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Individual report for group project

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annie john resume A significant voice in individual report for group, contemporary literature, Jamaica Kincaid (born 1949) is widely praised for education her works of short fiction, novels, and essays in individual report project, which she explores the tenuous relationship between mother and daughter as well as themes of anti-colonialism. A native of the island of Antigua, Kincaid is considered one of the most important women Caribbean writers. Over a career that has spanned more than three decades, Kincaid has earned a reputable place in the literary world for her highly personal, stylistic, and elements of personal narrative honest writings. Jamaica Kincaid was born Elaine Potter Richardson on individual report for group, May 25, 1949, in the capital city of about St. John's on Antigua, a small island in the West Indies that was colonized by the British in 1632 and achieved full independence in 1981. Her mother, Annie Richardson, was an emigre from Dominica. Individual? Her stepfather, David Drew, was a carpenter and cabinetmaker. Kincaid's maternal grandmother, a Carib Indian, also played an important role in her early life.

Kincaid's biological father, Roderick Potter, was never involved in her upbringing. Her family was poor: they had no electricity, running water, or plumbing in their home. Kincaid was an only child until she was nine, at which time the term on strategic first of her three brothers was born. Until their birth, Kincaid had enjoyed the sole attention of her mother, who taught her to individual report for group project, read when she was three and had given her a copy of the Oxford English Dictionary when she turned seven. However, with the arrival of her brothers, Kincaid's relationship with her mother changed dramatically. She was no longer a dependent young child and thesis education her importance in her mother's eyes was severely diminished because she was female. Although Kincaid was intellectually gifted, she was not given encouragement in the British public school she attended on the island. Her teachers frequently found her attitude rude and considered her a troublemaker. Nevertheless, she was an report avid reader and term papers on strategic spent much time at the city's library, getting to know and admire the individual report young librarian who worked there. Kincaid's love for books was so fierce that she stole some from the library and hid them under her family's porch. Of Personal Narrative Essay? The bookish and small child was not well liked by her peers, who often picked fights with her and individual project beat her up.

Discussing this period in her life, Kincaid recalled in a Kenyon Review interview with Moira Ferguson in 1994, I would come home with my clothes in tatters and my face scratched up, and my mother would take me back to ocr history a2 coursework, the person who had beaten me up and say 'fight, fight' and I couldn't fight. I would just cry and cry#8230; . Report? Eventually, after years of papers abuse, when she was 11, Kincaid finally did fight back and win. After that, she was no longer tormented and she actually took on a leadership role. As a girl there were few options available for Kincaid. She would have liked to have attended university in individual for group project, Antigua and remained there after becoming a teacher or a librarian, but she was not given that opportunity. Despite the shortcomings of her early education, she did acquire a strong background in English literature, studying the works of Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Keats, and top custom the King James version of the individual for group Bible.

Kincaid especially loved the top custom essay websites works of Charlotte Bronte, reading Jane Eyre numerous times. In 1966, shortly after turning 17, Kincaid was sent to the United States to work as an au pair for an affluent family in Scarsdale, New York. She was expected to send money home to her family, but she would not. She received letters from report home, but she did not open them. It was in this state of writing research self-exile that Kincaid would shape her new life away from the unhappiness she had felt in individual report for group, Antigua.

Shortly after leaving her job in Scarsdale, Kincaid found work for an Upper East Side family in New York City. After this move, she left no forwarding address and was cut off from top custom essay websites her family until her return to Antigua 20 years later. While working in New York, Kincaid continued her education at a community college, earned a high school equivalency diploma, and began taking photography courses at report project, the New School for Social Research. Essays The World? She later studied photography at Franconia College in New Hampshire on individual report project, a scholarship, though she never earned a college diploma. When asked in a 1996 interview with Dwight Garner in Salon if she had any aspirations to elements of personal essay, become a writer when she came to individual project, the United States, she stated flatly, None. Top Custom Essay? Absolutely none. [When] I first arrived I was incredibly depressed and lonely. I didn't know there was such a world as the literary world.

I didn't know anything, except maybe how to for group, put one foot in front of the other. Although Kincaid was not fully aware of her literary ambitions during her childhood and early years in New York, she had gained much from her voracious reading, all of which was of an English literary tradition. She had never been exposed to West Indian literature. When speaking to papers management, Ferguson, she acknowledged that as a child she would imagine stories and conversations in her head, but she never wrote them down. It was her experiences in photography that finally made her aware of writing. After watching the French film La Jete and reading Alain Robbe-Grillet, Kincaid felt her burst of inspiration. She told Ferguson, I began to write poems. Individual Report For Group Project? I began to write of my photographs#8212;what I would take and [how] I would set them up. Ocr History Scheme? I would look at what I had written down, and that is how I would take the photograph.

I would write down what I thought the for group project picture should feel like. Management? And I would try to take a picture of what I had written down. After three years as an au pair, Kincaid left to individual report for group project, become a secretary, model, and backup singer in a New York club. In 1970, with bleached blond hair, Kincaid enjoyed a freewheeling city lifestyle, sharing with Garner that she once attended a Halloween party dressed as Josephine Baker with only some bananas wrapped around her waist. She began to contribute pieces to Ingenue, a teen magazine. Her first published work, When I Was Seventeen, was an interview with Gloria Steinem about the notable feminist's own teenage years. In 1973, Elaine Potter Richardson changed her name to Jamaica Kincaid mainly to keep her anonymity since she feared her family would disapprove of her writing and mock her efforts. After her contributions to top custom essay, Ingenue and the Village Voice, Kincaid began to individual project, make contacts with members of New York's literary society. One friend, Michael O'Donoghue, who was a founding writer for Saturday Night Live, introduced Kincaid to George Trow, who wrote the Talk of the Town column for New Yorker magazine.

A strong friendship developed between the two and Kincaid began to accompany Trow when he researched bits for thesis his column, adding her observations. William Shawn, editor of the New Yorker, ultimately asked Kincaid to write her own Talk of the Town piece. She submitted notes of her observations of the West Indian Day parade, and Shawn published the notes as a finished column. Beginning in individual for group project, 1976, Kincaid contributed regularly to ocr history mark scheme, the magazine as a staff writer under Shawn's mentorship. In 1978, she published her first work of fiction, the short story Girl, in the New Yorker. Kincaid acknowledged that Shawn helped her develop her voice and encouraged her to continue writing stories. Along with the significant development as a writer Kincaid received while working at report project, the New Yorker, she also met Allen Shawn, a classical composer and son of Ted Shawn. Ocr History A2 Coursework? They were married in 1979.

In Girl and report project nine other sketches, often denoted prose poems by critics, that appeared in the 1983 collection At the Bottom of the River, Kincaid plumbed her early life in Antigua, developing a series of fictional narratives centering on a young Caribbean girl. The stories were marked by a lyrically poetic, incantatory, rhythmic voice. Perhaps the most-discussed piece in the collection is Girl, which is one sentence uttered by elements essay a mother to her child, listing in repetitive scrutiny a series of commands. Her breakthrough collection earned Kincaid the Morton Dauwen Zabel Award from the for group American Academy and writing a literature review for a research project Institute of Arts and Letters. Kincaid followed the publication of At the Bottom of the River with the slim novel Annie John in report project, 1985. In this work, Kincaid writes a coming-of-age tale that focuses on the life of a young Caribbean girl. The theme of the mother-daughter relationship in which a mother devastatingly severs her bond with her daughter is at its core. Term Papers On Strategic Management? This work was well received and critics praised its rhythmic quality, evocative images, and universal themes. Many critics have noted that her most significant theme, that of the mother-daughter bond, represents the larger issue of the report for group project powerful and the powerless, particularly as this relationship operates in a colonial culture. Elements Narrative Essay? The personal nature of so much of Kincaid's fiction is one of its salient features, and she admits that her difficult relationship with her own mother inspired her writing, though she maintains it was an act of individual report project salvation to write her thoughts down. Writing is really such an expression of thesis about and family personal growth, she admitted to Ferguson.

I don't know how else to live. For me it is a matter of saving my life. For Group Project? I don't know what I would do if I didn't write. It is review, a matter of report living in the deepest way. Noting the autobiographical element to about the world, her writing, she asserted that My writing has been very autobiographical. The events are true to me. They may not be true to individual report, other people.

I think it is fair for my mother to say, 'This is about education and family, not me.' It is only the mother in report for group, the books I've written. It is only the about education mother as the person I used to be perceived her#8230; . For me it was really an act of saving my life, so it had to be autobiographical. With the publication of for group project her nonfiction work A Small Place in 1988 and her third fictional work, Lucy, in 1991, Kincaid was no longer the darling of the literary world. Reviewers were divided over the angry tone expressed in both works. In A Small Place, described as an anti-travel narrative, Kincaid returns to Antigua after having been gone for writing research 20 years. She ultimately skewers the white tourist who visits Antigua with no thought to the poverty and the long-endured oppression of the colonized natives, while also pointing out the corruption of the post-independent Antiguan government. Bob Gottlieb, editor of the New Yorker at the time, refused to publish any of the work in the magazine due to its angry tone. In her native Antigua, the government issued an informal ban on Kincaid, restricting her visits to the island from 1985 to individual report for group, 1992. Seemingly unaccepting of her resentment and term management frustrations, V.R.

Peterson of People compared Kincaid to West Indian writer V.S. Naipaul, maintaining that where Naipaul is humane and appreciative of the dark corners of the human condition, Kincaid seems only vituperative and intemperate. Individual For Group Project? Kincaid drew similar criticism for the novel Lucy. Annie John ends with the about protagonist leaving Antigua at the age of 17, and Lucy begins with the eponymous protagonist leaving the Caribbean at age 19 to come to the United States to work as an au pair for a wealthy New York City family. Commentators note a more bitter tone to individual project, this novel in which Lucy will not bend to the powers that hold sway. However, most still commend Kincaid's storytelling abilities. Reviewing the novel, the Newsweek book critic summarized Vinegary Lucy doesn't bother to be likable, but her shrewdness and top custom essay websites her gumption make her good company all the same. Kincaid returned to her familiar theme of the mother-daughter relationship and the cruel outcomes of colonization with her dark portrayal of seventy-year-old Xuela Claudette Richardson, the narrator of her novel The Autobiography of My Mother published in 1996.

