped by following the appropriate template pattern. The shipwrights used the same templates for all the other pre-determined central frames.
To generate the smoothly varying shape of the hull, the trick was to manipulate and reconfigure the relative orientations of good diversity essays these templates. Persuasive? Starting from the form of the midship frame, the templates were slightly adjusted for each of the other frames in the central section of the hull, in order to good essays, create the rising and receptionist cover, narrowing of the ship’s lines towards bow and stern. These slight changes were controlled not by good diversity essays paper drawings or calculations but by full-scale graduations marked directly on the templates themselves, or on methods pdf boards. The case of narrowing provides a convenient example of this full-scale [page 122:] constructive geometry. Though mentioned in Venetian sources, the narrowing procedure was most clearly spelled out in good essays, the 16th century by one of the educated observers of the shipwright’s art, the cover letters, Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.19. The shipwright used a proportional rule of thumb to calculate by how much the good diversity college essays, ship’s side should narrow between the midship frame and the tail-frame, the last frame fore or aft in the hull’s central section. The question of narrowing then resolved into the problem of subdividing this dimension so as to smoothly pull in the frames between midship and tail-frame. The narrowing dimension was first taken as a radius and used to methods of research by jose, produce a semicircle. Diversity Essays? On each quadrant the thesis 1 syllabus, shipwright stepped out with dividers the same number of equal arcs as there were narrowing frames. Joining up the matching points gave a series of chords (Figure 3.3). The intersections of chord and radius produced a graduated scale that would then be used to smoothly narrow the hull (Figure 3.4).
Each mark on the scale indicated the incremental amount by which successive frames were to good college, be pulled in to narrow the hull: initially a small amount, but gradually more and more (Figure 3.5). Oliveira’s account shows how the writing, shipwright solved the problem of narrowing given only the overall narrowing dimension and the number of frames. However, while he usefully indicates the steps in good diversity college, the procedure, it needs to be emphasised that Oliveira’s text and drawings are in one sense fundamentally misleading. Their appearance in manuscript form intrudes paper into a procedure depending on wood. In practice, the narrowing was worked out full-scale with string [page 123: Figure 3.3] [page 124: Figure 3.4] [page 125: Figure 3.5] [page 126:] and board rather than as a miniaturised representation on paper.20. In the pre-paper world of the shipyard, design was thus not the same as construction, for frames were specified in advance by constructive geometry. But design and construction were not, and could not be, sharply distinguished. With its full-scale wooden templates and tools, design shared the satisfaction key, same material medium as construction.
It also shared the good college essays, same workplace, since both were performed out in the shipyard. Moreover, all the evidence suggests that apprentices learnt the craft by of research and thesis by jose calderon pdf observing and copying these operations in essays, the workplace. Instruction was delivered informally, as directions and advice to be followed on the job.21 Oral and material culture were seamlessly joined. From the wooden world of the shipyard, we can now return to Mathew Baker’s image of shipwrights in a drawing office (Figure 3.1; above, p. 109). I began by satisfaction key displaying some of the good diversity college essays, elements from which the image was artfully assembled. But now the wooden work of the shipyards demonstrates the extent to which the very practice of design on paper itself had to be constructed. Essay? Far from being a natural or inevitable activity, the radical character of paper work should now be evident. Not only does it not represent the only way to design a ship, but it contrasts markedly with the templates and graduated boards of pre-plan practice. With Baker, we are now [page 127:] removed from the busy world of the wooden shipyard: design is portrayed as inhabiting a space quite different from the work of actual construction. Moreover, not just the good, location, but the very medium of key design has been transformed.
The master works with dividers on diversity essays the plan and section of a ship, translating the complex geometry of narrowing into miniaturised form through the technique of scaled drawing. Baker’s image shows us design inhabiting a distinctive new space, with new materials and implements, and the suggestion of new social relationships. If it is clear that ships could be built without plans and drawings, how did ‘plats’ become successful?22 Baker’s Fragments provide unrivalled access to this crucial question. Satisfaction Key? Paper became a key feature of Baker’s practice because he made it serve a whole series of related functions. Baker’s manuscript pages became a site on good diversity essays which technique, control, teaching, administration and the navy could be juxtaposed and combined. Fragments shows how Baker not only served his own interests through the use of graphic design and paper work, but enrolled the interests of others. By examining the didactic possibilities of Fragments and of research writing by jose, the integration of paper practice into the hierarchy of navy administration, I will indicate how ‘plats’ could help to redefine relationships and recruit allies.
But first I investigate the more personal and private benefits which Baker derived from good diversity essays, design on paper. Paper could provide a medium of satisfaction key record and reference. Baker vigorously exploited this capacity. On his pages are juxtaposed geographically and temporally diverse creations, from Noah’s ark and the first fleets of the ancient world (pp. 1-3), [page 128:] to contemporary ships whose details he knew at first hand. Close to home, Baker included evidence of his own father’s ships.23 But he also ranged much more widely.
Amongst the good diversity college essays, contemporary materials, Baker drew the about, midship mould of good diversity a Greek merchant ship (p. 12); his knowledge of its form probably dates back to a Mediterranean voyage of 1551.24. Baker also documented Venetian midship mould procedures, providing unique evidence of historical changes in their techniques (p. 11). Assignment Key? The likely source for good essays Baker’s awareness of Venetian practice is pointedly suggested by the navy quarterly accounts, where Baker’s name appears directly above that of a certain Augustino Levello.25 Levello was a Venetian shipwright who had originally been brought over to build galleys for Henry VIII but who then remained in English service for and thesis by jose over 40 years.26 Baker learnt and adapted not just Venetian graphic techniques, but even adopted their terminology.27 In Fragments , Baker was able to compare diverse designs and techniques which would never previously have been juxtaposed. Paper also provided a medium in which experimentation was relatively [page 129:] cheap. As well as recording the midship moulds of others’ ships, Fragments also shows Baker at good college essays, work on new possibilities of his own. Assignment Satisfaction? The rationale for his focus on these midship main frames is very explicit: ‘forasmuch as the goodness of every ship doth consist in the perfectness of the midship mould it is requisite [that] the same be perfectly made’ (p. 34). Typically, Baker’s midship moulds were drawn over proportional grids and made up of good touching arcs of circles. But they did not conform to only one pattern: the grid was changed, as were the number of centres and the way in which they were found.
Baker used the pages of Fragments as a medium in which to methods of research writing by jose calderon pdf, test new measures and diversity, ratios, varying parameters in order to assess their influence on the form of the hull. His most systematic exploitation of the possibilities opened up by design on paper appears in two numbered sequences of smoking persuasive midship moulds. With no text explaining the college essays, variations, he drew a total of of research writing by jose calderon 16 moulds, each differing a little from the others (pp. 36-9, 42-3, 46-7). Even when he came closest to prescribing a canonical form for midship moulds his trials did not stop; despite giving explicit and good diversity essays, seemingly definitive instructions for and thesis writing calderon pdf the draught of a midship mould on essays one page, the accompanying drawing actually departed slightly from them. When drawing the upper futtock (topmost section of the mould) he carefully scribed the lines laid down in his text, but he did not ink them in. Instead, he scribed an alternative orientation and then finally settled for a third choice (pp.
34-5; see Figure 3.6). Baker was seeking to achieve a new level of control over more than just the form of the midship mould. Whereas the most sophisticated template techniques worked with only the central section of the hull, Baker aspired to more: his rising and narrowing lines cover the whole length of the ship (p. 21, see Figure 3.7). Baker was [page 130: Figure 3.6] [page 131: Figure 3.7] [page 132:] attempting the complete specification of the form of the hull on receptionist letters paper. But Fragments did not have an audience of only essays, one.
It was not a purely personal document. Despite the master shipwrights’ reputation for guarding the secrets of their craft, there are indications that Fragments was written for others too, and that the design practices that it reveals were embedded in wider relationships.28. One segment of the additional audience for Baker’s texts and draughts was the group of his pupils and apprentices. Fragments represents a new departure in the teaching considered appropriate to a shipwright. The didactic dimension of essays Fragments is good, suggested by Baker’s language: ‘in this division observe all the rules before taught’ (p.
40); ‘Now that I have showed how to know the tonnage of a ship . ’ (p. 154). Moreover, we know that he had apprentices. Even in his eighties, when he prepared his will, Baker still had two ‘servants’ to whom he bequeathed various ‘books and instruments of the art of shipping and moulds belonging to writing by jose, the same.’29 In 1626, Phineas Pett certified that one John May had been ‘bred as an apprentice and servant’ to Baker.30. The same Phineas Pett, himself a master shipwright to James I and Charles I, provides vital evidence of the character of Baker’s teaching. Despite much enmity between the two men in subsequent years, Pett was to recall in his autobiography that in the winter of 1595/6, in the evenings, commonly I spent my time to good purposes, as [page 133:] in cyphering, drawing and practising to good diversity college, attain the knowledge of my profession, and I then found Mr Baker sometime forward to give me instructions, from persuasive, whose help I must acknowledge I received my greatest lights.31. Pett’s testimony is of exceptional interest.
Firstly, it specifies the area in which he supposed knowledge of good essays his profession to lie: ‘cyphering, drawing and practising’. Cyphering - calculation using Arabic numerals - and drawing are central features of Fragments : Pett’s perception of the shipwright’s art mirrors the character of Baker’s paper work. In addition, primary responsibility for receptionist cover fostering this perception is ascribed to Baker, who was evidently encouraging and open with his knowledge, even though Pett was never his apprentice; in an (admittedly flattering) letter to Baker of 1603, Pett remarked that ‘although I served no years in your service, yet I must ever acknowledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it came only from you’.32. Pett’s casual comment that Baker’s instruction was given in the evenings also suggests a deeper point. Shipwrights traditionally learnt their trade by the observation and imitation of a master out in the shipyard. The art was passed on good diversity essays during the hours of the working day and the process did not demand literacy or formal numeracy. But Baker was sponsoring an alternative approach to teaching, carried out when work was over.
Facility in calculation and smoking persuasive essays, draughting techniques was developed and literacy probably assumed. Baker was promoting a form of training separate from the exercise of the craft at the workplace. So not only design, but craft teaching too, was removed from the wooden world of the shipyard and transferred to a new space like that of [page 134:] Baker’s drawing office (Figure 3.1).33. The implications of this shift in the place of good essays design and teaching are best exemplified not by the evidence of a shipwright but by Sir Robert Dudley (1574-1649), the illegitimate son of the Earl of Leicester. Dudley spent much of his life in Italy, where he published his lavish magnum opus Dell’Arcano del Mare (1646-7), a multi-volume work which expounds and illustrates shipbuilding amongst many other nautical and navigational subjects. But Dudley’s shipbuilding interests originated before he fled England in 1605, for he was referred to in 1607 as Baker’s pupil (‘scolare’).34 That Dudley should have had a shipwright as a ‘master’ is methods of research and thesis writing by jose pdf, remarkable for, though illegitimate, he had been brought up in the ranks of the nobility. The relationship between master and pupil was surely only diversity essays, conceivable because Baker had rendered both teaching and design as paper practices, separated from the shipyard where common workmen exercised their trade. Robert Dudley was not the only shipyard outsider to thesis writing, benefit from the work embodied in good diversity college essays, Fragments . In addition to its didactic context, Baker’s work also had an about narrative essay, administrative significance, for design on paper was integrated into the navy’s decision-making process. An important audience for diversity college finely finished draughts such as [page 135:] those in Fragments was the senior projects reports essays, Navy Board and, beyond it, the Privy Council. College? Indeed, shipwrights’ plats on occasion went to cheap projects essays, the highest authority in good diversity essays, the land. In a letter of 1588, addressed to the three royal masters (Peter Pett, Richard Chapman and Baker), the receptionist letters, principal officers of the navy requested that.
the Plats of the essays, Ships, Galleasses and Crompsters that were lately determined to be built should be set out fair in Plats and brought to my Lord Admiral that her Majesty may see them.35. Navy expenditure was a major drain on the national coffers. Yet those ultimately responsible for thesis 1 syllabus the military security and solvency of the realm were unlikely to have either experience or understanding of the dockyards and their products. Diversity College? Baker later recalled how Lord Treasurer Burghley had opened his house to the meetings of master shipwrights and Lords of the Council at essays, which plats were displayed and resolved upon.36 By bringing proposed ships into the administrative chambers of diversity college essays state, plats made complex issues of performance and price directly visible to the Lords of the Council as well as the Navy Officers. As a tangible focus for the hard bargaining and negotiation which preceded the approval of new naval construction, the miniature representations of scaled drawings extended the financial and technical control available to both the naval and civil authorities.
At the same time as he used plans to cover letters, serve the interests of his superiors, Baker was also promoting his own interests as an indispensable servant of the crown. Nor was this a game of merely nominal status; the stakes were high. Especially during the 1570s and 1580s there was almost continuous administrative upheaval and in-fighting, with a corresponding uncertainty over the exact distribution of naval [page 136:] responsibility and good diversity college, power. There were serious disputes and constantly shifting alliances between the different players. Insecurity and satisfaction key, distrust were rife: ‘before, the good diversity college essays, master shipwrights did direct, but now they are to be directed; and being but hirelings were glad to please their master’.37 Paper design helped to bolster the senior essays, role of the master shipwrights in this unstable environment, and to fend off threats to their position and prestige. Yet as Baker and his senior colleagues became accustomed to conference with the Privy Council, they became correspondingly detached from the temporary workforce of ordinary shipwrights. There were probably therefore losers as well as winners in the shift towards paper practice. Essays? Large dockyards such as the Venetian Arsenal already possessed a hierarchy of expertise and authority, but Baker’s new skills consolidated the existing division of labour and elevated the master further above the ranks of his humbler colleagues.38 The master was now a more remote figure who could direct work from a distance; Baker is, for writing 1 syllabus example, reported to good, have ‘moulded’ a ship, which was then framed by a close colleague.39 [page 137:] Baker inserted his paper design work within the vertical hierarchy of apprentices, masters and governing authorities who practised and regulated naval shipbuilding. In doing so he was shaping a new place for design: a new physical location, a new position within the technical practices of the craft, a new set of materials, and a new social and of research writing by jose calderon pdf, administrative setting.
But paper practice also created novel links outside the naval establishment. In Fragments , Baker’s most important new investment was in the contemporary world of practical mathematics. I therefore now turn to his horizontal integration of ship design with the mathematical arts. We have seen that Mathew Baker’s Fragments was a multi-purpose document. It was used as a repository for constructed ships, experimental designs and good college essays, international comparisons; it consolidated technical control in the hands of the master shipwright; it embodied new materials for the teaching of the craft; and about narrative essay, it included finely finished draughts suitable both for presentation and as a formal record of contractual accountability. However, Fragments also had another use, as a site for calculation. Many pages record the arithmetical determination of such quantities as tonnages and the areas of specific midship moulds. But Baker’s most characteristic mathematics was graphical rather than arithmetical. There is a 20 page section of the manuscript which is college essays, especially striking, for it uses thick pasteboard rather than ordinary paper as a medium for proportional scales and graphical devices (p.
57ff.). Among these various ‘paper instruments’ were scales based on graduated series of concentric semicircles [page 138:] (Figure 3.8), as well as others depending on the principle of similar triangles (Figure 3.9). Both types embodied rules of satisfaction key proportions for dimensions such as moulded breadths or the good college, lengths of assignment masts and yards; a number still have index threads attached, while some show signs of extensive usage. Amongst its other benefits for Baker, Fragments was thus also intended as a mathematical compendium. But Baker’s paper scales and instruments were more than just working tools. These devices were vital to his self-conception: mathematics was a primary resource in Baker’s reconstruction of his identity as a master shipwright. For, rather than the diversity college, skill of about manual craftsmanship with wood, Baker adopted a rhetoric of arithmetic and geometry. He rejected the work of older masters and good college, charged that they had proceeded by mere rule of about thumb.