The novel, set on the island of Dominica, presents the individual life of the narrator and the mother whom she never knew who had died in childbirth. Top Custom? Xuela's life is mired in loss, and, as Andrea Stuart noted in the New Statesman, [ Autobiography of individual report for group My Mother ] is a2 coursework mark, simultaneously one of the most beautifully written books I have read, and one of the most alienating. In 1997 this complex novel was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for fiction and the PEN Faulkner Award. In 1997 Kincaid published My Brother, a memoir of her youngest brother Devon Drew, who died of individual report AIDS in 1996 at the age of 33. This highly personal work addresses not only the writing a literature for a relationship Kincaid had with her brother#8212;the two were alike in individual report, personality though they had spent little time together#8212;as well as the continued themes of a2 coursework her resentful relationship with her mother and the devastating outcomes of a post-colonial culture. Reviewing the work in Time John Skow laments that while there is deep, honest feeling here #8230; it seems long past time for this gifted writer to tell us something new. In response to such criticism, Kincaid related to Garner, I am not troubled #8230; to project, be seen to be of one whole cloth#8212;that all that I write is a further development of something. Perhaps it is term papers on strategic management, musical in that way.

My work is a chord that develops in many different ways. I couldn't help but write these books. Central to this work is Kincaid's discovery after Drew has died that he was homosexual and the oppressive secret he had kept throughout his life. Kincaid's ability to address the personal themes within a memoir that, according to individual report project, Brad Goldfarb in writing review project, Interview, is an almost ruthless desire to get at the truth and individual report still relate them to such universal themes as familial bonds and the overarching question of post-colonial issues, helped her earn a nomination for a National Book Award. As a child, Kincaid had been surrounded by plants on Antigua, and her interest in gardening developed steadily throughout her adult life. Essays The World? In 1985, when her husband accepted a teaching position in Bennington, Vermont, the couple moved to this idyllic community with their two young children, Annie and individual report Harold. Leaving the confines of the city, Kincaid had ample space to garden, and mark she published My Garden (Book ) in report for group project, 1999. This collection of essays marks a departure from the embittered tone of her previous works and was heralded as entertaining yet intelligent due to Kincaid's artful connection between gardening and philosophical and poetic reflections. While most reviewers concede that all of Kincaid's works, despite at of personal essay, times her harsh tone, are complex and individual for group stylistically unique, with My Garden (Book ), Kincaid seemed to websites, have expressed similarly profound observations in a more gentle, even humorous tone. Mr. Individual Report? Potter, Kincaid's tenth book, is a return to a West Indian setting and management characters from individual report project her family background.

The narrator, Elaine Cynthia Potter Richardson, ruminates over the empty life of top custom essay websites Roderick Potter, her father who has had no part in her life. Individual Report For Group? Acknowledging the of personal narrative characters' obvious connections to Kincaid's own life, Susan Walker asserts in the Toronto Star that it's unlikely any reader will mistake these characters for actual people. They are too encased in literary language, too distilled, almost mythic in the way they come to for group project, represent the about the world way many people's lives are shaped by history. While many of Kincaid's works are short in length, they have never failed to elicit respect, if at times reluctantly. Kincaid herself is a forthright person who speaks candidly. After she left the New Yorker in report, 1995, she spoke quite openly about her disgust at the vulgarity that the on strategic magazine produced under the editorship of Tina Brown. Her frankness, however, is always tinged with humor as she told Garner, [Brown's] actually got some nice qualities. But she can't help but be attracted to individual report for group project, the coarse and vulgar. I wish there was some vaccine#8212;I would sneak it up on her. Essay Websites? Kincaid has been awarded honorary degrees from Williams College (1991), Long Island College (1991), Amherst College (1995), Bard College (1997), and Middlebury College (1998).

She continues to report, write from her home in Bennington, teaching creative writing at Bennington College and Harvard University. Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 13, Gale, 1994. Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography Supplement: Modern Writers, 1900-1998, Gale, 1998. Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2001. Essays About? Contemporary Black Biography, Volume 4, Gale, 1993. Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale, 2002. Contemporary Novelists, 7th ed., St. James Press, 2001.

Feminist Writers, St. James Press, 1996. Notable Black American Women, Book 1, Gale, 1992. St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd ed., St. James Press, 1999. Advocate, December 9, 1997. Christian Science Monitor, January 17, 1996. Essence, March 1996. Individual Project? Interview, October 1997.

Kenyon Review, Winter 1994. Kirkus Reviews, March 1, 2002. Library Journal, October 1, 1999. Narrative Essay? Literary Cavalcade, February 2001. Maclean's, June 3, 2002. Mother Jones, September/October 1997. Nation, June 15, 1985; February 18, 1991; February 5, 1996; November 3, 1997. New Statesman, October 11, 1996. Individual For Group? New York Times Book Review, December 5, 1999.

Newsweek, October 1, 1990. People, September 26, 1988; December 15, 1997. Salon, January 13, 1996; December 20, 1999. Time, February 5, 1996; November 10, 1997. Times, July 20, 2002. Toronto Star, May 27, 2002. Women's Review of Books, March 2000; September 2002. Jamaica Kincaid, BBC World Service, (February 11, 2003). Jamaica Kincaid, Voices from the writing a literature review project Gaps: Women Writers of Color, (February 11, 2003).

Words near Jamaica Kincaid in the dictionary. Create and save customized word lists. Sign up today and start improving your vocabulary! Please set a username for yourself. Report For Group Project? People will see it as Author Name with your public word lists.

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medieval music essay When the Early Music FAQ project began in 1994, we wanted to provide beginning or intermediate listeners with a concise and straightforward listing of recorded materials which would help them to survey the repertory in sound. In retrospect, the availability of individual project CD recordings has become even more haphazard over the years, and elements narrative, maintaining such a list in a fully worthwhile state has become nearly impossible. Although the report for group recording-based selections continue to have their merits, especially given the alternate selections included in the individual links, creating a survey which does not mention recordings seems at least as worthwhile today. The recording-oriented reader is writing a literature for a research advised to peruse this survey, and individual for group project, then use our CD index to search for suitable recordings, ultimately using our purchasing information links (or other means) to determine if they are presently available. Top Custom Websites! Given the here-today, gone-tomorrow nature of the recording business, the extra research work seems unavoidable, as unfortunate as that may be.

Of course, another possibility is access to a good music library, and this option is individual heartily recommended wherever feasible. It is certainly the elements essay only fiscally prudent means for the reader who wants to consult scores. Plainchant and Monophonic Sacred Music. Especially upon considering the upcoming discussion, it can be difficult to individual remember that the majority of term papers liturgical music throughout the medieval era was plainchant. Gregorian chant is often used as a label, but the project term plainchant is intended to top custom essay websites be more inclusive. It indicates a single sacred melody, without accompaniment, sung by a single person or by a choir in which each member sings the same part. In many respects, medieval chant is the same chant which can be heard in monasteries today, and report for group, much of the most important chant (or plainsong) was composed by early medieval saints. Another word to describe plainchant is monophony , which - as opposed to polyphony - means a single sound, whether sacred or not.

The concept of mode was created to categorize plainchant, and is something which can often apply to polyphony in a2 coursework scheme, only strained fashion. Plainchant manuscripts began to survive in some quantity in Western Europe from report about 890. There were some isolated and intriguing examples prior to this period, but they pose many difficulties of interpretation. Term Papers On Strategic! Generally speaking, as chant evolved from the medieval era into modern times, its rhythm became more regular and less varied. Report For Group! This fact is of personal narrative essay partly conjectural, as early chant notation did not include rhythm. The medieval era saw the creation of many varieties of plainchant, especially if one includes those of Byzantine provenance. Even restricted to Western Europe, as this survey will be, there were different styles derived from different liturgical rites, such as Ambrosian (Milanese) chant and Mozarabic (Spanish) chant. There were also variants in individual for group project, use within the writing a literature review for a research same rite, namely Roman chant, Sarum (English) chant, and even Cistercian (a monastic order) chant. The type of chant mainly identified with Gregorian today is what might be called Frankish or Carolingian chant, the style installed in France under Charlemagne, with the help of advisors from Rome. Beyond truly liturgical music, i.e. music used during church services, the medieval era saw a wide variety of monophonic non-liturgical music written on sacred themes, usually in individual report for group project, Latin.

This is generally called para-liturgical music. Today, one very popular composer of essay such music is Hildegard von Bingen (c.1098-1179), a mystic abbess from Germany. Hildegard has become almost a cult figure, buoyed by her unconventional philosophical views and her large body of surviving music. Although one can easily get the mistaken idea that Hildegard was the individual only person writing para-liturgical chant in about the world, those days, or that she was widely known, there were many other composers writing in individual for group, related styles. In Paris, the intellectual center of Europe at the time, the on strategic management most famous composer of para-liturgical music was Peter Abélard (1079-1142), who is also well-known in literary circles for his affair with the noblewoman Heloïse. Although plainchant forms the largest surviving body of medieval music, by the later twelfth century its technical significance diminished. That is to say, new plainchant remained rather similar to old plainchant, and report for group, the most widely noted developments in Western music occurred in the areas of secular poetry and polyphony. About! Music historians focus on polyphony, because the development of polyphony helps us to understand the origins of report for group Western harmony.

Remember, though, that an ocr history mark scheme important part of enjoying early music is enjoying it for its own sake, and report project, not because it points to elements of personal narrative something else. For Group Project! In that sense, plainchant is mark scheme relatively neglected by performers listeners today (although I admit that I feel the same way, and report project, am more interested in polyphony). Although most churches sang only plainchant on most Sundays, polyphonic compositions began to ocr history scheme appear for important feasts at rich locales. Music became a vanity item. Aside from sparse or textbook (such as the report famous Musica Enchiriadis , c.900) examples, the earliest surviving polyphony appeared in a literature review for a research project, the eleventh century. Individual Project! It is widely believed that polyphony, having one person sing one part while another person sings another, began with improvisation, i.e. that singers added their own creative embellishments simultaneous with sung plainchant. This was a variation on another creative addition to plainchant, troping , which is the insertion of elements extra texts and melodies between verses of well-known chants. Important tropes, which are still basically plainchant, survived from the ninth century, and became something of an independent genre.

The surviving polyphony of the eleventh century is contained mainly in what are called the Chartres Manuscripts and the Winchester Troper (c.1000), and it was from individual project this point onward that Western music history seems so much more eventful. The earliest polyphony was called organum , and involved adding a higher, faster-moving melody to an existing plainchant. The earliest surviving organum in staff notation (unlike Chartres ), consequently attracting a good deal of attention, was that from St.-Martial de Limoges in Aquitaine. Essay Websites! Closely related in style was that of the Codex Calixtinus (c.1170), which was carried to Spain in the pilgrimage for St. James of Compostela. Individual Project! Shortly afterward, organum was fully embraced in Paris, and was composed in volume during and after the elements of personal construction of the individual report project famous Notre Dame cathedral (beginning c.1163). The first major compilation was devoted to a set of two-voice organum for essay websites the full liturgical year, Magnus liber organi , apparently supervised by the composer Leonin (fl.c.1150-1201), to whom no works can be attributed with certainty. Leonin was succeeded by Perotin (fl.c.1200), about individual report whose life even less is known, but some of whose music can be identified with confidence.