Lacking mathematical knowledge, they had been unable to provide a rationale for their technical decisions. Before plots and demonstration were used the diversity, master workmen in those days had certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art, for that they wanted the cheap senior essays, use of Arithmetic and Geometry for diversity college essays the searching out of those things that otherwise is impossible to be found (p. Letters? 28). Even contemporaries who did use plans were open to criticism. Although at good essays, this day there be many that use plots yet the best understandeth not the true making thereof, neither the truth of any circular line therein contained (p. 16).
For Baker, arithmetic and receptionist, geometry were the ‘two supporting sciences’ (p. 33). Mathematics acted as the good essays, primary point of reference in bolstering his self-conscious disdain for traditional methods. However, Baker construed arithmetic and geometry in highly specific ways. They were not the sciences of abstract number and magnitude; rather, they were characterised in concrete, even manual, terms. [page 139: Figure 3.8] [page 140: Figure 3.9] [page 141:] Arithmetic and writing, its calculations were pre-eminently to be done ‘with the pen’.
Baker’s pen-reckoning implicitly rejected the arithmetic of many contemporaries. Calculating ‘with the pen’ (or cyphering) meant using Arabic numerals. The alternative practice was to work ‘with the good diversity essays, counters’, requiring a counting board and casting counters, and normally recording the sums in Roman numerals.40 Baker’s preference for cyphering over casting did not stem from unfamiliarity with the latter method. 1 Syllabus? The shipyard clerks with whom he was in good diversity college, regular contact evidently reckoned with board and counters: the Navy accounts use Roman numerals to detail many payments to stationers for cheap ‘casting compters’.41 But Baker learnt his arithmetic from books rather than the administrative practices of the shipyard. When he extracted roots and worked with the symbols of algebra he was drawing on texts such as Robert Recorde’s Whetstone of Witte (1557), which went well beyond the elementary calculations required for accounting.42. If the arithmetic of Fragments was done ‘with the pen’, the archetypical operation of geometry was the use of dividers and straight edge to produce midship moulds, plans and elevations. For Baker, each of these drawings was a ‘geometrical demonstration’ (pp. 34, 73).
However, such ‘demonstrations’ were a ‘showing forth’; the term carried no connotation of proof. Baker’s conception of demonstration as graphic display rather than rigorous proof contrasts with more learned treatments of [page 142:] geometry.43 Yet his drawings were not casual sketches. Part of the apparatus of the diversity, ‘geometrical demonstration’ was the linear scale, which related the essay, miniature ship on paper to the intended full size in college essays, wood. Working by the scale rendered Baker’s plats as exact depictions.44. Despite his graphical emphasis, Baker was not unaware of the Euclidean tradition. Indeed he twice makes explicit reference to Euclid’s Elements , both times to the Pythagorean theorem (I, 47). He first uses ‘the 47 proposition’ to find the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle in the grid of a midship mould (p. 34).
On the essays, second occasion he cites not the theorem itself but a corollary added by the French mathematician and diversity essays, poet Jacques Peletier: ‘the first 47 proposition added by pelitarus’.45 Yet, characteristically, this latter invocation of Euclidean authority sanctioned a purely graphical procedure using dividers and measured magnitudes. Moreover, as well as adapting Euclidean material, Baker also translated several standard problems of methods by jose calderon practical geometry into the form of paper instruments. Diversity College Essays? Textbook chestnuts such as the key, relations between squares and circles or cubes and good diversity, spheres were converted into graphical format (pp. About Essay? 66-7), while Baker also discussed the volumes of good diversity college cylinders and prisms (p. 32). For Baker, arithmetic and smoking, geometry were characterised by the operations of pen, dividers, scale and straight edge. Arithmetic and geometry complemented each [page 143:] other but were independent; together they served as the ‘two supporting pillars of every art’ (p. 34). Diversity College? Hence, in cover, resolving a question one could work with or without number (p.
40). The geometrical answer to a problem could be checked against the arithmetical: after answering by the scale Baker would try by the pen, reaching a figure ‘agreeing with the geometrical demonstration’ (p. Diversity College Essays? 73). The pen and the demonstration had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Proportional scales embodying the principle of similar triangles (such as that in receptionist cover letters, Figure 3.9) could be used with only a few proportions whereas arithmetic met the same problem with a ‘rule [which] is both certain and general’ (p. Good Essays? 65). There were thus restrictions on proportional scales and their range of application.
But they were often more appropriate to Baker’s design practice than the pen: although this scale doth not give so precise the fraction as the pen doth, yet it doth give the true proportion of the lines which in the drawing of plats is better than to have it given in about, number (p. 68). Moreover, the achievement of precision in cyphering could require calculations which Baker was happy to avoid. The rules he devised for tonnage frequently called for the extraction of cube roots. Good Diversity College Essays? Rather than carry out the complete calculation, Baker preferred to indicate that it was indeed possible, but that an easier approximation was permissible.
At the end of a series of calculations peppered with arithmetical errors, he remarked that. although these [roots] are not extracted so near as they might be yet is it within one tenth. Cover Letters? My desire is rather to good college, show the rule reason to do the same than the preciseness thereof . To those that hath been brought up in the trade of a Carpenter that hath the knowledge of extracting of roots this may suffice (p. 153). There cannot have been many shipwrights ‘brought up in the trade of methods and thesis writing pdf a carpenter’ who were able to extract square and cubic roots. Through the rhetoric of arithmetic and [page 144:] geometry as well as the adoption of specific mathematical techniques, Baker was prescribing a new identity for good essays the shipwright. Combining experience of the craft with imported mathematical knowledge and values, the satisfaction key, shipwright was now to be identified as a mathematical mechanician.
Baker’s own route to this new identity came not only via familiarity with mathematical texts but through personal contacts. The material in Fragments suggests successful collaboration within the naval and mathematical community, as well as at least one instance of creative discord. Examining these instances highlights Baker’s personal as well as intellectual integration with the good diversity college essays, small group of contemporary mathematical practitioners. Baker’s measuring scales provide a first, indirect, hint of his affiliations. Linear scales are a repeated feature of Fragments , but Baker occasionally used a transversal scale for greater accuracy. These square scales, with diagonal lines running across horizontals, were graduated into divisions corresponding to about, one inch (Figure 3.10). Just as ordinary linear scales had been only recently introduced into English map and chart making, so transversals were considered a novelty in astronomical instrumentation.
Thomas Digges recommended their use in good college, 1573 for his astronomical cross staff, attributing this improved method of graduation to the navigator and instrument maker Richard Chancellor (d. 1556), ‘peritissimus ingeniosissimus Artifex Mathematicus’.46 It therefore seems scarcely coincidental that when Baker voyaged to the Mediterranean in 1551, Richard Chancellor was also [page 145: Figure 3.10] [page 146:] among the crew.47. On the same page as one of Baker’s diagonal scales is a condensed ship draught which gives further clues to his mathematical associates. This abbreviated plat shows the about narrative, stem, stern and midship mould of a small ship labelled the ‘Judeth - Borowgh’ (p. 6, see Figure 3.10). In 1573, the navigators Stephen and William Borough received a government bounty for the building of the Judith ; evidently it was commissioned from Baker.48 William Borough later became a permanent officer of the college, navy and was an ally of Baker both in cheap senior reports essays, the internal politics of navy administration as well as during other projects such as Dover harbour.49 The evidence of the Judith indicates that, prior to their navy collaboration in the 1580s, William Borough was already an admirer of Baker’s skill. One small remnant of contact between Borough and Baker is their use of the same form of decorated linear scale, by Baker in his ship draughts, by Borough in his sea charts.50 But they shared more substantial interests. Aside from his concerns with mathematical navigation and magnetism, Borough also dealt with questions of shipbuilding. In particular, he compiled a memorandum which not only good diversity college essays, laid down proportions for various types of merchant and naval ship but also offered a method for [page 147:] tackling the cheap senior, thorny question of diversity college tonnage determination.51 Less surprisingly, Baker also treated the qualities required in different classes of ship (eg p. 40). Moreover, Fragments records his efforts to essays, grapple with tonnage in good diversity, a way which matches the arithmetical techniques propounded by Borough (pp.
65, 153-4). Beyond these overlapping professional interests, Baker and Borough espoused the same mathematical agenda. Baker’s emphasis on the primary role of arithmetic and geometry is of research and thesis writing calderon pdf, also found in Borough’s Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (1581). Diversity? In the preface to that text Borough portrayed arithmetic and geometry as ‘the grounds of letters all Science and certain arts’, and he paused to commend those mechanical practitioners who. by the diversity, studious practice and exercise in these arts have attained to rare and singular knowledge: In Architecture, Vitruvius the Roman: In painting that famous German Albertus Durerus: And in building of Ships, Mathew Baker our countryman.52. To be bracketed in about narrative, such elevated company was high praise indeed. The clear implication is that Baker and good diversity college, Borough worked closely together, exchanging ideas and sharing techniques. Baker was in contact with Chancellor (d. 1556) during his early career.
Borough (d. 1598) was a principal ally of about Baker’s maturity. But even Baker’s latter years witnessed fruitful contact with a new generation of mathematicians. Most remarkable is the evidence of his connection with Thomas Harriot, probably the most expert English practitioner of the mathematical sciences in the early 17th century. [page 148:] Amongst Harriot’s copious manuscript remains there is a short but significant series of papers on the design of ships.53 His contributions relied on mastery of relatively advanced mathematics.
He raided the repertoire of conic sections for ellipses to good diversity college essays, represent the arcs of frames and employed cubic and quartic curves to capture the subtle risings and cover letters, narrowings of a ship’s lines. In mustering such mathematical resources, Harriot was working at the limits of late 16th and early 17th century English mathematics. Yet he was not working in isolation. Alongside his exposition of a new hyperbolic technique to generate mast dimensions for good ships built in proportion, Harriot jotted down a note for his own reference: ‘Invented this February 28 1608 and gave it to E Marlow for methods and thesis calderon Mr Baker the shipwright’. While providing Baker with new material, the transfer of results was not in one direction only. In return, Harriot learnt of the master shipwright’s rules for tonnage and narrowing. The prerequisite for this cooperation between mathematician and shipwright was the creation of design as a paper activity. Good Diversity College Essays? Only after ships were available for assignment key study as miniaturised portable representations could the armoury of advanced mathematics be brought to college essays, bear on the work of the shipwright. Harriot’s 1608 memorandum nicely suggests the role of paper in his exchanges with Baker.
While Harriot and about essay, Baker had presumably met, personal contact was not essential to their continued relationship: communication was possible at diversity essays, a distance and it was expected that new results could successfully be sent on through an intermediary. But Baker’s alignment with figures such as Chancellor, Borough and Harriot [page 149:] did not put him in accord with all such contemporaries. Fragments records Baker’s vocal disagreement with at least one English mathematical practitioner. About Narrative Essay? The arguments and criticisms are as richly suggestive of Baker’s mathematical values as his more positive collaborations. On the first of his pasteboard pages of good proportional scales, Baker composed a poem of doggerel verse (p. 57). The final lines targeted a certain ‘patching bourne’, who ‘hath patched together the works of other men, and now to assignment satisfaction key, sale he paints it out with his unlearned pen’. Good Diversity College? The ‘bourne’ in assignment satisfaction key, question was the author William Bourne (c.1535-1582) who, among his various mathematical and practical texts of the 1570s and college, 80s, had published some material on shipbuilding in his Treasure for Travellers (1578).54.
Baker’s implied accusation of plagiarism may have been aggravated by personal friction. Writing 1 Syllabus? There was certainly ample opportunity for contact: in college, 1574 Bourne appeared on the navy payroll when he was installed as master gunner at Upnor, a castle built to protect the fleet at anchor in Gillingham Water.55 Whatever the now unrecoverable details of essay their day-to-day interaction, Baker’s distrust extended beyond personal animosity. He rejected the mathematical procedures that Bourne offered the shipwright and took issue with the very image of the art that Bourne’s writings seemed to good essays, imply. In the Treasure for Travellers , Bourne sought to show how ships could be [page 150:] built in proportion.56 The aim of this process, which was rapidly becoming a standard contemporary topic, was to replicate the qualities of a successful ship.57 Given one ship of burthen b1, the task was to build another of burthen b2 = kb1. In summary form, Bourne’s rule for writing by jose pdf each dimension d2 of the second ship was.
where d2 corresponds to dimension d1 of the first ship. Hence, if a ship of 100 tons has a breadth of good diversity 20ft, a ship of 125 tons built in proportion should have a breadth of. But Bourne knew that ‘the most part of methods and thesis calderon pdf men cannot extract the cubic root, for that kind of Arithmetic is very hard, and not easy to be learned’.58 So he gave a series of approximations for standard proportions. For example, in building a second ship one quarter larger than a first, every relevant dimension of the first should be measured, divided into 4 equal parts and the corresponding dimension of the second ship found as 4? parts. Good Diversity Essays? Amounting to the same process was Bourne’s alternative recommendation that, for every 12 inches of the first ship, the second ship’s corresponding dimension should be 13 inches. Similar, ‘reasonable exact enough’ [page 151:] approximations were given for ships up to cheap senior projects essays, 8 times larger than a given ship.59. Baker offered a graphical counterblast to Bourne’s arithmetical working with the pen.
Like Bourne, Baker provided approximations for building ships in proportion. But he did so through the medium of diversity college proportional scales. Cheap? On one of his pasteboard pages, Baker drew up a scale to ‘show the essays, proportion that one ship doth bear to another’ (p. 65; see Figure 3.11). This used an index to satisfaction key, read off dimensions from 5 vertical columns spaced in accordance with the cube root of common proportional factors. In this scale, Baker’s range of proportions was more modest than Bourne’s; it was equipped to deliver corresponding dimensions for ships up to twice the burthen of a given ship.
However, Baker did not eschew scales which operated over a broader range. Diversity College? On another pasteboard page he drew a scale of the same type but which was intended to cover ships differing in proportion by a factor of 10: ‘These are cubic scales of 1 syllabus proportions serving from 10 tons to a 100 from a 100 to a 1000.’ Baker’s enthusiasm is evident from a later note, added in good diversity essays, a different ink: ‘marvellous is the smoking essays, use of this scale serving to great purpose. Infinite are the questions that may be answered by this scale’ (p. 77). Similar advantages could be obtained from semicircular scales; commenting on one intended for the proportions of ropes and squares, Baker noted that. this scale is not like the brabble that Bourne makes about in the proportion of ropes, the diversity college, which is tedious and yet not general and serveth but to a few numbers by senior him limited (p. 76). As well as replacing Bourne’s arithmetical approximations by good various proportional scales, Baker quite explicitly tackled Bourne’s more exact and general method of writing 1 syllabus finding dimensions in proportion. Bourne required that the shipwright raise every [page 152: Figure 3.11] [page 153:] relevant dimension to diversity, the third power, multiply each cube by the proportional factor and then extract the cube root of the product. Assignment Satisfaction? Baker protested that to do so ‘would make me weary for I must make more than a thousand and good, a thousand multiplications as many extractions’ (p.
26). Such an amount of cyphering did not make an appealing prospect - especially when Baker’s ‘geometrical demonstrations’ offered an arithmetically more economical route. Baker’s scaled plats of ships in plan, section and elevation portrayed the cheap projects reports, major elements of the hull. Hence, to design a ship proportional to essays, one already set down in plat, ‘it is sufficient to alter the scale only and no more’ (p. Cheap Projects Essays? 21). With a new scale marked on the plat the dimensions could be measured off without calculation. The rescaling itself involved only one multiplication and one extraction and so ‘to him that hath the extracting of roots the matter is diversity, very easy to be done with the pen’ (p. 26). Yet even without the receptionist cover, knowledge of cube roots the good essays, process could still be accomplished. For the benefit of the ‘mechanical workman’ lacking arithmetic, Baker applied ‘a certain rule that I found demonstrated in smoking persuasive essays, Albartus Dureri in his book of diversity college essays Geometry’ (p. 26).
Baker had made use of Dürer when constructing his image of shipwrights at satisfaction key, work in a drawing office and he had been placed on an equal par with Dürer by William Borough. Good Diversity Essays? But here, Baker was going beyond the realm of visual and textual rhetoric to borrow in detail from 1 syllabus, Dürer’s geometric techniques. Baker’s source was Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), one of whose topics was the classical problem of how, given one cube, to essays, construct another of twice the volume. Dürer presented a generalised solution to the problem of [page 154:] doubling the satisfaction, cube, providing a means of constructing cubes in any desired proportion. Diversity College? In other words, given the cheap projects reports, side of one cube, Dürer found the side of another cube either twice as large or whose volume was in diversity college essays, any other proportion. Although it cannot be carried out in proper Euclidean fashion, with straight edge and compasses alone, the construction is exact.60. Baker adapted Dürer’s method to his own end of rescaling the draught of a ship. Rather than using the smoking essays, sides of cubes, he worked with ship dimensions. Starting with, for good diversity instance, a line representing the depth of an already drawn ship, Baker arrived at a second line representing the depth of the corresponding proportional ship. The length of the second line gave the number of parts into which the first ship’s line was to be divided.
After redivision, the first line served as a scale from key, which any depicted dimension of the second ship could be read off (see Figure 3.12). For Baker, Dürer’s geometric technique provided a graphic resource with which to combat Bourne’s wearisome multiplications and diversity, extractions. But it also exposed the larger inadequacies of Bourne’s treatment of smoking essays shipbuilding. Bourne was charged with setting forth his Treasure for Travellers. to the discredit of workmen how having a little understanding in the extracting of diversity college a root would make the of research and thesis calderon pdf, world believe that all the knowledge of ship making did consist only in the same (p. 26). Baker was able to show that not only did the art of the shipwright consist of more than [page 155: Figure 3.12] [page 156:] the arithmetical extraction of roots, but that it could be conducted without the need for that ability. Since he himself was able to work ‘with the pen’, Baker was not restricted to the graphic method adapted from Dürer.
His principal point in essays, adducing Dürer was thus to circumvent and rebut the illegitimate claims he discerned in assignment, Bourne’s pronouncements. Yet the disagreement with Bourne serves to underline rather than undermine Baker’s engagement with contemporary mathematical practice, for both were tackling the same questions of building ships in proportion. Disagreement sprang not from their command of arithmetic but from college, Baker’s conception of geometry as the necessary complement of arithmetical work. Both arithmetic and geometry were essential as the ‘two supporting sciences’ of assignment Baker’s paper work of plats and good essays, scales. Mathematics was thus a crucial point of reference in Baker’s reconstruction of ship design and narrative essay, the role of the master shipwright. As a rhetorical resource, he used it to good college essays, differentiate himself from earlier shipwrights; geometry was identified with the preparation of draughts, while arithmetic was used to calculate lengths, areas and capacities. Instruments, the emblem of the contemporary mathematical practitioner, appeared as all-pervasive paper devices embodying proportions certified by both reason and experience. Moreover, in placing his design work under the key, banner of mathematics, Baker drew on the expertise of mathematical practitioners to gather persuasive power and practical assistance from beyond the traditional confines of the shipwright’s craft. A final illustration of the extent to which the culture of mathematics was crucial to Baker’s self-understanding is provided by his only major foray into the [page 157:] traditional full-scale work of the college essays, shipwright.
Baker had developed a new way of prescribing and varying the curves of narrowing and rising, not on paper but out in the shipyard, by means of ropes and boards. His technique was an alternative to the determination of radii by either arithmetical cyphering or the use of compasses on a plat. It was announced as. a mechanical demonstration devised or first invented by Mathew Baker for writing 1 syllabus the carpenter unlearned in arithmetic geometry, by which is found all circular divisions needful to the making of ship, galleon, galley or whatsoever (p.33; see Figure 3.13). Baker’s flexible and good essays, general-purpose device was similar to some of the mechanically generated and varied curves proposed by Dürer.61 The specific advantage of Baker’s technique was that it allowed the workman to determine dimensions ‘without the drawing of any plot or any calculation of arithmetic’. Baker cast himself here in the role of the mathematician ministering to receptionist cover letters, the needs of the merely ‘mechanical workman’.
In shaping this mathematical role for diversity essays himself, he drew on the tradition of classical geometry to elevate his own achievements. Methods Of Research Writing By Jose? When recording the invention of his new ‘mechanical demonstration’, Baker quarried the anecdotal lore of the Euclidean corpus as a source of materials for his own self-interpretation: If Pythagoras did so much joy for the finding out of the doubling of good diversity essays a square by the line diagonal that he offered to his unknown gods an ox in sacrifice, I say I have good cause to give our living and known god thanks for this invention so necessary for my unlearned countrymen in the two supporting sciences (p. 33). Baker could have found the familiar story of key Pythagoras’ celebration not only in classical sources such as Vitruvius but as part of the editorial embroidering of recent [page 158: Figure 3.13] [page 159:] editions of Euclid.62 With Pythagoras as a role model, Baker was differentiating himself from good essays, his ordinary colleagues. Mathematics was mobilised not just to redefine Baker’s design practice but his very identity as a master shipwright. 4. MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. Mathew Baker’s paper design was directed towards the about essay, advance specification of the ship’s hull and his mathematical reconstruction of shipbuilding embedded new priorities and values within the practice of the art. In this transformation, the geometrical determination of shapes and the arithmetical calculation of dimensions emerged as principal tasks of the master shipwright. Yet, if we inspect a surviving ship of the diversity college, period, such as the English Mary Rose or the Swedish Vasa , the frames of the vessel are almost invisible.63 From the outside, we see the skin of external planking, while inside there is receptionist cover, additional planking as well as the strengthening structures of keelson, riders, knee timbers and internal wales. Ships were much more than just carefully defined shapes; they had to be strong enough to good diversity, serve as sailing platforms for men, stores and increasingly heavy guns.
Fragments contains almost nothing on the ship as a structural and senior projects, functional artefact. Only occasionally does Baker show the timbers and columns which ensured the good college essays, integrity of a vessel (for example, p. Assignment? 19). [page 160:] Fragments is thus a partial document. It represents not a systematic presentation of the craft of shipbuilding in wood but an exploration of the possibilities opened up by good diversity mathematics and design on paper. Of Research Writing By Jose Calderon Pdf? Through geometry and arithmetic, questions of diversity college essays shapes and proportions were separated out from the rest of the art. The very particular direction of development which Fragments embodies is strikingly evident by contrast with sources from other traditions. One of the most articulate contemporary presentations of shipbuilding was that offered by the Portuguese author João Baptista Lavanha in his incomplete Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval .64 During a career spanning many disciplines, Lavanha taught cosmography, geography, topography and thesis, mathematics, and was an author of nautical treatises and chronicles. He also held important state offices; he was, for example, appointed Engineer to the King of Portugal in 1587. College Essays? Contact with contemporary shipbuilding was thus just one aspect of a larger cycle of learned, didactic and technical activities.
Lavanha’s identification of shipbuilding as naval architecture provided a classically sanctioned model for the treatment of the craft. The opening chapters of writing 1 syllabus his Livro Primeiro draw directly on book I of Vitruvius’s De Architectura for a definition of architecture and its six parts or principles. But though he quoted, paraphrased and elaborated on good Vitruvius, Lavanha was not a slavish imitator. His stress on design and the mathematical arts in the formation of the 1 syllabus, (naval) architect, and on the importance of models as a check on building proposals, is closer to good diversity college, the [page 161:] recommendations of Alberti than Vitruvius.65 Moreover, Lavanha’s elevation of shipbuilding to the status of architecture compromised Vitruvius’ division of cover public building into defensive, religious and utilitarian departments ( De Architectura , I, iii). Taking a different tripartite distinction, Lavanha reworked architecture into the classes of military, civil and naval.
But while there were authors both ancient and modern in the first two categories, Lavanha could find neither Greek, Latin nor vernacular sources to fill the third. He was simultaneously creating the space and the justification for his own work.66. By integrating shipbuilding with architecture, Lavanha committed himself to diversity, following the well-established practices and precedents of the parent art. As with Vitruvius and receptionist cover, Alberti on architecture, Lavanha devoted sustained attention to the materials of shipbuilding. He discussed the different varieties of college timber and their respective qualities and assignment satisfaction, uses; he considered the good diversity essays, appropriate seasons for cheap senior projects essays cutting and preserving timber; he reviewed the other materials such as iron, linen, tar, pitch and lead; and he even offered a brief disquisition on the destructive effects of the notorious teredo ship-worm.67. In England, by contrast, connections between architecture and shipbuilding [page 162:] were noted in passing, but not intensively developed. Under the title of ‘naupegie’, John Dee found a place for shipbuilding in his Mathematicall Praeface to the first English Euclid (1570). Dee subsumed naupegie (along with housing and fortification) as one of the three branches of architecture, just as Lavanha was later to diversity essays, do.68 Thomas Digges later made the same identification with his unredeemed promise to publish a ‘brief Treatise of satisfaction Architecture Nautical’.69. Though Dee’s discussion of architecture gave prominence to good college essays, Vitruvius and particularly Alberti, there is no evidence that his references had any affect on Fragments . Baker presented nothing comparable to Lavanha’s treatment of the materials of shipbuilding. Indeed, aside from a short complaint about the quality of wood brought to writing 1 syllabus, the shipyards by good diversity college essays navy purveyors (p.
155), timber and its physical handling are remarkably absent from Baker’s volume. Smoking Persuasive? The other materials of the trade are not even mentioned. For Baker, shipbuilding was directly answerable to arithmetic and geometry; Fragments was therefore concerned principally with paper work. The content of Baker’s manuscript was determined by the agenda of mathematical practice rather than the textual conventions already established for diversity college essays architecture. Baker’s Fragments set the pattern for an English tradition of shipbuilding texts which dealt primarily with the satisfaction key, arithmetic and geometry of hull form. While we know little about how Baker’s work was used within the naval dockyards themselves, it is clear that shipbuilding became firmly established as one of the good diversity college, mathematical arts [page 163:] in England. One stage of that process is revealed by Fragments itself. Although mostly by Baker, there are sections in another hand. These additions, which range from dialling and mathematical instruments to about narrative, magnetism and shipbuilding, were supplied by John Wells, to whom Baker bequeathed Fragments and other volumes.70 Wells was a navy storekeeper at Deptford, a mathematical practitioner who published on sundials, and an associate of such London mathematical professors as Henry Briggs and Henry Gellibrand.71.
Amongst his other mathematical activities, Wells assisted Briggs in the construction of logarithmic tables in the years after Napier’s first publication in 1614.72 Wells’ perception of the good, mathematical character of ship design and its place in the scheme of mathematical arts is suggested by his assimilation of satisfaction logarithms to shipping questions (e.g. p. 91). Logarithms had been seen principally as an college essays, aid for the long calculations required in astronomy. Receptionist Letters? But Wells began to apply them in his notes on ship design, since they enabled greater numerical accuracy but without added computational fatigue. For Wells, mathematics and naval technology were firmly bound together as mathematical practice by the early 17th century. Beyond Wells’ continuation of Fragments there are further manuscripts which show that shipbuilding was a subject of very active interest in the community of early 17th century mathematical practitioners. Thomas Harriot’s shipbuilding papers have already been noted and their level of sophistication was matched by several other [page 164:] surviving texts.73. Baker’s work thus embodied a programme which was pursued by his mathematical colleagues and good essays, successors. Materials and structures were given less prominence than the mathematics of cheap reports hull design.
Logarithms and good diversity college, higher order curves supplemented the resources which Baker had himself been able to muster, and these increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques were presented in more systematic treatises. The development of the paper geometry and arithmetic of Fragments rapidly made English shipbuilding the most mathematically advanced of any country in Europe. The creation of about narrative ship design as a mathematical art offered benefits both to Baker and good diversity, also to the mathematical practitioners who tackled shipbuilding questions. Baker’s success in adopting explicitly mathematical techniques reflected back on the practitioners and supported their claims to utility and cover, status. They benefited from the apparent efficacy of mathematical practice in this strategically significant industry. But, as an elite mechanician, Baker also stood to gain. His status as a mathematical mechanician placed him above the ranks of ordinary shipwrights and labourers, and beyond the past practices of the trade. Good College? Baker’s reputation transcended the local realm of the shipyards and was transferred out into the wider world of print culture. William Borough had praised Baker in 1581 as a worthy peer of narrative Vitruvius and Dürer, while the college essays, navigator John Davis pressed further accolades on Baker in his [page 165:] Seaman’s Secrets of 1595. Davis mentioned ‘the mechanical practices drawn from the Arts of Mathematick, [in which] our Country doth yield men of principal excellency’:
As M. Emery Molyneux for the exquisite making of persuasive essays Globes bodies, and M. Nicholas Hilliard for the singularity of portraiture have the praise of Europe, [so] M. Baker for his skill and surpassing grounded knowledge for the building of ships advantageable to all purpose, hath not in any nation his equal.74. Davis very likely knew Baker, and good diversity college essays, Borough certainly did. But once his name was in the public domain Baker became a point of reference for commentators who had probably never met him. Writing By Jose? Gabriel Harvey’s often-quoted passage in Pierces Supererogation (1593), which asks ‘what profound Mathematician, like Digges, Harriot, or Dee esteemeth not the pregnant Mechanician?’, bracketed Baker with such other ‘expert artisans’ as. Humphrey Cole, a Mathematical Mechanician, . John Shute an Architect, Robert Norman a Navigator, William Bourne a Gunner [and] John Hester a Chemist.75. What did this miscellaneous group have in common? John Hester’s presence punctures any attempt to link them through an good, adherence to senior reports, the programme of the mathematical arts. Indeed, nothing in the character of their work as mechanicians marks them out as a united group. Rather, they were linked together by their appearance in print: all of these six mechanicians had either published books themselves or been referred to diversity, in the texts of others. Harvey was using these mechanicians to key, attack narrowly academic scholarship.
Paradoxically, he did so through the bookish practice of collecting and collating printed references. Diversity College Essays? Cut loose from the persuasive essays, paper work of good college essays mathematical design by smoking persuasive essays the approving references of friends, Baker’s fame was available for circulation in diversity essays, the public paper worlds of others. 1. Smoking Persuasive Essays? W.G. Perrin, The Autobiography of Phineas Pett , Navy Records Society, 51 (London, 1918), p. 178. 2. Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, PL 2820, p. 8. The manuscript title came from Samuel Pepys; henceforth I cite the volume simply as Fragments . My in-text references to the volume are to page numbers.
For a discussion of Fragments , R.A. Barker, ‘Fragments from the Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 32 (1986), 161-78. 3. On the general significance of good college essays paper as a medium, see Bruno Latour, ‘Visualization and cognition: thinking with eyes and hands’, Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of assignment satisfaction key Culture Past and Present , 6 (1986), 1-40. Many of my subsequent specific comments on the uses of paper develop points in diversity, Latour’s suggestive account. 4. For Baker’s 1562 mastership: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. Smoking? (hereafter Bodl. Essays? Rawl.) A 200, f. 17r-v (cf. f. 10r where Baker is not described as master). For his appointment as a royal master in 1572: Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth , V (1569-72), p. 466 (no. Letters? 3303).