Together with other composers, Perotin added voices and refined some of Leonin's work, forming a broader repertory still identified with the Magnus liber . His four-voice compositions, Viderunt omnes Sederunt principes , are the most widely acclaimed pieces in the style of polyphony which has come to be called Notre Dame. Besides adding more independent voices to what began as a two-part form of organum, yielding three- and even four-part music, composers of the Notre Dame school expanded the field of para-liturgical music by narrative essay, using original melodies as the basis for polyphonic music. This form, which is not indebted to plainchant, is called the conductus . Besides the monophonic conductus, composers such as Perotin created the polyphonic conductus, an essentially free form for harmonic invention. This period also saw the development of mensural notation, by individual, which the lengths of notes were measured. This was the beginning of notated rhythm. Narrative! The music of Notre Dame was so famous that it was copied far wide into later songbooks, including the famous Codex Las Huelgas (c.1325) of Spain and the Carmina Burana (c.1230) of Germany. The latter has become widely known in Carl Orff's modern setting, but mainly contains settings of Notre Dame troubadour (see below) melodies using different lyrics, in individual for group, what was at that time an old-fashioned form of notation. The period during which polyphony rose to prominence in liturgical music, namely the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, was also the time from which secular songs began to survive.

It is difficult for us to believe today that there were not all manner of songs sung by ordinary people in a literature review, the vernacular, i.e. their own local language rather than Latin. Individual Report! However, while this was likely true during the early medieval era, it was not a phenomenon considered worthy of top custom note or preservation. It was not until the era of the troubadours, often taken to begin with Guillaume of Poitiers the ninth Duke of Aquitaine (1071-1126), that secular music began to take on report, a life of its own in the surviving literature. The troubadours, together with Western vernacular poetry as a whole, came from southern France and wrote in what is sometimes called the langue d'Oc or the Occitan language. The troubadours were generally aristocrats (their peasant associates were called jongleurs ) who took an interest in essays the world, writing songs about love war. It was at least partly chivalric concerns which initiated this culture of courtly love, providing themes which were to prove dominant in Western art song for the next three centuries. As was plainchant, troubadour songs were monophonic, although today many people believe that they were often accompanied by one or more instruments (generally harp or lute, or maybe fiddle) playing improvised elaborations of the main melody. Unfortunately, not nearly as many melodies survived as do texts, and they sometimes survived separately. This makes troubadour performances rather more dependent on the whims of the performers than some other music of this era, but that may also have been true at the time. Individual Project! The troubadour phenomenon spread quickly to Catalonia and northern Italy, and included a prominent role for ocr history scheme female composers, called trobairitz . Prominent troubadours included Bernart de Ventadorn (c.1125-c.1195) and Guiraut Riquier (c.1230-1292), the so-called last of the troubadours. Much of the decline in report for group, Occitan culture can be traced to the Crusade against the Cathars (1209-1255), and its resulting destruction.

By that time, the artistic lead returned to essays northern France. In northern France, or in for group project, the French language proper, composers of secular verse were called trouvères , meaning one who finds or discovers (as did trobador in Occitan). Trouvère songs were generally more regular in top custom essay websites, meter, and even became polyphonic in the hands of late trouvères Adam de la Halle (d.c.1288) Jehan de Lescurel (d.1304). We will return to individual report project the important development of polyphonic secular song soon. Besides southern France and environs, the secular phenomenon spread across Europe, often combined with sacred themes. One of the most important collections in all of medieval music was the Cantigas de Santa María, compiled by King Alfonso X of Castille (1221-1284). These songs in the Galician language adopted the Virgin Mary as the lady of about and family traditional troubadour love themes, setting Alfonso's poetry to troubadour and troubadour-inspired melodies. This is one of the most popular collections of medieval music today, containing over 400 monophonic songs. Traveling aristocratic singers were also a phenomenon in Germany, and were known as minnesängers . By the 1500s, their descendants would be known as meistersingers , and later be an inspiration for Richard Wagner.

The most important figures of early minnesang were Walther von der Vogelweide (c.1170-c.1230) Neidhart von Reuental (c.1180-c.1240), and it is they who set the individual report tone for mark later German lyric. In England, only individual report for group project, a handful of vernacular songs survived from the entire medieval era, but they are often intriguing for their uniqueness. One particularly famous example is the polyphonic canon (or rota) Sumer is icumen in (c.1250). Finally, and essays, note that we have now traversed the individual report project countries of Western Europe, Italian vernacular song in this period was closely intertwined with sacred themes. In laude surviving in a pair of writing a literature review for a prominent manuscripts ( Laudario di Cortona , c.1250 Laudario di Magliabechiano , c.1300-50), Italian composers created a sort of composite folk genre, singing the praise of holy figures in Italian. Although the individual project laud did not represent a technical development in music history, it persisted as a distinct Italian genre into the 1500s, including examples in Ars Nova (see below) style and even some composed by prominent composers of the Renaissance. Although written in monophonic fashion, this music was apparently performed as a sort of heterophony called polifonia simplice , making ample use of the citizenry of the developing cities of the time. The motet is a form which was to have a long history in Western music.

It arose from a2 coursework mark elaborating the cadences of the great polyphonic works of Perotin et al., called clausulas . These were the fastest and report, most technical parts of organum at the time, and the ingenious composers of the thirteenth century soon had the of personal narrative essay idea to add voices with different texts (the motetus , from the individual Latin for word) to the original. Papers Management! The motet was then originally a polyphonic composition with more than one text sung simultaneously. Some had three or four, often in both French Latin. This music can be quite intriguing, but is individual report for group project also difficult to appreciate on a single hearing. Unfortunately for our historical curiosity, the top custom essay websites development of the motet was mostly anonymous. These early motets survived in manuscript collections such as Montpellier (c.1270-c.1300), La Clayette (c.1260), and Bamberg (c.1260-90). Eventually this style of composition came to be called Ars Antiqua , meeting some of its final elaborations in individual report for group project, the work of composers such as Petrus de Cruce (fl.c.1290). In this period, scholastic composers such as Petrus were also partly theorists, devising means of expanding the rhythmic notation of the Ars Antiqua by subdividing rhythmic intervals (in this case, yielding so-called Petronian notation), resulting in highly compact pieces. Even more radical was the notation of the essays the world Ars Nova , usually credited to report Philippe de Vitry (c.1291-1361), and outlined in a now-lost treatise of that name. This was a self-conscious development by Parisian scholastics to change the way polyphony was written, both rhythmically and ocr history, harmonically. It involved creating repeated rhythmic figures called isorhythms , as well as a new approach to individual for group consonance and dissonance.

Whereas Ars Antiqua polyphony took a rather free approach to combining intervals, Ars Nova polyphony adopted restrictions which were intended to emphasize independence of line. Throughout this period, however, the writing a literature research project open fifth was used for report for group fully stable cadences. Websites! Motets of the individual report for group project period often contained bitter sarcasm and complicated contemporary allusions, meeting something of a climax in the satirical Roman de Fauvel (1316). This was perhaps history's first multimedia production, combining intricate music with artwork and poetry to form a unified narrative. Secular Polyphony of the Ars Nova. By far, the leading composer of his age was Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377). In his hands, the Ars Nova style lost any semblance of scholastic artificiality, as even his Latin motets became models of eloquence.

Building on the style of the late trouvères, Machaut's greatest achievement was in polyphonic secular songwriting. Education And Family! Although Machaut continued to individual project write secular monophony, in the lengthy lai and more compact virelai forms, his work in the polyphonic ballade and elements essay, rondeau forms was to prove decisive for subsequent generations of songwriters. Machaut was the greatest poet of individual project his age, and it was his own poetry he set to polyphony, providing a unified vision which undoubtedly helped to yield the term clarity of texture for which he is known. Machaut's work survived in a series of individual for group project carefully prepared manuscripts, the compilation of which he himself apparently supervised. The French Ars Nova style arrived in Italy not much later, first in the Codex Rossi of Venice (c.1340), and then with greater force in Florence, ultimately appearing in such grand compilations as the Squarcialupi Codex (c.1410).

There, such composers as the blind organist Francesco Landini (c.1325-1397) perfected native Italian songwriting in the Ars Nova style, a style specifically acknowledged as French at the time. This was the beginning of the madrigal , but it was as yet a form with no real resemblance to the later Italian songs of the same name (see below). A modest quantity of instrumental dances ( istanpitta , etc.) survived from this period, forming a major component of the very small amount of surviving medieval instrumental music. One can also perceive the beginnings of modern life in the Italian cities, and writing a literature review for a research project, perhaps some humanist ideals (see below) in report project, the settings of Landini and top custom essay websites, others. In the fourteenth century, for the first time, secular music had the upper hand in artistic developments. However, sacred music was not neglected. The first mass cycles, thematically related sequences of sections of the Mass Ordinary, a form which was to prove so significant for later generations of for group project composers, were written in this period. The earliest such surviving cycle was the anonymous Messe de Tournai (c.1330). There were a few others compiled in the period: Sorbonne , Toulouse , Barcelona , as well as the famous Messe de Notre Dame by elements essay, Machaut.

Not only was Machaut's cycle more integrated than the individual report for group anonymous cycles, whose movements may have been by writing review research project, different composers, but it is perhaps the best-known single work of medieval music today. Although Machaut's innovation in this area was not copied directly, it is a testament to his creative ability as a composer. While these cycles can seem more intriguing to us today, giving as they do an apparent glimpse of early symphonic thought, various individual mass movements from this period were of intricate and beautiful construction. Many of these mass movements (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei) were attributed to individual for group specific composers, although little is ocr history a2 coursework mark known of project them aside from term papers on strategic management their names. Many others were anonymous. This was the period of the Babylonian Captivity of the individual project Papacy in Avignon, and prominent manuscripts from that region were Ivrea (c.1370) Apt (c.1405). Intricate French style, especially in the person of the enigmatic Pycard, also appeared in the English Old Hall manuscript (see below). Finally, a uniquely Spanish example was the Llibre Vermell of Montserrat (1399), an about the world unusual combination of sacred folk elements into a cycle of pilgrim songs. Although Machaut's mass cycle was not imitated, his secular songs were aggressively copied by the next generation of composers. As with their contemporaries who wrote sacred music, and sometimes they were the report for group project same men, little is thesis known of these composers beyond their names, and not always that. The style of individual report project music does, however, have a colorful title, Ars Subtilior , a term coined in modern times to mean more subtle art.

These composers took songwriting in France Italy to thesis about education and family new levels of sophistication. In fact, their strange harmonies rhythmic syncopations were once considered unplayable, but now have become relatively popular. These composers revelled in subtlety, combining literary allusion and oblique quotation with a free-wheeling, almost dream-like musical idiom. It has been suggested that a group called the fumeurs may have been involved in drug use, but the report for group idea is writing a literature review research probably untenable. The complications of this style reached intricate heights, including staff notation in the shape of individual report for group project circles or harps, and papers on strategic management, puzzles to be solved before perceiving the composers' meaning. This was especially true of the famous Chantilly Codex (c.1390), whereas the other prominent Ars Subtilior manuscripts, Modena (c.1410) Turin (c.1415), extended this style musically. The latter was a unique representative of the musical culture of Cyprus under French rule, preserved only by virtue of coming to Europe as a wedding gift. By the early 1400s, the Ars Subtilior style became less self-involved in individual, the hands of composers such as Johannes Ciconia (c.1370-1412), and soon gave way to writing a literature research project a smoother harmonic idiom. Native English style did not follow the angular animated rhythmic ideas of the individual project French Ars Nova, and essay, consequently retained a more subdued regular harmonic style based on discant. The resulting style made frequent use of the interval of the for group project third, considered a mild dissonance in medieval theory, and consequently its rise to about prominence was a major part of the historical transition from medieval to modern sonorities.

Together with a few French-style pieces, the Old Hall manuscript (c.1400) contains numerous brief sacred pieces using these flowing triadic harmonies. The sonority arising from such a use of thirds was called the English Countenance, and became popular in Continental Europe through English influence in Burgundy in the wake of the Hundred Years War. In addition, prominent English composers John Dunstable (c.1390-1453) Leonel Power (c.1380-1445) decisively took up the cyclic mass, beginning a trend which would establish it as a leading musical genre heading into the 1500s. More regular phrasing and prominent use of the individual report for group interval of the third soon found its way into European music as a whole, and writing review for a research project, it was composers from the individual project area around present-day Belgium who took the lead in developing contrapuntal technique over the subsequent generations. The first such composer to top custom essay follow what was to become a fairly typical career path was Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), who also inaugurated the period from individual for group which we tend to have documentary details of the lives of prominent composers. Education! As Machaut had before him, Dufay was able to unify some of the stylistic trends of his day, as well as to individual report project excel in virtually every form of composition. Perhaps the most telling signs of the increasing prominence of polyphony were the term papers on strategic management numerous, straightforward chant harmonizations Dufay wrote while working for the Papal Choir.

By this time, the individual report older organum style stood on its head, with the chant appearing in the highest voice, rather than the lowest. Dufay is of personal narrative essay now known to have written plainchant as well. During the early phase of his career, Dufay wrote the last largest examples of the isorhythmic motet, an Ars Nova genre. His Nuper rosarum flores in this form is particularly famous, written as it was for the dedication of Brunelleschi's dome in Florence (1436). Other isorhythmic motets were connected to other landmark events of the era, heralding a cosmopolitan mindset which tangibly linked music to Renaissance art architecture. The musical Renaissance is therefore placed with Dufay in many chronologies, although this is an essentially arbitrary selection. For Group Project! As we shall see, other critical changes which shaped the modern or High Renaissance style in music did not occur for ocr history scheme decades.

In fact, his isorhythmic motets show Dufay working in a medieval idiom. Report For Group Project! Intonation during this period is also believed to have remained largely the Pythagorean tuning of the medieval era, but some areas do show signs of change. Although thirds were now quite prominent, they did not become standard in closing cadences for nearly a century. As so many northern composers were to do, after several important posts in Italy, Dufay returned to northern France to end his career. There he wrote his last cantus firmus masses, combining the cyclical ideas of the English with his own gift for melody and French eloquence. Essays! In elaborate mass cycles such as Missa l'homme armé , Missa Ecce ancilla Domini , and Missa Ave regina cælorum , Dufay set the individual report for group tone for what was to become the most important form for the next generation. English composers working in term on strategic, Burgundy, such as Walter Frye (d.1474), also continued to expand upon their native cantus firmus ideas.

The most significant example may have been the anonymous Missa Caput (c.1440), once thought to be by Dufay. Cantus firmus technique places an existing melody, which may or may not be plainchant, in individual, a middle voice (the tenor), allowing voices both above and below to create surrounding harmonic texture. Mass cycles were typically unified by using the same cantus firmus melody in each movement. Ocr History A2 Coursework Mark Scheme! Throughout the fifteenth century, this technique was adopted in increasingly creative fashion. Dufay was also a prolific composer of chansons (French for songs). There his music showed a concision and boldness of expression which helped to individual report for group project distinguish it most clearly from that of the previous generation.

Dufay was not alone, however, as career Burgundian court composer Gilles Binchois (c.1400-1460) was at ocr history scheme, least as well-known for his own chansons. Binchois' songs were representative of an impressive outflowing of French courtly song in the period. They were basically conservative in poetic form, and featured achingly flowing harmonies in contrary motion. These chanson-writers elaborated on the same themes of report for group love devotion as did Machaut. Top Custom! The conservative style was developed throughout the report for group fifteenth century, and was codified in large manuscripts such as the websites Chansonnier Cordiforme (c.1475).

It met something of a climax with the intricate chansons of Antoine Busnoys (c.1430-1492), after which it yielded to humanist concerns of report for group project text-setting (see below) and elements of personal narrative, more extroverted expression, even as Burgundian composers such as La Rue (see below) worked to report extend the websites old style. The ubiquitousness of the for group project Burgundian style during this era can easily be perceived in other countries. England, as it had to this date, offered rather little in elements of personal essay, the way of surviving secular music, with the individual report for group English examples in Burgundy naturally being of similar construction. Term Papers On Strategic Management! In Italy, native composition from the era of Landini gave way to northerners, although Dufay did oblige by writing some songs in Italian. The most interesting southern example of the period may have been the Cancionero de Montecassino (c.1480), compiled under Aragonese rule in individual report project, Naples, and of personal essay, featuring songs in various languages (together with sacred music, including settings by Dufay) collected over decades. This was also the era from individual project which instrumental music began to survive in any quantity, especially in the form of papers on strategic instrumental transcriptions of vocal works, such as in the Buxheimer Orgelbuch (c.1450-c.1470). Many types of instruments were known, although how they were used in performances of vocal music is a source of contention today. Besides the organ (of the cathedral and chamber varieties), both the harpsichord clavichord appeared in the fifteenth century. Instruments of report more modest technical construction, often with hazy histories, were grouped into loud soft ensembles called alta capella bassa capella . The former consisted of converted folk instruments, often used for elements of personal narrative outdoor play: shawms, bagpipes, trumpets, and individual report project, pipes of various sorts, sometimes with percussion. The latter consisted of the traditional aristocratic accompaniment instruments (harp lute), other plucked strings such as the cittern, the developing recorder, as well as the a literature bowed-string predecessors of the violin (viol, vielle, or fiddle).

Use of the symphonia or hurdy-gurdy seems to have become less prominent since the middle ages. Instruments tended to report for group be grouped homogeneously in research, performance, not for variety of sound, such that 3 lutes might play an adaptation of a 3-part chanson. Perhaps the most imposing legacy of this entire era was the body of individual report project large-scale works of vocal polyphony created by review research, northern composers during the decades around 1500. In this, the mass cycle took pride of place with its expanded vocal ranges clarified functions, as well as its increasingly creative array of unifying techniques. These masses became veritable symphonies. However, it should be remembered that during a real, liturgical performance, the individual project movements of the symphony were separated by long periods of scheme religious activity as well as plainchant, the latter perhaps harmonized in some locations. The motet was also a highly significant genre in the fifteenth century, especially because of its variable text and opportunity for personal expression, but was rather different from its original form. By the era of the report for group project Franco-Flemish masters, motets tended to have a single text (although they sometimes had more), and were almost entirely sacred in content. Top Custom Essay! The thirteenth century motet had been primarily a secular genre. For Group Project! Motets were composed especially on mark, Marian antiphons (plainchant referring to individual for group project the Virgin Mary), as well as on more personal texts selected by composers, perhaps extracted from essays about Biblical sources or referring to contemporary events.

The mass, by contrast, used a fixed text. Other large-scale genres emerged, such as the Requiem or mass for individual report for group project the dead, with its differing text, as well as settings of the lamentations. In the generation following Dufay, the most prominent composer was Johannes Ockeghem (c.1410-1497), court composer to three kings of France. Ockeghem was credited with giving the bass voice an independent character in contrapuntal texture, as well as expanding the range of the on strategic management cyclic mass by unifying it with means other than a cantus firmus or by varying the individual way the cantus firmus is deployed in different sections. A2 Coursework Scheme! His Requiem is the earliest surviving polyphonic setting, and popular today for its gravity. Ockeghem is also known for a handful of fine motets, as well as for songs following the idiom of for group his teacher Binchois. The most prominent composer of the generation following Ockeghem was Josquin Desprez (c.1455-1521).

Josquin's career paralleled Dufay's, beginning in the north, and leading to prestigious appointments in Italy, including at the Vatican. Josquin also returned to about and family northern France later in life, where he continued to report compose some of his most famous music. Josquin, generally known by his first name, was one of the most important composers in Western musical history, one of the men most responsible for shaping subsequent musical style. Although the canon, or the repetition of a melody in a different voice, had long been used as a contrapuntal device, Josquin pioneered the technique of thesis education and family pervasive imitation , by individual report for group, which the entire contrapuntal structure was formed via repetition of one melody in different times in ocr history mark scheme, other voices. This technique was the ancestor of the modern fugue . Josquin was also sensitive to text-setting concerns of the time (see below), adopting elements of word-painting which would become part of the madrigal style (see below), as well as further simplifying the melismatic melodies sometimes florid counterpoint of the previous generation. These factors contributed to individual project Petrucci's decision to make Josquin the first composer to whom a complete printed collection was devoted (Venice, 1502). Josquin's most characteristic music is found in his motets, where the freedom to a literature review for a choose the texts provided him with an opportunity to let his musical imagination respond to them. Among numerous works, the report for group motets Ave Maria , Stabat Mater , and Miserere mei are particularly popular. All composers of this era had a predilection for reusing melodies found elsewhere, as a sort of homage, and so e.g.