5. Perrin (footnote 1), pp. Diversity College Essays? xx-xxi. 6. BL Add. MS. 7968, ff. 43r, 52r. 7. For the Pett family, see Perrin (footnote 1). 8. Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 203.
As these and the following details can be found under the ordinary and extraordinary accounts for Woolwich, Deptford and essays, Gillingham I give no specific references below. The same archive holds quarterly accounts for four other years: Bodl. Rawl. A 200 (1562 and 1563); A 201 (1570); and A 202 (1574). 9. A.P. College Essays? McGowan, The Jacobean Commissions of thesis writing Enquiry of 1608 and college, 1618 , Navy Records Society, 116 (London, 1971), pp.
71 and 231 for Baker’s depositions to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry. Note too the evidence given by Edward Stevens (ibid. pp. Essay? 51 and 53). Good Diversity Essays? Baker went on a trip of this kind in 1562, taking two shipwrights to work on cover letters ‘the hewing and squaring of good diversity college ix great Elms at Beddingtun for keels for her highness’s Ships’ (Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. 19r). 10. For a comparison with the Venetian example, P. Thesis 1 Syllabus? Burke, Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy (London, 1974), p. 291, where an attempt is made to rank various Italian occupations by income. Out of good essays a total of 26 occupations, the Venetian master shipwright comes seventh equal.
11. For a review of these late medieval and Renaissance developments, Richard W. Unger, The Ship in key, the Medieval Economy 600-1600 (London, 1980). 12. For example, the almost total absence of shipping in influential accounts such as those of E.S. Ferguson is very striking: ‘The mind’s eye: nonverbal thought in technology’, Science , 197 (1977), 827-836; ‘La fondation des machines modernes: des dessins’, Culture et Technique , 14 (1985), 183-208; and Engineering and the Mind’s Eye (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). 13. Fausto to Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Epistolae Clarorum Virorum (Venice, 1556), f. Essays? 93v. On Fausto, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934), pp.
64-71 and P.L. Rose and thesis, S. College? Drake, ‘The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in cheap projects, Renaissance Culture’, Studies in the Renaissance , 18 (1971), 65-104, pp. 77-8. 14. On these manuscripts, R.C. Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture about diversity essays 1445’, Mariner’s Mirror , 11 (1925), 135-63, idem, ‘Jal’s Mémoire no. 5 and the manuscript Fabbrica di galere ’, Mariner’s Mirror , 31 (1945), 160-7, Frederic Chapin Lane, ‘Venetian naval architecture about 1550’, Mariner’s Mirror , 20 (1934), 24-49, and G.B Dosio (ed.), Ragioni Antique Spettanti all’Arte del Mare et Fabriche de Vasselli (Venice, 1987). 15. The fullest accounts appear in the works of Fernando Oliveira and João Baptista Lavanha. For Oliveira, see his O Livro da Fábrica das Naus , introduction, facsimile, transcription and English translation (Lisbon, 1991), F.C. Thesis? Domingues, ‘Observation and knowledge in Portuguese ship construction of the 16th century: the treatises of Fernando Oliveira’ (unpublished translation by R.A.
Barker of a paper given at the Fourth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and good college essays, Hydrography, 1983), and three papers by Eric Rieth in Neptunia : ‘Les écrits de Fernando Oliveira: un témoinage sur la construction navale de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 165 (1987), 18-25; ‘Un système de conception des carènes de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 166 (1987), 16-31; ‘Remarques sur une série d’illustrations de l’ Ars Nautica (1570) de Fernando Oliveira’, 169 (1988), 36-43. Lavanha’s work was first published in J. da G.P. Barata, ‘O Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval de João Baptista Lavanha’, Ethnos , 4 (1965), 221-98; on Lavanha, see below, section 4. Amongst other learned Iberian authors, also note Diego de Garcia Palacio, whose primarily navigational Instrucion Nauthica para Navegar (Mexico, 1587) presented some information on shipbuilding; see V.D. Tate, ‘The Instrucion Nauthica of 1587’, American Neptune , 1 (1941), 191-5. There are also Iberian texts by shipwrights, for example, Manuel Fernandes’s manuscript Livro de Traças de Carpintaria (1616; facsimile Lisbon, 1990). 16.
I borrow the term ‘constructive geometry’ from about, Lon Shelby’s work on the design procedures of medieval masons. See in diversity essays, particular ‘Mediaeval masons’ templates’, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians , 30 (1971), 140-154, ‘The geometrical knowledge of mediaeval master masons’, Speculum , 47 (1972), 395-421, and methods of research and thesis writing, Gothic Design Techniques. The Fifteenth Century Design Booklets of Mathes Roriczer and Hanns Schmuttermayer (Carbondale, Southern Illinois, 1977). For overviews of dockyard design techniques: R.A. Barker, ‘Many may peruse us: ribbands, moulds and models in the dockyards’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 34 (1988) and good diversity college essays, Sergio Bellabarba, ‘The ancient methods of designing hulls’, Mariner’s Mirror , 79 (1993), 274-92. 17. Carvel was a relatively recent introduction in cover letters, England. The earlier north European tradition which it displaced was clinker construction, in which ships were built shell- rather than skeleton-first. After the erection of the keel, stem and sternpost, the hull of a clinker is built up as a shell of overlapping planks fastened to each other. College Essays? Strengthening transverse frames are added afterwards.
However, the distinction between carvel and clinker is not historically absolute: there were various hybrid techniques. On carvel, clinker and hybrid construction, see O. Hasslöf, ‘Carvel construction technique: nature and origin’, Folk-Liv , 21/22 (1957/8), 49-60 and ‘Main principles in key, the technology of shipbuilding’, in Hasslöf et al. (eds), Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and good diversity college, Fishermen , trans. M. Knight and H. Young (Copenhagen, 1972), 27-72. 18. For classifications of different varieties of carvel-building, see two papers by J.P. Sarsfield, ‘Survival of pre-sixteenth century Mediterranean lofting techniques in Bahia, Brasil’, in thesis writing 1 syllabus, O.L. Filgueiras (ed.), Local Boats , British Archaeological Reports International Series, 438, part 1 (Oxford, 1988) and ‘Master frame and ribbands: a Brazilian case study with an diversity college essays, overview of 1 syllabus this widespread traditional carvel design and building system’, in Carvel Construction Techniques , Oxbow Monograph, 12 (1991).
19. Oliveira (footnote 15), pp. 177-83 (facsimile, pp. 91-106). For Venetian sources, see Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture’ (footnote 14), pp. 153-4 and F.C. Lane (footnote 14), pp. Essays? 29-31.
The Italian use of the technique was not restricted to only Venetian shipwrights; Neapolitan usage is recorded in Bartolomeo Crescentio, Nautica Mediterranea (Rome, 1607), on key which see the note in Mariner’s Mirror , 69 (1983), 305-6 and the corrections in 70 (1984), 87-8. 20. The procedure still survives in the modern world, most remarkably in contemporary Brazilian boatyards: Sarsfield, ‘Survival. ’ (footnote 18). Kostas Damianidis has documented related techniques for 19th and 20th century Greece, see ‘The survival of moulding boatbuilding in an old boatyard in the Aegean’ (unpublished) and ‘The diachronic road of dialogue of Mediterranean shipbuilding: some methods for controlling the form of diversity essays a vessel’, in Cultural and Commercial Exchanges between the Orient and thesis writing 1 syllabus, the Greek World (Athens, 1991), 97-108. The historical validity of using such modern ethnographic work to shed light on Renaissance practices is currently being richly borne out by work at Parks Canada, Ottawa under Robert Grenier.
Working with scale models of the diversity college, surviving timbers of 1 syllabus a wrecked 16th century Basque whaler, Brad Loewen is reconstructing the hull of the college essays, vessel using the receptionist cover, techniques of adjustable templates. 21. Unger (footnote 11), pp. 241-2. 22. Note that plans were apparently still unknown in the French royal yards of the mid-17th century: J. Boudriot, ‘Evolution de la conception des vaisseaux royaux’ and E. Rieth, ‘Quelques remarques sur la conception des bâtiments de mer du moyen-age au début du XVIIIème siècle’, both in good diversity college essays, Résumés des Communications des 3èmes Journées D’Archéologie Navale; 6-8 décembre, 1985 (Musée de la Marine, Paris, 1985). 23. Fragments , p.13 shows a midship mould identified as that of the Hart , Greyhound , Bull and Tiger . A list of ships in the navy of Edward VI in Pepys Library, PL 1266, pp. Thesis? 145-152 has some annotations to indicate the shipwrights responsible for their construction. The Hart , Bull and Tiger are all identified as by James Baker (pp.
147-8). 24. For the voyage, R. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations , 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903-5), V, pp. 71-6. Baker identifies the good, Greek merchantman as a ‘screatse’. Of Research Writing By Jose? It may be related to or even identical with the diversity, Turkish ‘skryasas’ mentioned in cheap senior reports essays, the Hakluyt account, p. 73. Baker observed other procedures on good diversity college this voyage; for persuasive essays example, he refers in Fragments to diversity essays, Sicilian and ‘Candian’ practices (p. Satisfaction? 40).
Presumably it was also at good diversity essays, this time that he acquired the information or interest behind his map of the Peloponnese (p. Receptionist? 4). 25. For the juxtaposition of Baker and college essays, Levello: Bodl. Narrative? Rawl. MS. A 201, ff. 65v, 68v, 71r-v and 74v. 26. T. Glasgow jr, ‘The maturing of naval administration, 1556-1564’, Mariner’s Mirror , 56 (1970), 3-26, p. 10.
For Levello’s duties: Bodl. Rawl. Good Diversity Essays? MS. A 200, f. 9v. 27. Fragments , pp. 16, 23. Baker’s spelling of Venetian terms strongly suggests that he had them from a spoken rather than a written source. The two most striking instances are on p. 16, where he refers to the rising of the frames as ‘lastely’ (Venetian: la stella) and to methods of research by jose, one of the frame adjustments as ‘linaramo del sesto’ (Venetian: legno in ramo [del sesto]). 28. Good Diversity Essays? For a typical learned witness of craft secrecy, see G. Fournier, Hydrographie (Paris, 1643), p. 16: ‘among 400 or 500 ship carpenters one will scarcely find three or four who know the lines and proportions, because the masters are so protective ( jaloux ) of their knowledge and skill’.
29. PRO Prob 10/305, and assignment, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122, f. 140v). 30. PRO SP16/21/65. 31. Perrin (footnote 1), p. 7. 32. Perrin (footnote 1), p. lv. 33. I do not claim that Baker believed drawing and calculation to constitute the whole knowledge of his profession, only that he treated them as a distinct department. When criticising Phineas Pett in diversity, 1608, Baker clearly wished the master shipwright to be well experienced in assessing such matters as the quality of timber: McGowan (footnote 9), pp.
231-2. For comments on the differences between learning by observation/imitation and via a literate/verbal intermediary, see A.E. Christensen jr, ‘Boatbuilding tools and the process of learning’, in persuasive, Hasslöf et al. (footnote 17), 235-59. 34. J.T.
Leader, Life of Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (Florence, 1895), pp. 56 and 188. Independent evidence of the diversity college essays, connection between Dudley and Baker is provided by a brass semicircular instrument in the Museo di Storia della Scienze, Florence. Associated with one of the large Dudley astrolabes (II, 47) in the collection, the semicircle carries a triangular scale of proportions of exactly the same type as appears in Fragments . The English origins of the instrument are emphasised by an extremely faint inscription: ‘A Tabel of Proportion Geometricall for Shipping’. Dudley published on such proportional devices in Dell’Arcano del Mare (Florence, 1646-7), book IV, ch. 5.
35. Assignment Satisfaction? Pepys Library, PL 2878, p. Diversity College? 493 (a 17th century copy). For the agreement which preceded this request, see PRO SP12/218/31-3. 36. Narrative Essay? Testimony to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry: McGowan (footnote 9), p. 234, cf. ibid., pp. 236-7.
37. Report of c.1587, printed in John Knox Laughton (ed.), State Papers relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada , Navy Records Society (London, 1895), I, p. 39. More generally, see Simon Adams, ‘New light on the Reformation of John Hawkins: the Ellesmere naval survey of January 1584’, English Historical Review , 105 (1990), 96-111 and David Loades, The Tudor Navy: an Administrative, Political and Military History (Aldershot, 1992), pp. 184-5. 38. For the general trend towards social stratification in shipbuilding, Unger (footnote 11), p. 274 and, for the Venetian case (with principally 17th century evidence), Robert C. Davis, Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in the Preindustrial City (Baltimore, 1991), pp.
180-1. For the Venetian Arsenal and its social structure in the 15th and 16th centuries, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934) and Maurice Aymard, ‘L’Arsenal de Venise: science, expérience et technique dans la construction navale au XVIe siècle’, in Cultura, Scienze e Tecniche nella Venezia del Cinquecento. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studio Giovan Battista Benedetti e il Suo Tempo (Venice, 1987), 407-18. 39. College? E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), The Troublesome Voyage of methods writing by jose calderon pdf Captain Edward Fenton 1582-3 , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 113 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 154. Note that this separation of good diversity essays responsibility does not necessarily depend on or imply the reports essays, use of plats, though it is suggestive. 40.
The contrast is clearly marked by diversity essays the title of the smoking persuasive essays, first published arithmetical text in English, the anonymous An Introduction for to Lerne to Recken with the Pen or with the Counters (St. Albans, 1537). 41. See, for example, the payments frequently listed under ‘Deptford Ordinary’ in the navy accounts cited in footnote 8. For arithmetic ‘with the good college, counters’, F.P. Barnard, The Casting-Counter and the Casting Board (Oxford, 1916; reprinted 1981). 42. Baker readily incorporated symbols into his work. He used for square, for (square) root (or more fully ), for cube and or for cube root. Cover? These symbols can be found in Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of Witte (London, 1557), sigs S1v and Ll3r-v. 43.
However, Baker’s usage was not idiosyncratic. ‘Demonstration’ was used in good diversity, the same sense by mathematical practitioners such as Thomas Hood, The Making and Use of the of research and thesis, Geometricall Instrument, called a Sector (London, 1598), f. 9r-v. 44. Good College Essays? Baker provided his own template for and thesis calderon constructing linear scales. He drew up a device with 60 equidistant parallel lines to diversity college, divide any suitable line into a given number of equal parts (p. 55). This method is of research and thesis writing, described, for example, in John Blagrave, The Mathematical Jewel (London, 1585), pp. 4-5. 45.
Fragments , p. 73. Peletier made four additions to diversity college essays, the Pythagorean theorem, all of which were available not only in his In Euclidis Elementa geometrica demonstrationum libri sex (1557) but also in Billingsley’s English translation of Euclid (1570), f. 58v. 46. Alae seu Scalae Mathematicae (London, 1573), sig. K3r. For Digges, Chancellor and the earlier history of transversals, see above, chapter 2, section 2. 47. And Thesis Writing Calderon Pdf? Hakluyt (footnote 24), V, p. 76. 48. PRO HCA25/1, part 2. The document is one of an diversity college, unpaginated bundle.
Note that the Judith ’s official burden was 110 tons (confirmed by receptionist cover PRO SP12/107/68), whereas Borough later described it as of 75 tons (SP12/129/11). Good College Essays? The discrepancy is explained by the differing systems of narrative tonnage calculation: deadweight (tons and tonnage) for royal ships, carrying capacity of goods (tonnage) for merchantmen. For tonnage, see William Salisbury, ‘Early tonnage measurement in good college essays, England’, Mariner’s Mirror , 52 (1966), 41-51, though its account of Baker is not entirely adequate. 49. In 1585 Borough was supporting Baker and praising him as more skilful than his elder colleague Peter Pett: BL Lansdowne MS 43/33. For Borough, see below, chapter 4; for Dover, see chapter 5. 50. Baker: Fragments , pp. 24, 29, 126; Borough: Hatfield House, CPM, I, 69 (North Atlantic chart for Frobisher), National Maritime Museum, N51-4/G.215:1/5 MS (passage from England to the Gulf of Finland).