Josquin's Stabat Mater reused the tenor melody of Binchois' chanson Comme femme desconfortée . Prominent among Josquin's mass cycles are Missa de beata Virgine , Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariæ , and Missa Pange lingua . The latter is elements narrative believed to be his final setting, in harmonies remarkably close to the original plainsong. Report For Group Project! The Missa Hercules Dux Ferrariæ illustrates the predilection of the era for coded melodies, with a cantus firmus derived from the name of the Duke of Ferrara, site of one of Josquin's most lucrative appointments (1503). Although Josquin is not particularly known for ocr history mark his chanson writing, examples such as Mille regretz were popular models for composers of the succeeding generation. He also wrote the famous motet-chanson Déploration sur la mort de Ockeghem , showing a tangible connection to report for group what has been presumed to be his teacher. Although subsequent history has prioritized Josquin over other composers of his era, his was a remarkably creative time for music, yielding many other composers of very high merit. Prominent masters of the writing review research project Franco-Flemish school included Pierre de La Rue (c.1460-1518), Jacob Obrecht (1457/8-1505), Antoine Brumel (c.1460-c.1515), and Heinrich Isaac (c.1450-1517). La Rue mainly remained resident at the Habsburg court in Burgundy, as the dominant native composer of his land, but also outside the increasingly bright spotlight of Italy.

Obrecht was a master of large-scale structure, creating some of the most elaborately symphonic masses of the period, and individual report project, often showing an indifference to text in favor of term management abstraction. He died of plague in Ferrara. Brumel followed Obrecht Josquin to Ferrara, and is popular today for his more chordal style, especially in the Missa Et ecce terræ motus in 12 parts. Isaac exhibited the clearcut phrasing concision of Josquin, following an almost-obligatory Italian service (under the individual project Medicis in Florence) with a decisive move to essay Germany, where he introduced the Franco-Flemish style. One result was the individual massive Choralis Constantinus (1509), a set of practical Propers settings for the entire liturgical year. Among contemporaries who composed secular songs in what was then a transitional style, Loyset Compère (c.1445-1518) Alexander Agricola (1446-1506) were prominent. The latter is particularly well-known for his variations on the song De tous bien playne by Burgundian composer Hayne van Ghizeghem (c.1445-c.1472). Remarkably, every one of thesis these men was born in (what would become) northeast France, Belgium, or the southern Netherlands.

Following the individual report for group generation of websites Josquin, it becomes more difficult to write of a central line of individual for group musical development, as sources became more voluminous and styles spread across Europe. Of Personal Narrative Essay! Among Josquin's successors, the most prominent were Nicolas Gombert (c.1495-1557), Adrian Willaert (c.1490-1562), and Jacobus Clemens (c.1510-c.1556), likewise all northerners. Gombert relocated with the Habsburg Emperor Charles V to individual report Spain in the wake of the thesis about conquest of the New World, and wrote in the densest contrapuntal idiom yet. Individual For Group! Willaert moved to Venice, and top custom, especially by his teaching, helped set the stage for what was to become the individual report glory days of Venetian music. Of Personal Narrative! He also published the first volume of original polyphonic instrumental music, Musica Nova (1540). Clemens remained in the Netherlands, writing mass cycles and individual project, motets in a traditional idiom, thus forming something of a conclusion to the Franco-Flemish style. About Education! However, he was also involved in the Reformation, setting psalms in Dutch, the Souterliedekens (1540). Humanism, Text, and the Printing Press.

Although one can perceive various aspects of individual for group project Dufay's music career which evoke Renaissance ideals, and thesis about education and family, perhaps even some earlier examples, with the rise of Josquin we can know unequivocally that we are seeing the modern era. Besides more technical musical factors such as the individual report project shift to thirds as cadential intervals and the related shift to tuning systems emphasizing thirds, Renaissance ideals involved attitudes toward text and human interaction which can be observed in music. The movement itself can be linked most concretely to Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536), an important philosopher and essays about, writer with a keen interest in music (he claims to have sung under the direction of Obrecht, and apparently knew Ockeghem). Humanism was a broad-based movement which would eventually weaken the role of the church. Whereas medieval music often sought beauty intricacy as a testament to the glory of God, Renaissance music wanted to become more directly communicative with humanity.

The result was more regular phrasing textures, and a new attention to text. The latter sought to make the words fully audible, a major change from the sometimes three or four simultaneous texts of fourteenth century scholastic motets, and to put music at the service of report for group project text, to illuminate it and communicate it better. Happy thoughts would go with rising figures and vice versa; longer or more important words would have longer music, etc. Medieval practices of term papers on strategic putting lengthy melismas on meaningless articles were considered barbaric by the 1500s, and ideas of word-painting (or what are sometimes called madrigalisms) were in full force. Beyond this shift (and whether we regard earlier music as having the shortcomings which composers of the 1500s thought it had is a matter of personal opinion), it was the individual report invention of the printing press and the subsequent mass publication of music which most decisively heralded the elements essay modern age. Petrucci's first publication was a collection of instrumental chanson adaptations by various composers, Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A (1501), to individual for group project which he soon added a collection of masses by the world, Josquin (see above).

It was from this point that music was to survive in volume, and it consequently becomes that much more difficult to individual for group project form a unified historical narrative. For this reason, I will now discuss each major Western country separately, giving a glimpse of the sheer volume of about musical activity which can now be documented. As described above, music in Italy during the fifteenth century was dominated by foreigners. Report For Group Project! However, although one can certainly wonder what became of the native compositional schools developed in the Ars Nova period, it is also true that the websites most significant music came to be written there, with northern composers such as Dufay Josquin composing some of their best works in Italy. By the individual project early 1500s, native polyphonists such as Costanzo Festa (c.1490-1545) began to appear, and secular songs in Italian began to replace those in French as the leading edge of artistic development. Elements! French or Occitan lyrics had been the leading secular tradition from the earliest surviving songs.

The Italian madrigal became one of history's most appealing polyphonic song forms, but it was a genre which was still dominated by northern musicians. The most important early madrigal composers of the 1500s were all northerners: Philippe Verdelot (c.1485-c.1550), Jacobus Arcadelt (c.1505-1568), and Cipriano de Rore (c.1515-1565). Each published multiple books of madrigals. In the individual next generation, native Italians such as Luca Marenzio (1533-99) joined northerners such as Giaches de Wert (1535-1596) in positions of prominence. The later madrigal featured all manner of word-painting, tortured expressions of romantic longing, and websites, frequently erotic themes. The restraint of the Burgundian chanson was left far behind in the wake of a new emphasis on virtuosity. The madrigal was as strong as ever as the sixteenth century drew to project a close with the a literature work of composers such as Sigismondo D'India (c.1582-1629), Carlo Gesualdo (c.1561-1613), and especially Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643). Gesualdo, Prince of Naples, has become widely known for his exotic harmonies and life of intrigue. Of course, Monteverdi became the individual report for group project greatest pioneer of the Baroque style (see below). Sacred music was also heavily cultivated, and most of the madrigalists wrote mass cycles and about the world, motets.

Beyond that, the Sistine Chapel continued to rise in for group project, prominence for its music, counting as one of of personal narrative essay its resident composers one of the most influential in Western music, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525-1594). For Group! A conservative composer, Palestrina wrote dozens of websites mass cycles as well as hundreds of motets formed into various cycles. He was particularly well-known for his clear textures and audible texts, making his music some of the most studied in subsequent centuries. Although Palestrina's extremely careful dissonance handling was not necessarily characteristic of sixteenth century music as a whole, and certainly not of madrigals, it subsequently became known as the textbook standard for Renaissance counterpoint. Palestrina's legend grew to the point that his Missa Papæ Marcelli (c.1555) was said to have salvaged the individual for group project place of polyphony in the Catholic liturgy in the wake of the Council of Trent (1545-63). Although the story is essentially fanciful, the mark straightforward homophonic texture of report for group project this and other works serves to illustrate the trends in term on strategic management, sacred composition during the Counter-Reformation. Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594) was another hugely prolific composer of high reputation who worked in Italy during this period. Lasso, or Lassus, was a northerner and is sometimes taken to be the for group main representative of the fifth and concluding generation (beginning with Dufay) of Franco-Flemish polyphonists. Papers! Even more than Palestrina, who also left a variety of composite forms, Lasso wrote in report project, every form style of the day, in quantity: mass cycles (including emerging sonic combinations such as the double choir), motets, lamentations, madrigal cycles, chansons, German lieder, folksy villanellas (including racist sexist lyrics), etc.

Lassus was truly cosmopolitan in outlook, and left Italy for good to take up the leading post in Munich in essays, 1556. Song forms such as the villanella were representative of the variety of lighter music in Italy during this period, especially including the frottola. The frottola did not possess the complicated polyphonic texture of the higher profile madrigal, but did provide beautiful melodies with an Italian sense of clarity. For Group Project! This simple style of melody accompaniment was to persist and a literature review for a project, transform itself into individual report, the main form of artistic expression in the 1600s, replacing the truly polyphonic madrigal. Dance music also appeared in various collections, as composers such as Giorgio Mainerio (c.1535-1582) built upon what had been an embryonic Italian art in of personal narrative, the 1400s. Elaborate celebratory cycles, such as the individual report famous La Pellegrina for a Medici wedding (1589), were created by juxtaposing pieces in various genres, both vocal and about the world, instrumental. Beyond the widespread use of instruments to individual project accompany dancing or celebrations, original chamber music also began to appear, especially in published collections for the lute. The most celebrated lutenist of the period was Francesco Canova da Milano (1497-1543), but several other composers for lute prospered, as the style developed a high degree of virtuosity.

The other important solo instrument remained the keyboard, as an entire school emerged around Willaert in ocr history mark scheme, Venice. There, composers such as Claudio Merulo (1533-1604) and individual, Andrea Gabrieli (c.1510-1585) developed a distinctive keyboard idiom, moving away from vocal models. In the 1500s, Spain was in the middle of its golden age in the wake of the American conquest, and instrumental composition likewise formed a significant part. The blind organist Antonio de Cabezón (1510-1566) wrote some of the essays the world first abstract music conceived specifically for keyboard. Meanwhile, Diego Ortiz published his Trattado de Glosas (1553), music for individual report project solo viol with accompaniment as well as a discussion of performance practice.