51. PRO SP12/243/110. See also SP12/152/19, an unsigned naval document in persuasive essays, Borough’s hand, which presents the same tonnage methods (f. 49r). (This ostensibly administrative paper also has a remarkable addendum to its prescriptions for ropes and good diversity essays, rigging, in methods of research and thesis writing pdf, which Euclid is quoted on the proportions of circles and a geometrical diagram provided to show the essays, calculation of the satisfaction, area of diversity college essays a circle; f. Smoking Persuasive Essays? 51r.) 52. W. Essays? Borough, Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (London, 1581), sig. *3v. 53. The following remarks are based on Jon V. Pepper, ‘Harriot’s manuscript on shipbuilding and rigging (ca. 1608-1610)’, in Derek Howse (ed.), Five Hundred Years of thesis writing 1 syllabus Nautical Science, 1400-1900 , Proceedings of the Third International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography (Greenwich, 1981), 204-216 and John W. Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography (Oxford, 1983), pp.
97-103. 54. On Bourne, see the introduction to E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), A Regiment for the Sea and other Writings on Navigation by William Bourne , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 121 (Cambridge, 1963). 55. For Bourne’s appointment, Bodl. Rawl. MS A 202, f. 40r. 56. W. Bourne, A Booke called the Treasure for Travellers (London, 1578), III, f. 14r. 57.
Not only was there much contemporary comment by essays outsiders on receptionist cover building ships in proportion, but the topic was also of concern to those responsible for commissioning vessels. Note, for example, that the largest ship agreed on in 1588 (footnote 35) was to be moulded like the earlier Revenge , but 200 tons heavier. 58. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 15v. 59. Good? Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 16v. 60. Baker’s reference to ‘Albartus Dureri’ suggests that he had access to the Latin translation rather than the original German text. For Dürer’s presentation of the cheap senior essays, cube problem, see Albertus Durerus . exacte Quatuor his suarum Institutionum Geometricarum libris, lineas, superficies solida corpora tractavit (Paris, 1532), pp. 158-61 or the English translation in Albrecht Dürer, The Painter’s Manual , trans. W.L.
Strauss (New York, 1977), pp. 346-353. The ultimate source for Dürer’s method was Pappus’s Mathematical Collection , relayed through Eutocius’s commentary on Archimedes’s De Sphaera et Cylindro . Dürer did not give a proof of the good essays, result. For Pappus’s proof, see P. Ver Eecke (ed. and smoking persuasive, trans.), Pappus. La Collection Mathématique , 2 vols (Paris, 1933), I, pp.
47-50 or T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics , 2 vols (Oxford, 1921), I, pp. 266-8. 61. Compare Dürer’s various spirals, and good diversity essays, particularly the curve to receptionist, be used for towers: Dürer, trans Strauss (footnote 60), pp. 47-51, 85-7, 239-40 and 453-5. 62.
Note in particular the appearance of the tale in the English Euclid of 1570, f. 58r. Baker was not the only mathematical mechanician to compare himself with Pythagoras. Robert Norman made use of the same trope when describing his delight at the discovery of the phenomenon of magnetic dip: Newe Attractive (London, 1581), sig. A2v. Indeed, Norman also used the ‘Eureka!’ story of the naked Archimedes to express his own joy.
63. Good Diversity College? Margaret Rule, The Mary Rose (London, 1982); Björn Landström, The Royal Warship Vasa , trans. Smoking Persuasive? Jeremy Franks (Stockholm, 1988). 64. Diversity College Essays? Lavanha’s text, dated by narrative essay Barata to the first quarter of the 17th century, appears in Barata (footnote 15), pp. 264-294.
A facsimile edition, with new transcription and English translation by R.A. Barker, is forthcoming. My thanks to Richard Barker for good college sight of this translation prior to publication. On Lavanha, A. Cortesão, Cartografia e Cartógrafos Portugueses dos Séculos XV e XVI , 2 vols (Lisbon, 1935), II, pp. 294-361. 65. In De Re Aedificatoria , IX, x, Alberti deliberately departed from Vitruvius’s broader prescriptions for the education of the architect. For Lavanha’s references to Alberti in the Livro Primeiro , Barata (footnote 15), pp.
265 and 267. 66. Alberti had, however, mentioned ships in the context of architecture. In De Re Aedificatoria , V, xii, he noted two ways in which ‘the art of building may contribute to the safety and victory of about generals of fleets and their forces: the first consists in the right construction and rigging of the vessels . ’. Alberti went on to name the major parts of a vessel and gave a few proportions before referring the reader to a fuller exposition of diversity essays such matters in his now lost treatise on ships; J. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance (Chicago, 1969), p. 204. 67. Livro Primeiro , chh. Writing 1 Syllabus? 5-7. An earlier Iberian discursive treatment of essays shipbuilding also covered the same range of material topics: Oliveira (footnote 15), chh.
2-4. Of Research And Thesis Writing Pdf? In the good diversity college, prologue to this text of c.1580, Oliveira, like Lavanha, compared the construction of ships with that of narrative essay buildings. Significantly, Oliveira was familiar with sources such as Vitruvius. 68. Diversity College Essays? Sig. d4v. Dee’s interest in naval architecture is revealed by a manuscript volume in essay, his library: ‘Naupegia Itali cuiusdam, cum figuris. papyro 4o’. Unfortunately, this evidently anonymous manuscript has not been identified; Julian Roberts and college essays, Andrew G. Watson (eds), John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London, 1990). 69. Stratioticos (London, 1579), sig. a4r. 70. PRO Prob 10/305, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122).
71. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England (Cambridge, 1954), p. 199. 72. John Wells to Henry Briggs, 9 January 1621 in persuasive essays, S.J. Rigaud, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the essays, Seventeenth Century , 2 vols (Oxford, 1841), I, pp. 5-6 and methods by jose calderon, cf. Fragments , pp.
99-100 for earlier references. 73. In particular, the ‘Scott MS’ (Royal Institution of college Naval Architects, Scott MS 798), as well as a related text now printed as Richard Barker, ‘A manuscript on shipbuilding, circa 1600, copied by essays Newton’, Mariner’s Mirror , 80 (1994), 16-29. Also note the good college essays, anonymous treatise on shipbuilding attributed to John Wells and published by W. Salisbury in Society for Nautical Research, Occasional Publications , 6 (London, 1958). 74. A.H. Markham (ed.), The Voyages and cheap projects, Works of John Davis the Navigator , Hakluyt Society, 59 (London, 1880), pp. 234-6. 75. Good College Essays? A.B.
Grosart (ed.), The Works of cheap senior reports essays Gabriel Harvey , 3 vols (London, 1884-5), II, pp. Essays? 289-90. All images by permission of the methods and thesis writing by jose, Museum of the History of good college Science, University of Oxford, except where explicitly noted otherwise.
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What is the Best Font for a Resume (+10 Examples Tips) What are the good diversity, best fonts for a resume? Well, the best resume fonts are those that are easy to read. That’s the bottom line. If you use a common resume font that’s easy to smoking read, you win. That’s all you have to do. No, there are no magical font that will get you more interviews. Some typefaces do seem to good college essays have a psychological impact on the reader.
Would you like to know which great resume fonts can make you seem more truthful or professional? Of course, you would. In this article you will find: The best resume fonts compared to the worst. Beautiful examples of satisfaction, how the best resume fonts look. Pros and cons for each recommended resume font to make your decision easier. Psychological tips on good diversity, standard fonts to use on a resume. Are you writing a resume for the first time? Or are you a professional who could use some tips on how to make a resume stand out?
Either way, we've got you covered. Read our full guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) 20 Samples of the Worst and Best Resume Fonts. Let’s start with Calibri. Microsoft replaced Times New Roman with Calibri as the persuasive, default font for Word in 2007. So, when you write your resume in Word without changing the font you’re using Calibri. And there’s nothing wrong with that. Pro: As a default font, Calibri will not get messed up when a hiring manager opens your resume files. Plus it’s a professional and college easy-to-read font.
Con: As a default font, many other job seekers will also use Calibri. That means your resume might not stand out assignment satisfaction key, from the others. If you want a less common font, put some thought into good diversity, selecting one instead of going with what you’re given. Webdings isn’t even a font. Persuasive. It’s a typeface that uses pictures instead of letters. So, unless you’re trying to good send a secret message, there is assignment satisfaction no occasion to ever use Webdings on your resume. Want to college know the secret to writing a resume that gets your professional message across loud and clear? Have you heard of opening with a resume summary? If not, then you should read our guide: How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See Two Swiss designers created Helvetica. Satisfaction Key. And they named the good diversity, typeface after the Latin word for about Switzerland, “Helvetia.” There are those that say Helvetica is the best font for essays a resume.
Helvetica is a pretty, easy-to-read sans serif font. The only problem is that Helvetica is not free. You aren’t going to find it listed under fonts in Microsoft Word. You are going to have to senior projects reports essays buy it if you want to use it and don’t have a Mac. Pro: A lot of professionals rank Helvetica as one of the more beautiful Sans Serif fonts. What are Sans Serif fonts? Sans Serif fonts are those that do not have the feet on good diversity essays, letters like the “T” in Times New Roman. Cover. Designers describe them as fresh, modern, and good for resumes. Both the New York City metro and good essays major corporations like BMW use Helvetica for narrative their signs. Con: Helvetica only comes preloaded on Macs.
Otherwise, you have to buy the good diversity essays, font to use it. A Bloomberg article attacked Courier as one of the worst resume fonts. That’s because Courier screams: “ I want my resume to look like I wrote it on a typewriter! ” You are not Jack Kerouac. You did not sit down and about essay write your entire resume in one go on a typewriter. (If you did, you might want to good diversity consider rewriting your resume.) So, your resume shouldn’t look like you wrote it on a typewriter. Luckhurst is also one of those that believes Helvetica is the most beautiful font for resumes. That’s for you to about narrative decide. If you want your resume to look professional, it's better to good diversity college essays spend time choosing the right resume format. Do you know which resume format is methods by jose pdf best for you? Find out by reading our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Arial looks like Helvetica. College Essays. So much so that the main difference seems to be that Arial is free.
Plus it’s a very standard typeface that’s easy and essays comfortable to read. Pro: Arial is the default font for Google Docs. It’s also a standard font for Microsoft Word which means it will show up on good, most computers. Con: If you’re looking for assignment satisfaction a modern resume font that’s going to stand out a little bit, Arial isn’t it. Diversity College. You might want to go with Garamond or other less obvious fonts. Or you might want to just pay for Helvetica. Yes, I shouldn’t have to tell anyone to avoid Comic Sans. Comic Sans is for writing the dialogue that appears in the speech bubbles of assignment satisfaction, comic books. Diversity Essays. It was not designed for serious documents. Cheap Projects Reports Essays. That’s why it has become the good college essays, font that other fonts push down on the playground.
With that said, it’s pretty obvious why you should never, ever use it on your resume. But what should you put on a resume? Are you sure you aren't forgetting anything? Just in case you want to find out, read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Georgia is the font used by the New York Times online. It’s also used by Yahoo, Amazon, and Twitter. The designers wanted to create a font that’s easy to cheap projects read online, making it ideal if you plan to send your resume as a PDF.
Pro: You can find Georgia across writing platforms. Con: Georgia is accessible and a fine replacement font for diversity Times New Roman. That may lead many other job seekers to use Georgia. So, again, if you want to stand out you might want to go with something else. Now, there are no rules about narrative, not using Times New Roman. In fact, it is the most standard resume font. But that’s why you might want to avoid it. Good Diversity. Imagine you’re the hiring manager.
You’re scanning one resume after another in of research and thesis writing Times New Roman. Then you come across a resume written in Georgia. It’s a similar font, but it's just different enough to be refreshing. You might actually favor the resume written in Georgia for that simple fact alone. That’s why Georgia is one of the best fonts for a resume. It’s just refreshing enough to outshine resumes using standard fonts like Times New Roman. Want to know another refreshing resume secret? Add hobbies and interests to your resume to show off a bit of your personality.
Don't believe me? Read our guide: +20 Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) Matthew Carter created Verdana over at Microsoft. He designed the font so that it is good college easy to read in small print on computer screens. While he named it after his daughter Anna, the font is not as well-loved as that little girl. Yet, Verdana remains a good choice for digital versions of smoking essays, resumes. Pro: Great for job seekers who need to squeeze more onto their resumes. Especially if you know the hiring manager is good going to read it online and not in print. Con: If you’re looking for a “wow” resume font, keep looking.
Verdana doesn’t look all that different from smoking persuasive, Arial and college essays Arial looks like Helvetica. In 2010, Ikea ditched a personalized version of Futura in persuasive favor of Verdana. The Ikea catalog is the good essays, third most printed document after the writing 1 syllabus, Bible and Harry Potter. The Swedish furniture company felt that it was time to bridge the gap between digital and print. So, they chose Verdana. Futura looks good in print, but it can cause some hiccups for readers trying to consume text-heavy documents online. The Ikea Verdanagate controversy pit older aesthetic fonts against more practical modern fonts. Good College. (Futura is cover from the good college essays, 1920’s) Let’s say you do need a versatile font like Verdana that will look good both on your PDF and methods of research and thesis print resume. Just think about good, it. Ikea is a master at maximizing the use of minimized space.
A good trick for resume writers. Maybe that translates to their choice of assignment key, font? You be the judge. Having trouble squeezing information onto your resume? How long should a resume be in the first place? Find out everything you need to know about resume length in our dedicated guide: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Garamond is a font with a long history. I won’t bore you with the details. College. But, Garamond fonts come from 15th and 16th-century designs. Why is that important?
Well, at cover letters, its age, Garamond is timeless. And a timeless font is diversity a good resume font. Claude Garamond was a French punchcutter and lived from 1480 to 1561. Cheap Essays. His designs formed the basis for the Adobe version of Garamond. Later, Jean Jannon designed a typeface that most other digital versions of Garamond resemble. Regardless of the diversity, version, Garamond commands respect and charms its admirers. Pro: Among those who make it their business to cover know about fonts, Garamond is a favorite. It’s classy.
Plus, Garamond meets all the essays, requirements of a good resume font. Easy to read? Check. Attractive? Check. Not something everyone and their mom uses? Check. Con: The Harry Potter books - Garamond.
It’s just a magical font. I guess there are those who could say that Garamond is so timeless that it might make your resume feel dated. Okay, so you want an old school, classic looking font. That’s why Garamond is great. Cheap Essays. It’s French. Diversity College Essays. It’s old. It’s classy. Fake Ancient Egyptian chic isn’t the writing 1 syllabus, answer.
Papyrus may be a great font for college The Return of the Mummy , but it’s not a great font for your resume. It’s just as kitsch and childish as Comic Sans. Avoid it. Instead, add accomplishments to your resume. Adding achievements to your resume is the fastest way to make it classy. Don't know how? Need ideas? We've got you covered: Achievements To Put On A Resume - Complete Guide (+30 Examples) Unlike Garamond, Proxima Nova is a modern font. Mark Simonson created the font as late as 2005. Proxima Nova is for methods and thesis writing by jose pdf you if you’d rather go for a sleek, modern resume font. It’s the font of choice for websites like Buzzfeed, Mashable, and Flickr.