In Spain, the primary plucked-string instrument was the the world vihuela, resulting in a literature nearly rivaling that for the lute in Italy. Project! Prominent among the vihuelists was Luys de Narvaez (c.1500-1555). However, it is for their liturgical music that Spanish composers remained most famous. Spain was conservative in this area throughout the period, such that mass cycles there retained a traditional polyphonic format into essays about, the 1600s. Following Gombert's move to Spain with Charles V, other prominent northerners such as Thomas Crecquillon (d.c.1557) took up residence at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor. Report For Group Project! Native composers in a style conditioned by the Franco-Flemish masters also flourished, beginning with Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528) and Pedro de Escobar (c.1469-c.1535), and moving onward to the great Spanish masters Cristóbal de Morales (c.1500-1553) and Tomás Luis de Victoria (c.1549-1611).

Victoria restricted himself entirely to Latin sacred music, while Morales' output is also overwhelmingly liturgical. Both composers are known for their Requiems and other mass cycles, with Victoria's reputation rivaling Palestrina's in some sources. The conservative style was retained even longer in neighboring Portugal, where many composers continued to write original polyphonic liturgical music well into thesis, the late 1600s. Continuing a native Spanish tendency which was already in evidence in such medieval sources as the Cantigas Llibre Vermell , Spanish composers wrote numerous intriguing pieces in individual for group, the combined sacred-secular forms ensalada villancico . Both were based largely on Christmas themes, with the ensalada combining multiple languages, while the villancico was a more straightforward rustic application of sacred ideas in the vernacular. Spanish songbooks also survived from this period, such as the Cancionero de Palacio (c.1515) featuring music of the prominent composer Juan del Enzina (1468-c.1530). Here the themes ranged from traditional courtly love to writing a literature review for a research more theatrical subjects, a style subsequently developed by composers such as Juan Vásquez (1510-1560) Mateo Romero (1575-1647). France became far more secular in this period, and individual for group, it was the chanson which was the and family leading arena for individual for group artistic development in the 1500s.

Composers such as Clément Janequin (c.1485-1560) and Claudin de Sermisy (c.1490-1562) took the papers management Parisian chanson to new heights of imagination, adopting both rustic fanciful themes which served to individual for group project deemphasize the traditional forms of courtly love and inject a new sense of dynamism into songwriting. Janequin especially pioneered a light-hearted texture, incorporating devices such as onomatopoeia. Later, Claude Le Jeune (c.1528-1600) experimented with an even more original idea, musique mésurés à l'antique , a rhythmic method yielding a strongly declamatory style inspired by ancient Greek drama. Although composers such as Janequin and essays about, Le Jeune also wrote sacred music, including mass cycles, liturgical forms were not prominent in France in individual report for group, the 1500s. Writing A Literature For A Research Project! One factor was the bloody battle over the Reformation there, exemplified by the killing of prominent Huguenot composer Claude Goudimel (1520-1572). Goudimel's settings of psalms in French joined Le Jeune's chanson cycle Le Printans (1603) as some of the most original works of the period. Instrumental music was also published in France, especially dances. Joining prominent publisher Pierre Attaingnant (c.1494-1551), who published much of Janequin's work, Jacques Moderne (c.1495-1562) published his famous collection of songs and dances in 1550, Musicque de Joye . In nearby Antwerp, Tielman Susato (c.1500-1561/4) published his famous Dansereye in 1551.

This remains the report project most prominent collection of Renaissance dances today. Solo lute music also thrived in France, a tradition which would meet its consummation in the Baroque era. In the following generation, for essay websites the first time in centuries, France aggressively adopted Italian style, rather than vice versa. After its previously unprecedented impact on general European style in the early 1400s, England returned to a state of relative isolation, having no more impact on musical development elsewhere. The next major English source was the Eton Choirbook (c.1500), again featuring mostly sacred music. English style in this era bore little resemblance to that of Josquin et al., but rather took the antiphon style of Dunstable et al. to report project longer lengths with soaring melismas.

Those who elaborated on the style of the Eton Choirbook included Robert Fayrfax (c.1464-1521) and especially John Taverner (c.1490-1545). Both also wrote cyclic masses, and the Benedictus section of top custom websites Taverner's Missa Gloria tibi Trinitas went on to form the basic thematic material of the long-lived In Nomine consort genre. Secular songs finally made a notable appearance in England in this era, with the court of individual Henry VIII providing a fertile ground for composers such as William Cornysh (c.1465-1523) and even the king himself. The more text-oriented style of European music began to influence England in the generation of Thomas Tallis (c.1505-1585), known especially for his 40-part Spem in alium . However, although Tallis had a predilection for trying unusual compositional techniques, most of his music is for top custom websites more conventional forces. Tallis also wrote a handful of pieces for keyboard as well as for consort (bowed-string viol consort). The latter were to prove especially representative of England following the output of Christopher Tye (c.1505-1572). Tallis was awarded a royal monopoly on music printing in England, passing it to his student William Byrd (1543-1623) upon individual report project, his death. Byrd's tenure as England's greatest composer, coinciding with Shakespeare and the Elizabethan age, is widely regarded as the greatest flowering of ocr history a2 coursework mark scheme music in that country.

Byrd wrote in all forms of the era: masses, motets, verse anthems, songs, instrumental consorts, keyboard music. Byrd was caught up in Reformation controversies, and his three masses are of utilitarian nature, whereas his motets or Cantiones Sacræ (1575, 1589, 1591) are often more elaborate. He also wrote an for group entire series of Propers settings for the liturgical year, Gradualia (1605, 1607). Byrd's songs were of ocr history a2 coursework a type called consort songs in which an upper melody was supported by contrapuntal instrumental parts, showing a clear connection with his smaller body of viol consort music. Finally, Byrd's keyboard music was also particularly notable, forming one of his main concerns late in life, and individual, providing the impulse for ocr history a2 coursework an entire school of Elizabethan keyboard composition. This school was short-lived, but formed the basis for for group project subsequent developments in the Netherlands and northern Germany by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (1562-1621) et al. Perhaps the most prominent of all English songwriters was John Dowland (c.1563-1626). Although he sometimes included adaptations for multiple voices, Dowland wrote in the lute song genre, in which a single voice was accompanied by the lute. Dowland's four books of songs are known for their frequently melancholy character, and writing a literature review for a research, are especially popular today. Besides the famous consort cycle Lachrimæ (1604), Dowland the lutenist wrote a large quantity of individual for group lute music.

This lute-oriented instrumental output was representative of other English composers of the period, notably Anthony Holborne (c.1547-1602). The development of English music during this period was particularly rapid. Writing Research! Composers of the next generation, such as Orlando Gibbons (1583-1625), continued to project build upon styles developed by Byrd, and to create new formats. Partially replacing the consort song, the a capella madrigal became a popular form, reflecting a keen interest in Italian musical developments. Likewise, the consort music of Gibbons and term, others made use of individual for group project modern Italian ideas on disposition and thesis about, technique, while retaining a tangibly medieval element to the counterpoint. Gibbons' brief but sublime keyboard music has remained popular, even with pianists. English verse anthems from the period retained a role in cathedral services down to the present day. Finally, it was Thomas Morley (1557/8-1602) who inherited Byrd's printing monopoly in 1596, and it was Morley who helped to establish the madrigal and other Italianate forms, likewise working in all genres.

We left German music in project, the medieval era with the elements of personal narrative minnesingers, and it is indeed development of minnesong into meistersong which formed the history of those intervening years. An important transitional figure was Oswald von Wolkenstein (1376-1445), a nobleman who imitated Italian Ars Nova songs. Meistersong meets its apotheosis with the individual for group project famous meistersinger Hans Sachs (1494-1576). Various German songbooks survived from this era. Germany's entry into modern compositional idioms began with Isaac's move to Vienna under the Emperor Maximilian, where Isaac's relative interest (among his Franco-Flemish contemporaries) in instrumental music apparently met a favorable reception.

Although they were largely adaptations of Burgundian songs, German sources of about instrumental music were already prominent in the 1400s, and typical manuscripts continued to include instrumental pieces alongside vocal polyphony. Individual! Following Isaac, Swiss composer Ludwig Senfl (1486-1543) was one of the first native Germans to write original large-scale polyphony in the usual forms. Elements Of Personal! This activity was further consummated with the Reformation, and Martin Luther's interest in music and dedication to report Josquin's style. Composers such as Johann Walther (1496-1570) and his successors enthusiastically wrote polyphonic sacred music in German, forming the bulk of the ocr history a2 coursework mark north German repertory. Lassus' residence in Catholic southern Germany also had a profound effect on that region, and further established a pipeline which would have Italian composers working in Germany and individual report for group project, German composers studying in Italy into the Baroque era. Lassus' late settings, such as his madrigal cycle Lagrime di San Pietro (1595), were written in Germany. Analogous to Lassus' work in Munich, fellow Flemish-by-way-of-Italy composer Philippe de Monte (1521-1603) held the court position in nearby Prague, also writing in nearly every genre of the day. The major composer of German psalms in mark scheme, the last generation of the 1500s was Michael Praetorius (1571-1621). Project! Praetorius, from about the world a large musical family, is individual for group project also well-known as a theorist and describer of instruments. Essays! His Terpsichore (1612) was an especially popular collection of dances in a late-Renaissance idiom.

Although the Baroque era is outside the individual for group bounds of the present survey, some concluding thoughts are in essays about, order. Individual Project! Unlike the essays beginning of the Renaissance, which involved various musical changes at different times, and report for group project, is widely open to interpretation, the musical changes which defined Baroque style happened over a brief span of time. Although the label baroque was not an immediately self-conscious term, as was Ars Nova, it is nonetheless a relatively meaningful one. The development of Baroque style happened in Italy, and is very strongly associated with Monteverdi. Briefly, the elements of thesis about and family that style were: the new monody , basso continuo, and the opera genre. Monody was the name for the style by which a main voice in the upper part was accompanied chordally by for group, lower parts, forging what was to become the primary idiom of Western music, both classical and popular.

Continuo was the abbreviated means by which this accompaniment was written, and opera was perhaps its most important early use. It was a desire to return to ancient Greek forms which motivated composers such as Monteverdi to develop monody and of personal narrative essay, opera. Report Project! Although we do not believe the music of Monteverdi et al. Ocr History A2 Coursework Scheme! bore any resemblance to that of ancient Greece, by the time these developments occurred, any elements of medieval style remaining in Western music had been radically transformed. Todd M. McComb Written: 28 August 2001 Last updated: 16 August 2004.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and individual report sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples?

Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for writing a literature for a, presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to for group create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . Top Custom. The links below are separated by project resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and essays about the world upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if…

I want to report for group project demonstrate a vertical career progression. Term Papers On Strategic Management. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in individual report my employment history.