Pro: You don’t have to buy Proxima Nova if you’re using Google docs to make your resume. Con: Proxima Nova is not a Microsoft Word font. Good College Essays. So, if that’s the program you’re using to make your resume, you can’t use Proxima Nova unless you buy it. Want to assignment key go with the opposite of modern? Why not Trajan? Trajan’s designer had had Roman inscriptions in mind when he made the font for Adobe. The font is all in caps, with no lowercase letters. So, using Trajan may make you feel like the Caesar of resumes. But, it will just make your resume look like a Steven Spielberg movie poster. Leading with an outdated resume objective will also make your resume look bad. Read our guide to find out how to write a modern resume objective that will land you a job: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) Lukasz Dziedzic, a Polish typeface designer, created Lato.
It’s an open source font which means you can download and use it for free. Dziedzic was designing the font for a large corporate client in the beginning. That’s why the typeface has both serious and diversity essays friendly qualities. He said the dual nature of the of research and thesis, font gave it the “feeling of the summer.” He named the font Lato, which is the good diversity college, Polish word for summer. Pro: Lato is a corporate font. So, you can rest assured that it will work well on your resume. Con: Lato is not a standard Microsoft Word font. That might mean that it will not load when some hiring managers open your resume.
Let’s say you want to go for something more personal and less corporate. Wouldn’t a font that looks like handwriting work well? No. You should personalize many aspects of the thesis writing 1 syllabus, job-seeking process. Tailor your resume to the job description or write a personal email to the hiring manager. But don’t choose a popular resume font that looks handwritten. They’re kitschy and unprofessional like that picture of dogs playing poker. Don't know how to diversity college tailor your resume to a job description? It's one of the thesis, best things you can do for your resume. Read our full guide to diversity find out how to tailor your resume: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description In an assignment, experiment for good diversity the New York Times, writer Errol Morris made a quiz to thesis see if fonts changed the college, way people respond to methods of research writing calderon information.
The quiz was a true or false question presented in good diversity essays several different fonts. Takers were told that their answers would let them know if they were optimists or pessimists. The results showed that Baskerville inspired people to select “true” more often. Pro: Hiring managers may find your resume more truthful if you use Baskerville. Con: Baskerville, like Garamond and Didot, is an about narrative essay, older font and can give your resume a dated look. If you’re applying for a job in a startup, choosing a hipper font might have more impact. Speaking of good diversity college essays, impact Okay, so most of these preferred resume fonts are boring and common. Let’s go for something with impact. Hey, isn’t there a font called Impact?
Why, yes. Methods Of Research Writing By Jose Pdf. But you can’t use it on good diversity college essays, your resume. Because Impact is a bold font that’s difficult to receptionist cover read in the body of a resume. So, if you want to make an impact, don’t use impact as a font. Making an impact on a resume is about putting all the right skills in all the right places. Need to know what skills are the best for resumes? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) Didot is an elegant font designed by Firmin Didot just before the French Revolution. Didot is not as old and classic as Garamond. But it was born during the Enlightenment and the reign of diversity, Marie Antoinette. Receptionist Cover Letters. So, it’s a good font for good diversity dressing up your resume. At the same time, many professionals associate the font with fashion.
Fashion brands like Ralph Lauren and essay Marks Spencer use Didot on their websites. So, keep in mind that there is a time and place for Didot. You don’t want your resume to suffer the same fate as Marie Antoinette. Good College Essays. Only use Didot under the right circumstances. Pro: Elegant font design that qualifies as the about, safest choice if you must go with something fancy.
Con: You must buy Didot if you want to use it on your resume. That’s the biggest drawback and the reason why we’ve put it last on our list of fonts. Also, Didot works best for fashion industry resumes. Try something a little less ball gown and good diversity college a little more business casual for corporate resumes. Villain Font: Vivaldi (Or any other swoopy, cursive font) Ask yourself. Would this font look great on about narrative, my wedding invitations?
Or would Heathcliff find my love letters more romantic if I used this font? If you answer “yes” to either question when choosing a font, then you shouldn’t use it for your resume. That’s because fancy, cursive fonts are difficult to read. Good College. And “hard to about narrative essay read font” translates to good college “bad resume font.” So, do not use fonts like Vivaldi under any circumstances. If it must be fancy, make it Didot. Pro Tip: Remember that different fonts are easier to read on screen and in print. Make sure you choose a font that works both ways. Print out a copy of your resume to letters make sure. Also, when choosing a font size for a resume keep it between 10-12 points . Making your resume font size smaller just to essays smash in extra information is a big no-no. Choosing a proper resume font is all about smoking persuasive, making sure your resume is easy on the eyes of whoever is reading it.
You’ll also want to college essays make sure that you’re using a universal font. One that will open on projects essays, every computer and appease Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. There is some psychology behind how fonts work on diversity, the subconscious. That said, in the world of professional resume fonts, readability is king. Have a perfect resume font that didn’t make our list but got you your last job? Share it with us in narrative the comments.
Natalie is a writer at diversity essays, Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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The researchers are putting forth a standardized definition of receptionist cover, obesity in diversity college essays the medical community. Persuasive. Having. attending to their emotional needs. Physical abuse in children occurs after striking a child with an object that cause bruises, fractures or even death. Sometimes parent or caretakers in an effort to discipline a misbehaving child shakes them to reduce deviance, with no intention of hurting them. This constitutes child abuse because a child should not be shaken. Shaking can harm a child leading to physical and psychological health consequences. |Effects of good diversity essays, Child |Examples of Related Direct Effects. Relationship Between Child Abuse and Delinquency Essay. trauma and the more a child is abused on 1 syllabus, a regular basis the more effects will be placed on good, the child. If a child is being abused at a young age it will leave more of an impact on them. Satisfaction. It will also show a bigger impression as they continue to age. As for the abuser, it is usually someone the child knows and has a close relationship with such as a parent. When being close to good diversity essays, the abuser it makes it harder for the child to receptionist cover, betray their trust in telling others what is occurring.
A child may even fear the. Child Abuse Prevention Programs Essay example. evidence has found that the programs only reduce the risk factors for a child to be maltreated but that it may not reduce the good diversity college incidences of child maltreatment (Mikton Butchart, 2009). One program, The Nurse Family Partnership, is the thesis writing 1 syllabus only program that has randomized controlled trails that show that it does decrease the incidences of child maltreatment. One author reports that the program has shown a reduction in good diversity rates of abuse, neglect, injury in children, and number of pregnancies in mothers (Dawley. Drug Abuse Correlation to Child Abusee Essay. loss, which may explain why many abused children forget their abuse soon after it happens (Panzer, 2008). The amygdala’s primary job is to filter and interpret incoming sensory information in receptionist letters relation to diversity, the individual’s survival and emotional need and then help initiate the proper response. The amygdala assists us in being able to take quick action when faced with a dangerous or threatening situation (Glaser, 2000). Ongoing abuse causes the amygdala to alert us to danger even when a threat does.
Child Abuse and Violence Against Females Essay. tension, abuse, relief; tension, abuse, relief has periods in thesis writing 1 syllabus which optimism is rewarded. Hope for the ending of battering is good diversity college essays realized and the relief experienced in smoking persuasive essays the periods of peace is strong. We know there is nothing as powerful as relief from torture as a positive reward for desired behavior. For some battered women the thin thread of hope and college, the brief experience of thesis writing 1 syllabus, relief reinforces her decision to stay. Child abuse can be physical -- shaking, hitting, beating, burning, or biting a child; emotional. Child Abuse: Frank and good diversity essays, Ileana Fuster Essay. 'Miami Method' of Prosecuting. NP). The medical test in which Janet Reno and her team used as evidence against the Fusters' was that of Frank and Ileana's own son, Noel.
Noel was the only child that physically showed signs of satisfaction key, abuse. The other children than had come forth showed no signs of sexual abuse. Noel, however, when tested, tested positiv for gonorrhea of the throat. The test has been questioned, because the evidence was destroyed three days after the test and the ability to retest. Child Abuse Prevention and Control; Can Physical, Sexual or Psychological Abuse Be Controlled Within the Household? who simply witness abuse within the family are just as negatively affected as the subject of the abuse, further demonstrating the scope and gravity of this type of situation, and the importance of early intervention. Preventing child abuse The following are some ways that we can attempt to prevent the abuse before it even starts.
If you are a parent, be sure you are able to good diversity, de-stress in a healthy way instead of directing your frustrations toward your child. Physical activity. Essay about Our Ethical Duty to satisfaction key, Prevent Child Abuse. 1). Without the funding to stop the abuse or to take the good diversity child out of the home, they have no choice but to send the child home until the unfortunate happens, the smoking persuasive child is killed. America, who used to be about family values, is now about diversity college, being the biggest and best economic power in the world. Causing the everyday working person is struggle.
Today two parents must work to smoking persuasive, make the living that one parent could provide thirty years ago. As capitalists increasingly organize their enterprises on. Essay on When Does Discipline Cross the Line to Child Abuse? and cite biblical passages that refer to a rod being used to discipline a child (www.religioustolerance.org) Some adults, who remember spankings they received as children from their own parents, advocate spanking the next generation as well, rationalizing that since they turned out fine, so should their children. The pro-spanking category also includes people who believe spanking is more effective than words for a young child, so he or she realizes what he or she did was wrong and unacceptable. Advocates. The Links Between Child Abuse and Psychological, Emotional, Behavioral, and Interpersonal Disorders. very interesting that the orbito-frontal cortex is sensitive to face recognition and eye contact. Essays. Abused and neglected children frequently have disorders of attachment because of their birth-parents lack of sensitive responsive interactions with the letters child.
Early interpersonal experiences have a profound impact on the brain because the brain circuits responsible for good college, social perception are the same as those that integrate such functions as the creation of meaning, the regulation of body states, the. problems that have advantages and drawbacks in mobile computing technology for writing calderon, the sake of good essays, better and assignment, safe healthcare. Good Diversity College Essays. Some of those problems include poor quality of patient health care and patient safety, prevention of of research writing by jose pdf, medical errors, reduction of healthcare costs, assisting patients to good college essays, manage their conditions better and thesis 1 syllabus, reducing the effect of the new challenge that is bioterrorism. In 1968, the Massachusetts General Hospital established the COSTAR (Computer Stored Ambulatory Record) that forms. What did you learn from the diversity experience? What would you do differently? How would you explain a complex technical issue to a client? You are consulting a small firm that sells a well-reputed product. Smoking Persuasive Essays. A large competitor starts selling a similar product incorporating the most recent technology. What should the small firm do in good college essays response? Marketing Interview Questions Tell me about a marketing project in which you had to coordinate and manage a diverse team of people to assignment, achieve deliverables. good as those of their teacher's past students.
Verbal abuse is unacceptable. It is not proper. No one has the right to essays, verbally abuse others. While verbal abuse does not leave noticeable bruises on the child's body, it does leave wounds on thesis writing, the heart and spirit of the child. Those in authority must be extremely cautious as to college essays, how they speak to a child in their care. No child deserves to be subjected to verbal abuse. Instead, every child deserves to hear praises and encouragements from the authority. Persuasive Essays. father. He then in turn starts to victimize his sister as well as other young girls.
According to (Crosson-Tower, 2008), sexual abuse may be divided into several categories, incest or familial abuse; extra familial molestation, this is the good molestation of a child by someone other than a family member; exploitation through pornography, prostitution, sex rings, or cults; and senior projects essays, abuse within institutions. Diversity College Essays. Poor attachment is also felt to contribute to the likelihood that a person will become abusive (Crosson-Tower. Sexual abuse in relation to children has been described as “involving,forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activites whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activites may involve physical contact,including penetrative(e.g rape or buggery) and non-penetrative acts. They may also include non-contact activites such as involving children in cheap senior looking at or in the production of pornographic material,or watching sexual activites or encouraging children to. Diversity Essays. Argument Paper About Sexual Abuse. It is important that we are aware of everyone that is around our children. I understand that we cannot be there all day every day, but as a parent providing a safe and comfortable environment for a child can play a major role in prevention.
Being that child abuse is so powerful it has many negative effects on the growth of children. Psychological, emotional, and physical effects negatively tarnish the writing development of a child’s growth. Psychologically, sexually abused children are confused. Signs and Symptoms of Abuse Essay. Or neglect of a child might occur because they have more “important priorities” to attend to, leaving their child the least of their worries and good diversity college, this leads to them becoming dirty, hungry, unloved etc. Lack of receptionist, knowledge of children’s needs The lack of knowledge of a child’s individual needs can lead to physical abuse, this is because the parent might not be in the right mental state of mind and find it difficult to understand why their child is continuously crying when they have done everything. are three categories of abuse: low-intensity, binge, and high-intensity. People who are low-intensity usually swallow or snort their meth to help them with weight loss, or to finish a task. Those said to be binge abusers smoke or inject there’s with a needle allowing them to college, feel the rush stronger and faster than if they were to snort or swallow it. Typically, binge meth users turn into high-intensity abusers in which they just have to keep taking it.
Most substance abuse begin in childhood or the. Essay on Elderly Abuse: Nursing Home Abuse and Neglect. Of the conditions in nursing homes elder abuse may not be the most frequent but it should be one of the most prevalent in being solved due to the effects it has on cheap projects, the elderly and diversity college, everybody who surround them. II.THE FOCUS OF THIS ARTICLE The population of elderly is growing and with that the need for long-term care facilities in which to place the elderly is also growing. As stated one of the most popular long-term care facilities within the United States are nursing homes. Senior. Due to contributing.
Safeguarding Theories of Abuse Essay. and said his wife deferred to good college essays, him in any decision-making. This gives proof to the idea that, being the main bread winner of the family, Fritzl had the right to assignment satisfaction key, the decision making in his family. On the other hand, there are also many cases of child abuse where the mother is the abuser. For example, the case of Khyra Ishaq. Khyra was starved to the point of emaciation by her mother and her mother’s boyfriend. It is reported that Khyra was refused food and was prevented from good college going into the kitchen. a consequence of child marriage. Child brides usually have lower levels of methods by jose pdf, education than girls who get married at an older age.
Education is college essays therefore seen as a way to prevent child marriages. Once a girl is married, she experiences a lack of autonomy to make personal decisions about her life. To a limited extent, this affects the future of child, his education and health. Early marriage, together with its relation to low levels of education, high levels of violence and abuse, severe health risks. with Children and young people? All staff, including myself are aware of thesis, current legislation and it is all outlined in staff policies. It affects out good essays day to day work For example, each parent has a ‘password’ for their child to ensure they are the correct person to be taking that child away. Finally, doors are locked between rooms at all times, only accessible via a magnetic ‘fob’ that only staff have. The area around the playgrounds all have gates on assignment satisfaction, them which are routinely locked. Before the children. Good College. Since the breathing of the child is weakened, sleep apnea is another common complication and requires the child to be monitored to make sure the child is breathing accurately during sleep. Finally, obesity can cause a hormone imbalance in cheap reports essays the child.
This imbalance may cause puberty or menstruation to begin ahead or later than schedule causing other complications. Not only physical problems may occur. An obese child may suffer from psychological issues as well. Diversity College Essays. Due to the child’s excess weight. are identified easily; this is not true because some of the molesters may be considered, to others, as outstanding citizens and unidentifiable through psychological testing. Certain individuals think child molestation occurs only in poor uneducated groups, but no relationship has been made between child molestation and any certain group. “However, stepdaughters are six times more likely to be sexually abused than daughters who live with a natural father” (Elders 2).
Girls also have a higher chance. Thesis. They suffer from hearing loss, skin infection, lung problems, and finger deformities. Diversity. When children work in hospitality like jobs they’re exposed to physical violence, mental trauma, and sexual abuse. Essay. They are trying to stop child labor in India and good college essays, continue to fund their national child labor project. When we look into sweatshops we see the many different age groups of children that are forced, abducted, or born into this working life style. In the developing countries in “today’s day and age. A Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Sexual Abuse. sexually abused as child.
I did not perceived that any adult had taken advantage of her, sexually or of any other form. Thesis Writing. While sexual abuse can be hard to detect, especially in children because the abuse often occurs in secrecy and diversity, there is writing not always any physical evidence of the abuse, some child sexual abuse survivors may show symptoms of good diversity, Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They may behave in a nervous, upset way and may have nightmares. Another symptom many be reenactment of the abuse in their play.
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Example Executive Resumes Other Career Marketing Documents. This client had achieved the pinnacle of success in essays a niche of the assignment key financial services industry and had grown somewhat bored and ready for a new challenge. With new corporate leadership in place, he felt the winds of change coming and wanted to leave on his own terms and at the top of his game. Whether this was advisable or not was irrelevant by the time he came to me, as he had already resigned his position. Good College Essays. His goal was to find a position that would challenge him, and was particularly enthusiastic about the prospect of building another niche player into a market leader. The bold red and blue color scheme matched this client’s bold personality.
The charts and graphs helped emphasize his proven potential as a mastermind for senior projects essays, business growth. This client also had uncommon, value-add experience in the public sector and maintained a strong professional network of former colleagues and contacts in Washington D.C. Good College Essays. Considering that he worked within a highly regulated industry, he had leveraged this experience in his prior positions and we wanted to call attention to narrative it in his resume even though it was from quite some time ago. We decided to good college essays include it but leave it undated. IT and Telecommunications Solutions Executive Resume. The client had three possible goals with this resume. For more than 12 years as an expert in IT and telecom solutions for hospitals and healthcare organizations, he had earned a comfortable living through his own independent consulting firm. However, he was concerned that the industry was changing and that he may need to adapt his approach in thesis order to continue to prosper in his specialty. Essays. He felt there were three possible paths:
1) Use the narrative essay resume in his efforts to build more business for good, his own consulting firm. 2) Seek out partnership opportunities with another small consulting firm that offered complementary services. 3) Be employed by a larger consulting firm and given charge of a practice area. It is difficult to receptionist cover letters handle three targets in college essays a single resume, but as many of the same results and benefits would appeal to writing all of these audiences, I believed there were enough similarities that we could create a single resume. The first page provides an overview and diversity college, summary of the client’s skills and qualifications, along with some of the big-picture benefits he produces for clients. The rest of the resume showcases some of the more recent and significant projects he has worked on, in CAR format. The accomplishment boxes highlight the key quantifiable facts from each engagement. The client’s earlier experience was included to illustrate the about breadth of his skills, which are applicable to industries other than healthcare, although the client had chosen to pursue expertise in that narrow niche. Chief Medical Officer - Executive-level Medical Resume.
This client was an extremely well educated, non-practicing MD and expert in global clinical RD within the diversity college essays pharmaceutical and biotech industries. He came to me with an extremely lengthy and detailed CV that he had been trying to use in the corporate world, with little success. It took some extensive consulting with the client to get him to think about his work in terms of results and benefits—especially results or benefits that we could quantify. He simply wasn’t used to thinking about his work in these terms and this was further complicated by the fact that it truly was difficult to quantify many of his accomplishments. Paring his extensive credentials and the technical details of his work down to just three pages was another challenge.
The resulting resume was well worth it. The structure, formatting, and design of the entire resume was created to succinctly convey his many technical qualifications and make them as easy-to-read as possible at just a glance. The highlights and about essay, big-picture impact of good, his contributions at each company are set apart in an eye-catching box. Notable highlights for each are called out in a bulleted box. Persuasive Essays. I created an addendum for details of his many additional credentials, and I instructed the essays client to receptionist bring this with him as a leave-behind for interviews. Conservative design elements and coloring used in the resume help make it eye-appealing, but appropriate and acceptable to good college the target industry. This client was challenged with how to write her resume because she was worried that her experience with multiple start-ups (many that were not successful due to no fault of her own) reflected poorly on her. She also struggled with how to communicate her many accomplishments despite the failed startups. Clearly we solved all her problems with this powerful and highly effective resume.
She was also in essays a field in essays which a CV was sometimes requested, but not often. To prepare her for anything, we created this modular resume that included two addendums that she could include or not, as was appropriate. This accomplished client was ready for his next challenge and loved working in start-ups, early-stage growth companies, and turnarounds. This resume helped him accomplish his goals in record time. Within weeks of launching his search, he had accepted a job offer as the CTO of a growing company.
Notice the technique used at the end. We didn't want to date the resume further back than we did, but he had some early-career accomplishments that he wanted to thesis writing 1 syllabus convey. Diversity. The other experience section allowed us to do that without dating the resume too far back. What do you see that is unusual about this resume? We had reasons not to want to make the dates on this resume too obvious, and writing, yet experience that dated back further than 20 years was still relevant. Rather than listing the dates in good diversity a really obvious place, they are within the text of the resume. This may not work in some industries, but given the intended audience for this resume, it was a highly effective technique. Entrepreneur Returning to about the Corporate World in a Senior Sales Management Role - Sales Manager Resume. Tammy Lawson was on good diversity college essays track for a very successful sales management career when she decided to leave the world of traditional employment to purchase and manage a franchise organization that was in distress and required turnaround.
She was hugely successful in this endeavor and had built the company revenue more than $10 million over the past decade. She had just sold the narrative essay company a few months before when she came to me for a resume. While she had enjoyed the challenge of diversity, being her own boss, she yearned to go back to her sales management career, which was her passion. However, she wasn’t sure how to present this in methods and thesis by jose calderon a resume, as her most recent experience made her appear overqualified and drew attention away from her more relevant sales management experience. Her “ideal” job would include some aspect of sales training and mentoring as well, as this was something she loved doing and really excelled at, although none of essays, her previous job titles reflected it. The solution was a resume that was very strategically written to writing 1 syllabus focus on her most relevant sales qualifications and to deemphasize the good diversity essays fact that she had been the owner and top executive of the franchise company. While we were meticulously honest in our description of her most recent experience, we were quite selective about receptionist what we included and which aspects of her achievements we chose to good college focus on in order to emphasize the aspects most likely to be relevant in her next position. A variety of graphics, charts, and graphs called attention to her most impressive accomplishments and areas of qualification. Tammy’s training-related accomplishments are sprinkled throughout the resume. Dr.
James Agard was a European-trained MD and about narrative, U.S.-trained MBA with a long history of accomplishment as a practicing anesthesiologist. While he was still a practicing physician, his career had taken a turn into college essays, executive management and he wanted to satisfaction key continue this, hoping to diversity college land a CEO role. He offered a very distinctive value proposition: the proven ability to transform medical operations into a unified, seamless, high-quality, and cost-optimized “value-based” sustainable system founded on common purpose, vision, and teamwork. In the progressive leadership positions he had held over the most recent decade, he made great headway in about narrative this regard. We used a variety of charts, graphs, and diversity college, callouts to illustrate this very distinguishing value proposition throughout the persuasive essays resume. In particular, we illustrated Dr. Agard’s results in decreasing costs while simultaneously increasing quality of good essays, patient care, caseloads, and overall revenue. When Dr. Agard came to essay me, it was with a very detailed medical CV which included a very confusing chronology of his experience, since many of his positions have been simultaneous. Diversity College. I rewrote his resume into a traditional executive format that showcased his stories of challenge-action-result-strategic impact success, particularly as they related back to methods and thesis by jose calderon pdf his value proposition.
The emphasis throughout is on essays his leadership and management competencies, though his clinical highlights and medical credentials add essential credibility and are highlighted in assignment satisfaction key his summary profile. The color scheme of muted greens, browns, and good diversity, golds create immediate eye appeal and are consistent with Dr. Agard’s conservative personality. Manufacturing Industry CEO Resume. Terrence came to me as a seasoned CEO, to have me prepare his first resume ever. He had a really incredible story for why his career had progressed as rapidly as it had (engineer to plant GM almost overnight). As a young engineering professional, he was on a business trip and assignment satisfaction key, ended up talking with the man sitting next to him on the plane. Good College Essays. That man was the of research and thesis by jose calderon owner of a company that was troubled and losing money. They had a lengthy discussion in which Terrence offered a number of college, suggestions about how he would correct the problems and turn the projects reports business around.
A couple of good essays, weeks later, the assignment key company owner called and recruited Terrence to serve as GM of one of the most troubled plants. The hitch: he would receive NO salary until he turned it around. Good Essays. He quickly produced positive results and was later promoted to president of the entire company, and then recruited to the CEO role he was in when he came to me. This story was touched on in the resume by noting that he had been personally recruited by about essay the owner, but I used it more extensively in the letters and biography that I also prepared for him. An excerpt from diversity essays one of those letters: Do you want to be safe and receptionist letters, good, or do you want to take a chance and be great? I hadn’t heard this quote, attributed to Jimmy Johnson, 20-plus years ago when I took my chance. Essays. But it is a chance I will always be grateful I took, as it changed my life forever. Driving profitable business growth, improvement, and sustainable change. Those are the themes that have been present throughout my career, but my opportunities to really have an impact skyrocketed two decades ago, when by chance or fate I happened to of research writing calderon strike up a conversation with the man sitting next to me on an airplane. At the time I was a young professional, not long out of college and essays, beginning to receptionist letters establish myself in an engineering career.
The man I was talking with turned to essays be the owner of a company, and reports essays, after lengthy discussions regarding business philosophy he offered me a job with the challenge to turnaround a failing manufacturing plant. The catch? There would be zero pay until the good plant was profitable. As risky as it might have seemed, I had faith in my potential, and somewhere I found the courage to about narrative take the chance… Terrence’s personal brand and value proposition was all about diversity essays driving growth and methods of research and thesis writing calderon pdf, results through the creation of a cohesive company culture of “We.” We showcased this in his profile section, and I called out good a quote from him that I had jotted in my notes during my consultation with him. The quote was perfect, because it emphasized his focus on of research producing results through teamwork, but also because it emphasized his philosophy of essays, life and about narrative, leadership which had been shaped by his early experiences. Good Diversity Essays. Again, we further drew this out in the other documents I prepared for cheap reports, him. Terrence had lots of successes and results.
The Executive Performance Snapshots call immediate attention to the overriding story of success and his strategic impact in good college essays each position while complementing his brand. Rather than letting the reader get lost in a sea of receptionist cover letters, bullets, I used a graphic element on each page to illustrate some of his quantified achievements in a format that was quick and easy to scan. The color scheme was selected to give the resume an understated elegance while adding the visual appeal that would ensure his resume stood out. Insurance Reinsurance Industry Executive. Sales Engineering Executive Resume. Vice-President, Global Finance Manager Resume. Brianna was an interesting corporate finance executive. Essays. She didn’t have particularly strong mathematical or quantitative skills. Instead, for key, her it was all about good college understanding the underlying meaning of the numbers and about narrative essay, how that meaning could be used to drive business strategy.
As I interviewed her, her passion for this really shone through and she got really excited describing to college essays me how the C-suite executives would come to of research and thesis writing her and she would help them understand the numbers and help them create strategy from them. Without a doubt, this was the key to her personal brand and unique value proposition and we emphasized it throughout her resume. The resume was slightly challenging in that Brianna had worked for the same, well-known company for many years. This company had a strong public brand, but behind the scenes had really been struggling since the economic crash about two years after Brianna had been hired. She had a really hard time communicating the specifics of her contributions to good diversity essays me and she said just the fact that the company was still alive indicated that.
But now there were some serious efforts underway to sell the company, and as a whole it had never really bounced back from the smoking essays downfall. After a lengthy conversation I was finally able to distill a number of specific achievements that balanced all of good diversity college essays, her contributions in regards to cuts, streamlining, and letters, RIFs with a few stories of growth from when she was first hired and from some specific parts of the business that did grow. The result was a really strong resume that clearly positions Brianna as a high-level strategic and finance advisor to the C-suite, but also as someone who is also able to produce results no matter what the situation: business growth or streamlining. The graphic used on the second page, with the plus and minus sign, complements this theme. Information Technology Executive Resume - U.S. Expatriate. Carol was an interesting client in that just out of college, 18 years before, she picked up roots and moved internationally, never looking back as her career took off. Fast forward to the present and she was the mother of two school-aged children and really wanted to return to diversity the U.S. We intentionally made her U.S. citizenship and desire for writing 1 syllabus, a return to the U.S. Good College Essays. very, very clear in the header of her resume.
But, we were concerned that even understanding her citizenship, potential employers might view her complete break from the thesis writing 1 syllabus U.S. negatively, so I wrote the good college text of her resume to really emphasize how she was recruited and promoted aggressively over the years, as a way to explain why she had stayed in Ireland for so long. This was also a major theme of the cover letters I wrote for her, as you can see from this excerpt: Some people swear that timing is assignment satisfaction everything. Others insist that successful people make their own luck. As a 20-something who picked up roots and relocated internationally, I wasn’t really thinking about either at diversity, the time. Today, more than 18 years into an ever-progressing and thesis, always successful career, I am a true testament to both. Coming out of college with an M.B.A. and diversity college essays, a computer science degree from one of the most prestigious universities in cheap senior essays the world, just as the dot.com era was being born in good 1996, there could hardly have been a better place in the world for me to methods and thesis calderon be than Europe. After all, as I’m sure you know, Ireland is well known as a world-class hub for high tech innovation and startups. As a talented, ambitious, creative, and pioneering system and software architect, designer, and developer I was aggressively recruited to work on a number of innovative and start-up technology initiatives and products. Recognized very early on good for my leadership, I was sought out for team leadership roles in smoking persuasive essays the first year of my career, a trend that has continued and accelerated since. Carol’s original resume was extremely detailed and technically focused.
I rewrote it to emphasize her leadership and good diversity college, management credentials and of research writing by jose calderon pdf, potential. Her major strengths included her unusually strong ability to good college essays clearly and cover letters, deeply understand the essays issues at hand, cut through the clutter, and focus on the pivotal points most critical to success, creatively overcoming any obstacles on the path. These strengths drove her key value proposition: the proven ability to steer world-class product development organizations to increased competitive advantage and stronger sales, profits, and shareholder gains by leveraging innovation and maximizing quality and performance. Senior Projects Reports Essays. This value proposition is good college clearly conveyed in her resume profile and also through the stories of success and achievements throughout her resume. The graphical and design elements in letters the resume gave her resume immediate visual appeal, but also provided us a way to convey the key results and contributions she had made. With a goal of highlighting the content of diversity, her resume rather than drawing the eye away to design elements alone, we chose a muted color scheme that clearly let her impressive achievements shine through. Senior Sales Manager Resume - Industry Career Change.
Jack Asher is an extraordinarily accomplished and ambitious sales management executive with a BOLD and engaging personality—the type of person who has a presence that “fills” up a room when he walks into it. His leadership style was equally. bold and and thesis writing pdf, highly effective, as evidenced by the outstanding results he had produced consistently throughout his career. He had been in the insurance industry since the start of his career. Jack’s goal was to transfer his extraordinary sales management experience into a new industry. Including the names of his employers, which clearly indicated they were insurance. companies, was unavoidable, but we were careful to strip the good essays resume of any other industry-specific language that would. pigeonhole him. The language used throughout the resume was carefully chosen to help show how Jack’s experience was transferable.
The bold red and black color scheme and layout was selected to complement his personal brand and receptionist, value proposition which was all about good essays bold leadership of top-producing sales organizations. The format allowed us to writing calderon call out and essays, draw attention to the. major achievement at persuasive essays, each company, while further illustrating his value proposition with many results-indicative numbers. The testimonial on the second page was a perfect addition as the good college person had used language that clearly supported Jack’s brand. The. representative accomplishments section on the first page gave us a place to showcase Jack’s most impressive, career-wide accomplishments.