I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and thesis about education abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the individual report functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . Essays The World. The candidate and simply lists them at for group project the top of the resume in order of most relevant to term papers on strategic least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something.

By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for individual for group project, the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. Term On Strategic Management. I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry.

I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. Report For Group Project. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the writing a literature project reverse-chronological and individual report for group project functional resume formats.

Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to ocr history a2 coursework mark scheme the job opening. Report. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to narrative essay showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. Report For Group. I want to transfer to top custom a different industry.

I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to individual report for group project emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in thesis and family included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and report one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Of Personal Essay. Need that job?

Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. Individual For Group. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Top Custom Essay Websites. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Report For Group Project. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Mark. Best of luck on the job hunt!

We suggest that you stick with the report for group traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to for a teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to for group now make the shift to elementary age. Essays About. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out individual report, our combination format writing guide for about education and family, more info: For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from for group project, 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in mark scheme the middle of my employment with them. Report. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck!

I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and scheme now I am studying to individual report get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and got out in thesis 2013. Individual Report. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at about the world night. I am currently looking for report for group project, an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. Term Management. I need to know how firm that rule is.

Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to individual report focus on essay, your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on report, the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in writing review the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to for group write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Please help!

Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Mark. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for individual project, many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to a literature for a research be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to individual for group project start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume.

Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to education apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to report post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of elements, luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut.

However, if you truly feel that all of your content is individual report for group project, relevant and of interest to ocr history the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to report for group project rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Term Papers. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of report for group project, Public relations for a well known beauty company in top custom NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and individual report for group just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. Papers. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume.

I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Report Project. Thanks in mark advance! If you’re looking to get back into individual report, communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. Thesis And Family. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out report for group, this how-to guide: While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm.

After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and term papers on strategic management need help deciding what type of individual for group, resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. The World. Best of luck! If the report for group the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there!

This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is elements narrative essay, more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Report For Group Project. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Review For A Research. Best of individual report for group project, luck!

It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on about education and family, the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of individual, flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in elements of personal narrative transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of report, these could potentially be transferable. About Education And Family. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change.

Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and report for group project HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in essay today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and project easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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Do You Believe In God Essays and Research Papers. prepare themselves for. It was looked upon as a myth, but for us it spiraled around fusing itself with time, making the individual for group, war between worlds reality. Writing? Nothing . that I was grown to know, or to believe , was true today. As a nonbeliever, I was made to believe that nothing existed outside of individual project Earth. I didn’t believe in God , I believed in science, in ocr history mark, what I could see, in the physical because to me there was no spiritual. But as swarms of people soon flooded the streets, I soon became something I never thought.

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African American , Black people , Colored 1238 Words | 3 Pages. Do you believe in God and why? With over 20 major religions in today’s world, God is . the most recognized superior power. We are told to believe that this God is a supernatural being: one of a group of supernatural male beings in some religions, each of narrative essay which is worshiped as the individual for group project, personification or controller of some aspect of the about, universe. God is the individual, English name given to about the world a singular being in theistic and report for group project deistic religions who is either the thesis about education and family, sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism. Atheism , Deism , Deity 815 Words | 2 Pages. Kurmanalieva Why I believe in God I often used to ask myself in the past, “who created all conveniences for human . existence? Why is the distance between the Sun and the Earth comfortable for living? Why is there a good proportion of water and land; why do we have mountains, beautiful nature, animals and plants? Why do we have brain, 2 eyes, 2 feet, and 2 hands?

Sure, there’s somebody who regulates all these processes on the Earth to report make people live. And His name is God . Blaise Pascal says. Atheism , Barbra Streisand , Blaise Pascal 949 Words | 3 Pages. Do You Believe in Love at First Sight ? “ Do you believe in love at first sight ? Or .. um .. should I walk by scheme again ? “ Blush .. Individual Report For Group Project? Blush .. Well , Ladies . and gentlemen ! Honestly , even If I keep walking past you in essays, ‘circles’ , you won’t fall in “love” with me . Yes , you might have a crush on me , my presence may cause a powerful infatuation , but it would not , my friends , be love … To all those who immediately got those contradicting thoughts in their minds , Ladies and Gentlemen ! I speak … of project experience . . . Term Papers Management? 22nd October. At First Sight , Did You See Me Coming? , Gentleman 780 Words | 3 Pages. The discoveries in individual report, ways of top custom websites Hearing God are never just theory. They come out of your own adventures.

Loren Cunningham Have . you ever questioned yourself on hearing God's voice, whether it is for a life changing decision or a passing thought? Have you ever been inches away from your goal and wondered, Is this really you , God ? If so, then this book is for you . Individual? Is That Really You , God ? Hearing the Voice Of God is the term management, story of how one man's dream of seeing young people impact. Active listening , Christianity , Ear 589 Words | 3 Pages. Is It Reasonable to Believe in God in the 21st Century? reasonable to believe in God in the 21st Century?

In a scientific age, it is getting harder and harder to believe . in god due to the frequent scientific discoveries but does that really change the thoughts and opinions of those who choose to individual report project believe in about, such a thing? This is project a very hotly debated question as over 51 per cent of the on strategic management, population believe in God but there is evidence to suggest that a hundred years ago, a smaller number but a higher percentage of individual for group people believed in a God . Elements Of Personal Narrative Essay? So therefore why. Arguments for the existence of God , Atheism , David Hume 1725 Words | 4 Pages. Can One Be Moral and Not Believe In God. ? Can One Be Moral and Not Believe In God ? Aleshia Wisch PHI208: Ethics and Moral Reasoning Prof. Michael Kellam . October 2, 2013 Can One Be Moral and for group project Not Believe In God ? Is it possible for an individual to live morally without believing in God ? For someone who believes in God this may be a difficult question to answer. Mark Scheme? Whereas, someone who does not believe in God might immediately say that having morals has nothing to do with religion. So, to answer this question.

Atheism , Descriptive ethics , Ethics 1970 Words | 6 Pages. Can One Be Moral and Believe in God. Can One Be Moral and Not Believe in God Name: Course: Phi 103 Informal Logic Instructor: Jennifer Creekmore Date: . May 6,2013 Can One be Moral and Not Believe in God There are many people, that do not have any faith or belief in any personal god or deity, one that dispenses grace, goodness, and/or miracles according to his/her 'will'. Individual Report For Group Project? Many people do not acknowledge any ‘supernatural’ agent or agency that intentionally intercedes in human affairs or selectively. Ethics , God , Human 2500 Words | 7 Pages. today, you will find many angel knickknacks. Elements Of Personal? Angles are truly believed in individual report project, by today#8217;s society. The retail ranges from books to clothing . to toys.

Most recently, over a literature for a research project, 200 books about angels are in individual for group, book stores, and term management several million copies have been sold worldwide (Dumas 59). Individual For Group Project? Why do people buy this merchandise if it can not be proven that angels are real? Believing in thesis and family, angels is like believing in individual for group project, God . Of Personal Essay? If you don#8217;t believe in individual for group, God , just look around at term, the things around you and conclude. Angel , Bible , Jesus 1260 Words | 4 Pages. existence of God have been made over the years. Basically, these arguments are divided into two large groups i.e. logical and metaphysical. . Actually, these arguments seek to prove that the existence of a being or having faith with at least one attribute that only God could have is logically necessary. 2. Individual? Believing and having faith in God will only resort to one thing—goodness.

3. Faith has something to do with one’s conception about God . 4. Education? The existence of God remains a matter. Arguments for the existence of God , Existence , Existence of project God 1973 Words | 6 Pages. IF GOD PUTS YOU ON HOLD-DON’T HANG UP A. INTRODUCTION 1. Elements Of Personal? There is a bumper sticker, “If God puts . Individual For Group Project? you on hold—Don’t hang up.” 2. Term Papers On Strategic Management? Survey: a. How many have ever been put on hold? b. How many have ever gotten mad when you were on hold? c. How many have hung up? 3. Project? This sermon is about what to do when God puts you on hold. Term Papers On Strategic Management? B. PEOPLE WHO WERE PUT ON HOLD 1. Moses was on hold for forty years on the backside of the desert, before God spoke at the burning bush.

2. David was. English-language films , God , Gospel of Matthew 1641 Words | 6 Pages. ?Only God Has the for group project, Right to Interfere with Our Genes' Do You Agree? as favorable in the eyes of God - genetic modification can change these aspects and about would be no doubt advocated for by homicidal racist Adolph . Individual Report For Group Project? Hitler. Papers On Strategic? A religious person may harbor the controversial statement of which my essay concerns but I disagree, because I am an individual for group, atheist and do not think god exists.

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Christian punk , Christian rock , Christianity 1131 Words | 3 Pages. Do You Really Know Yourself? Throughout time great philosophers have pondered the question of what knowing your self is. . Philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Alcibiades have somewhat of a similarity when it comes to project identifying one’s self. However, there are the differences that lead up to the explanation and what individuals believe the self is. Socrates focused on the ‘good life’ and stresses the fact that to know how to live we need to know who we are. Under Socrates, the papers, founder of philosophy. Mind , Philosophy , Philosophy of mind 1475 Words | 4 Pages. What do you believe promotes positive c. ?What do you believe promotes positive change? Positive change comes from the individual for group project, depths of an thesis, individual that . desires something different to occur within their life. I began my journey towards positive changes during the end of 2011, when events in my life went on a downward spiral, resulting in me struggling with a long-term diagnosis of severe depression. Report For Group Project? I found myself not wanting to function and be a contributing member of top custom society, wondering how I would make it to the next minute, hour, day.

Feeling , Help , Help me 1374 Words | 4 Pages. argument that if an omnibenevolent and report project omnipotent God were to exist, he would not condone the apparent suffering and evil that takes place. . This argument was first proposed by thesis education the Greek philosopher Epicurus who devised: “Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is individual report for group not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God ?” One explanation for this is that the evil.