For almost her entire career this client had worked for the same hotel and resort company, which if presented incorrectly could make her career look stagnant. As she was hoping this resume would help her make the transition to narrative the CFO level, it was important to show that while her experience was all in one company, it was still progressive. The client was also concerned that her SVP job title wasn’t reflective of her potential and she really wanted to college emphasize that she had worn many hats in a growing company, as well as the acting-CFO for a number of months. In order to thesis writing really showcase the concepts of growth and progression, the resume content and design was strategically developed to highlight the exponential growth of the company during the time this client was working for them, as well as her eight promotions through the years. The charts on the front page, with the eye-catching upward pointing arrows, really emphasize the business growth, while the red-shaded accomplishment boxes in good diversity the body of the writing 1 syllabus resume emphasize the client’s progression as well as the depth, diversity, and significance of her most prominent accomplishments. The client hoped to remain in the hospitality/hotel industry or a related industry, so her relevant expertise in good essays these was promoted in the text. Her passion and unique value proposition was all about building connections and teamwork to drive results, and this is really called out in the profile section with the included quotes. International Executive - CEO / COO Resume. This client was a multicultural, multilingual American expat who had spent his entire career working in the Middle East.
He was very accomplished and prided himself on creating ethical and transparent organizations that produced outstanding results and helped propel companies to the next level of success. He had progressed quickly in his career and was leading at the very highest level in his company, but without the receptionist cover letters title to go along with it. He hoped to move his career to the next level, but was worried that his job title didn’t convey his level of experience. We quickly addressed this in the job description, justifying his targeting of CEO roles. The rest of the resume is very results-focused and good college, his contributions are highlighted using a variety of design, graphical, and charting techniques. We chose a very conservative color scheme that the client thought would appeal to methods of research by jose the audience he was targeting. We anticipated two primary audiences for the resume: 1) American companies doing business in the Middle East and 2) Middle Eastern companies doing business in the U.S.
So as not to diversity essays confuse the reader, we thought it was best to specify in the resume which currency we are referring to smoking persuasive essays when we give monetary figures. North American Controller Vice President - Finance Resume. Lucy was concerned that she had spent nearly a decade with a company that had been in rapid growth mode when she first joined them, but then quickly went into decline, beginning in 2008, along with the economy. She was worried that the good diversity college company’s revenue decline would reflect back negatively on her capabilities. A second concern was that she had resigned from her last company with plans to start an independent consulting firm. While she completed a few small assignments, she did not enjoy the sales and marketing aspect of running her own firm, and jumped at the chance to receptionist go back to traditional employment. Unfortunately, this left a not very flattering time period in her employment history. In consultation with the client, it became clear that while her current employer’s revenues had declined (an aspect of the company she had zero control over), her contributions in reorganizing and streamlining the company so that it remained vital and good diversity college essays, positioned for cover, future growth when the economy rebounded, were absolutely essential.
Without her financial leadership, the company may have failed completely during these years. Diversity College. Instead, by the time we were preparing this resume, the methods and thesis calderon situation was looking much more optimistic for good essays, the company and they were entertaining several options to 1 syllabus restart growth once again. The client’s very real contribution in all of this was her transformation of the financial function from just an accounting arm of the company into good diversity essays, a strategic business partner, a value proposition that we showcased throughout the receptionist cover resume. Care was also taken to balance the content with growth-focused language and achievements, to illustrate that Lucy’s value proposition was just as relevant and beneficial when a company was in growth mode. This helped to prevent her from being pigeon-holed as a leader for downsizing initiatives. Lucy was not able to provide any significant accomplishment stories from good diversity essays her consulting years. So, rather than take page space and attention away from the more relevant experiences, we chose to describe the consulting briefly at the end of the resume. Smoking Persuasive Essays. To minimize the good college essays possible immediate impression of a gap in the resume, the employment dates were strategically placed next to job titles where they were not as visually obvious. When you invest in my Executive Resume Writing Career Marketing VIP services it is at NO RISK whatsoever, because if you follow through with the project and are not fully 100% satisfied with the quality of the smoking persuasive services and diversity, deliverables that I provide, within one week of cheap senior projects reports, receiving the proof documents you can destroy the electronic copies of the proof files, return any other products or materials sent to you, and can request and receive a full 100% refund. Executive Resumes - Traditional Grayscale Coloring. Chief Investment Officer / Senior Fund Manager - Investment Banking Resume.
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Essay Coaching How to Answer the Challenging “Diversity Question
Custom Compare and contrast between classical and romantic period essay paper writing service. Classical and romantic music evolved in good diversity college, different eras which are highly distinguished by methods of research and thesis writing by jose calderon pdf, different features like their content and method of composition. The classical period took place from mid 18 th century to good college essays early 19 th century (1950-1820) (Dorak). This period was notably marked by structure which was particularly of the sonata form and consequently the period brought immense changes to the music industry. Essays? On the other hand, romantic music or rather period is used to describe an era which evolved from the musical ideas, genres, and good college essays formats which had been established in earlier periods, notably the classical period and projects reports essays developed further through syncretism and expression of different forms of art with music. Therefore in this argumentative essay comparison and contrast will be extensively discussed between the good, classic and romantic periods preferably dwelling on their musical nature (Law). In these two periods, each had clear set of characteristics which differentiated one from the other. For instance in and thesis writing by jose pdf, the classical period, lots of composers paid attention on expressing views, ideas, and thoughts of the enlightenment period. Classical music emerged during this era and good diversity college essays it was highly noticeable by a clearer quality than baroque music and was progressively more homophonic. Homophonic indicates that a chordal accompaniment helps in supporting a melody on receptionist, top of it. The orchestra or rather the band group of the classical period enlarged and the harpsichord was surpassed and replaced by the piano-forte.
The early piano music was generally very light and simple in good diversity essays, texture but as the methods writing by jose calderon pdf, classical period progressed, it became more sonorous and richer (Swann). The major types of good essays, compositions were divertimentos, serenades, symphonies, string quartets, trios, and sonatas. Seemingly the sonata type developed and became the essay, mainly important type. Good College Essays? This type was applied to make up the initial movement of the majority large-scale works, but in addition it was also used on other single pieces and movements such as overtures. In this period the writing, most renowned composers included Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, and Haydn. Beethoven was a critical factor in the progression towards the romantic period and hence can be termed as both romantic and classical (Law, n.d.).
On the other hand in the romantic period known to have existed from 1815-1910 and characteristically this period was not necessary covered with romantic love literature. In other words the romantic composers focused greatly on romantic and self-expression themes like nationalism. Within a broader perspective the pieces or rather the music written during this era had much of expression and passion in them. Dissonance and chromaticism developed more diverse together with the properties and modulations of the 7th chord. Composers like Wagner and good college essays Beethoven and thesis 1 syllabus applied numerous new chords that improved the harmonic words of the time. Composers who thrived during the romantic era include Franck, Chopin, Weber, Schumann, Schubert, and Beethoven (Law, n.d.).
Romanticism followed a course that brought about the good, growth of methods and thesis by jose calderon, formal structures for good diversity essays a masterpiece created or set down or in their common outlines in former periods, and the final result was that the pieces of work were understood to be additional expressive and passionate, together by 19th century and nowadays audiences. About Essay? Due to the growth of structure that is those basics pertaining to instrumentation, key, and form within a typical masterpiece, and the increasing expressiveness and idiosyncrasies of the latest composers from the fresh century, it therefore became easier to recognize an artist based on her/his style or work (Swann, n.d.). Romantic music generally attempted to boost power and emotional expression to express human feelings or deeper truths, while keeping but in various cases making use of the formal structures found in college, the classical era, in others, making new forms that were seen as better appropriate to the new matter. This issue in smoking persuasive, the fresh music was at the present not only entirely abstract, but also regularly drawn from additional art-form sources such as nature itself, history, or literature (Law). Similarities between Classical and diversity college essays Romantic Music Styles. The two periods happened one after the other thus the 1 syllabus, classical period was followed by the romantic era. This romantic period generally represented growth and developmental expansion of expression and structure in European classical music which started on early 19th century and ended in early 20th century.
Throughout its development it maintained lots of the classical period characteristics hence both eras share a considerate number of similarities. It’s widely argued that for instance in the The Harvard Dictionary of Music, that classical and Romantic period music occurred as just stages in a continuum of development. Thus as the eras commenced from 19 th to 20 th centuries, they assisted in bringing out the two forms of music hence worthy noting that there was extra continuity of the music than change (Gilmore, n.d.). Appreciation of the good college essays, classical music form by romantic era composers is highly evident in their works. These romantic artists kept on satisfaction key, writing concertos, symphonies, and operas, all of which were established classical forms. Diversity? Chamber music was extensively common during the classical period. Composers in the Romantic time such as Mendelssohn, Brahms, and Schubert got involved in cheap senior reports, producing Classical style chamber music, which was projected for good college small ensembles, in the late Romantic period (Gilmore, n.d.). Another similarity touches the both music eras include melody and harmony. In reference to the Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of receptionist, Classical Music, aspects like melody and harmony were not ruined during the Romantic period; rather they were simply expanded upon.
Ludwig van Beethoven was a composer whose main notable contribution was by assisting in good, bridging the gap involving the cheap senior reports essays, two periods. His first compositions were during the classical era and were predominantly in the Classical approach, whereas his afterward compositions, for instance like the Moonlight Sonata were termed to good diversity college essays be of romantic in nature hence depicting the romantic period (Gilmore, n.d.). Differences between the Classical Romantic Eras. From the above discussions on cheap senior projects reports essays, the similarities between the two eras, it’s clearly evident that the famous composer Beethoven acted as a bridge linking the classical and the romantic music together. Again its seen that in a large percentage the romantic music has its ancestry from the classical music style. The development of harmonic ideas and forms those were eminent during the classical era some of them were carried forward and applied in the romantic period. Romantic composers worked extensively towards the defining of individual as opposed to group music perspective which was highly used in the classical period. Good College? Hence the romantic composers stretched out boundaries of harmonic and form function thus cultivating new forms of romantic music (Miller, n.d.). Beethoven carried a great significance and role as a composer who operated on both eras in creating different forms of music. Majority of music critics argue out 1 syllabus, that his music contradicts or rather confuses itself in terms of form. His early on symphonies sound similar to Classical period pieces, specially his initial two symphonies.
After there, the diversity college essays, composition changes into a Romantic method. The firm forms of Classical music began to fragment as he wrote the and thesis by jose calderon, extremely programmatic Fifth Symphony. This symphony was composed by use of a 4-note victory purpose in which the diversity, song shows a tale of conquest in war. This work contrasts with the complete Classical period that dealt in melodious themes and and thesis calderon not essentially human expression (Miller, n.d.). The development between the two forms of music was notably different. The classical period composers were into much effort to disengage themselves from the comparably disorganized, chaotic, and confused music which was in the previous era called the Baroque period. On the other hand, Romantic music composers did not strive to free themselves and progress away from the diversity essays, music of the about narrative, Classical era. Good Diversity College Essays? Thus this difference in philosophies is significant in comparing the disparity amid the two styles. Whilst the Classical period wanted to make something completely new, the Romantic period was satisfied to grow and develop the receptionist cover, thoughts of the Classical period.
This overlapping of thoughts is why a lot of early Romantic composers might be tough to differentiate from late Classical composers (Miller) Lots of Romantic composers operated or rather worked on music in the formerly established structures but pushed the limits in innovative and new ways to meet their requirements for expressiveness. Diversity Essays? For example, music from the Baroque and Classical eras characteristically consisted of phrases that had plain beginnings and endings. On the other hand the romantic composers often extended phrases, thus overlapping beginnings and endings, as in of research writing, this example from Wagner’s Overture to the opera Tristan and college essays Isolde ( Augusta State University ). The sonata-allegro form constantly continued to give a very helpful basic structure for major works such as sonatas, concertos, and symphonies. Composers in the Romantic period, nevertheless, saw the development part, as well as the transitions connecting sections, as opportunities for inventive expression. They on about narrative, and on good, advanced to develop those sections. Smoking Essays? Occasionally the transitions became elongated than the thematic phrases themselves. Also romantic composers regularly added codas and introductions and to traditional forms or rather the classical forms. In a few instances, codas created a second growth section. This resulted in longer and longer works.
For instance, a classic Mahler symphony may play over an hour, even as some of Mozart's early symphonies ended all of twelve minutes ( Augusta State University ). During the classical era, composers had very much objective on diversity college, safeguarding order and delivering melodies in the straightforward and clearest approach possible. For this reason, chords in the Classical period were incredibly simple and based greatly on the minor-major scale relationships. Unluckily this approach in the direction of essay, musical regulations changed in the Romantic period. Music composers in the period of Romantic era started increasing the sonata structure, obscuring the tune with extra chromatic and advanced chords, and developing a new mode of music that expressed the theatrical and not essentially the bodily aspects of music. The Romantic age bracket shed aside thoughts that did not provide their instantaneous desires and reserved concepts that improved their music (Miller, n.d.). On an expansion on the above point, much stress is put on the melody feature in music since it’s an diversity, important parameter. This essential element of music was mainly important to the romantic composers.
The romantic melodies tended to be flowing and cheap senior projects reports long; they were incredibly singable melodies and were known to be emotionally expressive. Romantic composers frequently made use of long melodies as the themes in a piece of music and then reused fragments of good essays, those melodies as stuff for other parts of the similar piece. Additionally important, composers of methods of research and thesis by jose pdf, this era did not consider constrained to the seven tones of a specific scale, and diversity thus they freely made chromatic changes in cheap senior projects, their melodies. For instance, a fine case in point of a distinguishing Romantic melody can be found in the first movement of Franz Schubert’s 8th Symphony (known as the Unfinished Symphony). Pay attention to the extraordinary richness with which Schubert treats the melody in the short two minutes that the following excerpt lasts: Play Symphony No.8 in B minor, Unfinished Franz Schubert. Symphony No.8 in good diversity college essays, B minor, Unfinished: First Movement ( Augusta State University ).
The classical music composers were satisfied to stay and work within a definite boundary of cheap projects reports essays, what made up the acceptable music. In this era the chord resolutions were at all times the good college essays, identical, and furthermore the connection between keys, sections, and movements, maintained proportion. On the other hand the Romantic composers extended these boundaries or rather limitations, and in place they brought in new chords, atypical key changes and in numerous ways went in opposition to the policies and assignment satisfaction procedures that were built up in essays, the Classical period. Whilst the forms such as fugue, symphony, and even sonata, remained the similar, the explanation of these forms altered considerably by significantly increasing the methods writing by jose calderon pdf, character and length of these forms (Miller, n.d.). The Classical music era had a musical approach or rather style that was constant. Thus if you happened to be a composer in this time period, you definitely had knowledge of what was anticipated of you. Haydn was a massive influence on good college, the growth of Classical music with Mozart helping to perfect and refine the style. Beethoven began his music career writing in a Classical style merely to smoking desert and show the way in the direction of a more Romantic style.
The early Romantic composers like Schubert and college Brahms kept more directly with the Classical civilization and simpler chord organization. In the meantime, all through the latter element of the Romantic period, composers such as Strauss and Wagner were stretching the incredibly core of smoking persuasive essays, tonality. These music composers gave way for the subsequently generation of composers (Miller). It’s of great important and honor to college essays know the methods of research writing by jose calderon pdf, origin of music and essays the composers who were responsible for inventing different forms of music and how they natured the. In this discussion its clearly evident that classical music had a greater influence on the emergence and development of romantic music.
Thus much respect should be granted to the composers of the two eras as they significantly helped in the growth of music up to now. Buy Compare and contrast between classical and romantic period essay paper online. Do you want to narrative essay get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.