Atheism , Cosmological argument , God 1427 Words | 5 Pages. Chrysalis Talk #10 God Sustains You. God sustains you Talk #10-Day Two Flight #89 (Slide 1- Chrysalis Slide) Please turn your Chrysalis worship book to page 34 . and join me in praying the payer to about and family the Holy Spirit. (Slide 2- Prayer to the Holy Spirit) “Come Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of individual report project your faithful and kindle in them the elements narrative, fire of your love. Send forth Your Spirit and we shall be created. And You shall renew the face of the earth. O God , who by individual report for group project the light of the Holy Spirit did instruct the papers, hearts of the faithful, grant. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 1827 Words | 6 Pages. LECTURETTE - IS THERE GOD ? 1. ‘O God , help us to individual report for group project keep ourselves physically strong, mentally awake and morally straight, that . in doing our duty to Thee and our country we may keep the honour of the Services untarnished’ … is the writing project, way we started our life everyday for three very important years of our life, I am just reciting it so as to refresh your memory….and to seek out the first line….”Oh God , help us to”…… GOD …who is GOD ….what is GOD ….is it something that justifies our existence, something. Atheism , Conceptions of God , God 2368 Words | 7 Pages.

Can one be Moral and Not Believe in report project, God. Can one be Moral and not Believe in God ? This paper will look at the issue of God and Morals and if . one can be moral and term not believe in God . I will show an argument for each side of this coin along with giving which side I agree with. Report Project? As much as possible, I will address this issue from a philosophical point of essays about the world view. I would like to note that in doing research for this paper I found that most believe that one does not have to project believe in essays about, God to report for group have moral and that there are no moral. Culture , Ethics , God 2264 Words | 7 Pages. Review of: Why You Do the Things You Do. | Review of:Why You Do The Things You Do Clinton, Dr. Tim amp; Sibcy, Dr.

Gary. (2006). Why . You Do the papers, Things You Do : The Secret of Healthy Relationships. For Group? Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Top Custom Essay? Summary Relationships are in our everyday life all around us, but the most intimate relationships we have include God , our parents, our children and individual project our spouse. God implanted the desire for intimacy or relationship within us when He created Adam and essay Eve. God hardwired the desire for relationship in us.

Conceptions of God , Family , God 2184 Words | 6 Pages. Do you believe that Capitalism is moral? Justify you answer. ? Do you believe that Capitalism is moral? Justify you answer. Capitalism can be defined ideally as . an economic system in which the major portion of production and distribution is in private hands, operating under what is termed a profit or market system. No central governing body involves to these private owners what or how much of anything will be produced. There are four key features of capitalism: companies, profit motive, competition and private property. Capitalism allows the creation of. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Economics 1332 Words | 3 Pages.

Do you believe in ghosts? Ghosts, a hypothetical subject widely opened to the skepticism of us humans. In . Individual Report For Group? reference to Wikipedia, the definition of ghosts is “a ghost is the soul or spirit of term management a deceased person or animal that can appear, in visible form or other manifestation, to the living.” In my opinion, ghosts do exist. Of course they do . The existence of ghosts can be proved by unexplainable paranormal activities. Nevertheless, they have a strong connection with religions, explaining the. Afterlife , Existence , Ghost 488 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Even though there is report for group not enough evidence to establish God’s existence, it is still more rational to choose to believe there is a God, then to term papers believe there is not.’ Discuss.

rational to for group choose to writing a literature review research believe there is a God , then to believe there is not.’ Discuss. Is it rational to choose . to believe in God ? The proof of God’s existence has been attempted by many a philosopher and for group argument, yet on countless occasions the reason of the papers, argument has been flawed. Report For Group Project? Philosophers such as Pascal, James, Kierkegaard, Plantinga and Freud each have there own arguments on the matter of whether it is more rational to choose to top custom essay believe there is a God , then to believe there is not. Report For Group? Blaise. Existence , Existence of God , Faith 1340 Words | 4 Pages. of people wouldn’t believe you without anything to prove your point. One good example is law. An individual or a group of people . can be sued only if there is real proof or evidence, a witness, and/or a motive to papers on strategic do the wrong. If these things aren’t present then they cannot be sued or proven guilty.

But in Anselm’s point of view, why and how would people believe in the divine Lord if we had not seen him yet even once? When we have said that we only believe what we can see… If you think about the for group, quote. Academic degree , Anselm of a literature review for a Canterbury , Causality 909 Words | 3 Pages. What would make me believe in individual report, god. In all honesty, I do not know what kind of essay websites power is out there. I am not sure if there is individual a God . If there is ocr history mark a God , . I guess I do not believe . There might be a higher power, but I am not even sure of report that. So if I were to believe in a God , I assume this is how it would go. Here it is, The apocalypse.

It is all of term management our faults. and by Our I mean, Sam, Dean, and I's fault. Not to for group mention Sam and Dean are brothers. We have opened the gates of hell, and there is no good news. Demons have escaped, up. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2006 singles 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Euthyphro Philosophy A Concise Introduction – PHI 208 Euthyphro If everyone took the time to discuss holiness / piety (reverence for . Of Personal? God ), there would always be many different interpretations or perceptions on what it really is and just how to determine that it is being done. The best philosophers in the world have engaged in many conversations about this subject for decades. Socrates has been one of many that discussed this subject.

Socrates was a man that was accused of report project impiety and. Euthyphro , God , Good and ocr history a2 coursework mark evil 1148 Words | 3 Pages. How Do You Feel About Atheism? Lauren Martino Inquiry Skills Pre- IB Ms. DiVarco 29, April 2012 Word Count: . 1277 0699118 Table of report for group Contents I. Introduction A. Are there signs that Atheism is a literature review project spreading globally within the past 20 years II.

Body B. Report? Population which believes in top custom essay websites, Atheism a. Individual For Group? Start off with a block quote to catch the essays, reader’s attention about which part of the for group, world believes in Atheism b. Have statistics to show change over time of different. Agnosticism , Atheism , Deism 1679 Words | 6 Pages. Can a person be moral and not believe in God Name PHI 103 Informal Logic Instructor Date of Submission Morality only . exists if we believe in God ; therefore if God doesn’t exist there is about no morality. There have been so many evil acts committed in report, the name of God that it is top custom essay difficult to maintain that a belief in God equates to morality. Individual? There are situations that happen every day where decisions are made based off of human rights that contradict the word of websites God . Morality comes from within.

Ethics , Moral , Moral psychology 1787 Words | 5 Pages. Existence of God , and which God Does Existence The existence of God is a subject matter that most people want to . know the answer to. Many great philosophers have debated about this subject for generations. Feuerbach has an for group, interesting point of view about the thesis about, subject matter. Individual Report? Feuerbach believes that if it can be scientifically proven then it is real or true and anything that is not proven is thesis and family not real because there are no facts to back it up. Report Project? But I believe that anything is essays real or true if you have faith. Atheism , Christianity , Existence of God 2548 Words | 6 Pages. - Theism: Belief in one God . (58) - Atheism: Rejection of belief in God . (56) - Agnosticism: In between to make the decision . about the report for group project, existence or non-existence of top custom websites God . (54) - Indifference: Does not care about whether God exists or not. (53) - Freedom as compared with commitment: Ironically, the freedom costs the time and effort to find out the options and once you make a decision, you must commit to report do it. A2 Coursework? (1) - The God Question: It is the report, question on whether God exists or not.

The answers. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Can One Be Moral and Not Believe in God? Can one be moral and not believe in God ? PHI 103 September 26, 2011 The argument set forth is best understood by the . first line given by Hamlet in Act 3, Scene 1 in essay, this 1600 play, “Hamlet,” written by William Shakespeare (1600). Individual Project? “To be, or not to be, that is the top custom essay websites, question: Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them. ” Believing in a spiritual entity or a supernatural. Business ethics , Ethics , Moral psychology 2355 Words | 7 Pages. Do you believe in God ? If so, at some point in time, someone convinced you that . Individual? God does exist. They used one of the mark, ten arguments listed herein.

How solid are these arguments and how do they stand up to basic science and reason? Since the dawn of civilization there have been many arguments for the existence of God . Surprisingly, the vast majority of these arguments fall into the ten or so categories below. Not much has changed in the last 300+ years in terms of new claims or evidence. The same. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1551 Words | 5 Pages. ? God Does Exist This paper argues that St. Individual Report Project? Thomas Aquinas has a better argument for the existence of god . Term Papers Management? He says it is . Report? possible to prove that the traditional God exist. I believe that he gives the best argument because he has five ways to demonstrate that the traditional god exist. The statements are the cosmological and teleological arguments for the existence of God . For this paper I am going to reexplain what briefly what his five ways are and how they explain and prove God's existence. Existence , Existence of God , God 1230 Words | 3 Pages. Why Do You Believe ? ! In my last speech I spoke about what a religion is and how it is created and different . examples.

Today I will tell you why they are wrong. Term Papers? There is a lot of information and data that proves that believing in individual report for group project, a deity is not right. From made up stories to miracles that didn’t happen. I will share some facts about the similarities in some famous religions. ! Since the beginning of review project human history there has been religious beliefs and the one that is most recognizable as the ?rst one. Christianity , Faith , God 878 Words | 2 Pages. God is Real General Purpose: To Inform and Tell Story Specific Purpose: To explain to individual my audience in my experience how . God is real. Writing A Literature Review Project? Introduction: I. When I was a young, my family did not preach about religion in the household.

A. Report For Group Project? My mom was Jewish and dad was Baptist. Top Custom Essay? They both believe in God B. My family let me make my own choice about God and religion and individual report for group project I chose not to believe . Top Custom Essay? II. Individual For Group? After becoming a teenager, I was interested about the many religions. 2000 albums , 2006 singles , 2008 singles 793 Words | 3 Pages. How Badly Do You Want to Be Successful? How Badly Do You Want To Be Successful? How badly do you want to be successful? It’s a pretty . simple question isn’t it, and I’m sure you and everyone else who has ever been asked would say; very badly or that they would do anything to be successful. But would they really? See everyone wants to be successful but no one wants to essays work for it. We see successful people and project think to term papers on strategic our selves “Oh if they can do it why can’t I?” That is very true, its not like successful people have two heads or special.

2007 singles , 2008 singles , Failure 952 Words | 3 Pages. will contrast the individual report project, God of Epictetus, and the God of top custom websites Augustine, and in the end, my stand will be clear. Report? Epictetus . and Augustine both identify God on basic level. Epictetus says, Where the essence of God is, there too is the top custom essay, essence of individual for group good. What is the essence of God . Term Papers On Strategic? Right Reason? Certainly. Here then, without more ado, seek the essence of good. He says strive for goodness, live in conformity with it, and you will find God . God is the vital force. Augustine of project Hippo , Faith , God 1101 Words | 7 Pages.

The Existence of mark scheme God: Can It Be Proved? prove the existence of for group God ? Throughout time many philosophers have been searching for an answer to creation and whether it is actually . possible to prove (or not prove) if God exists. Top Custom Essay? Some of the report for group project, philosophers include Thomas Aquinas, William Paley and thesis education Blaise Pascal they came up with various different theories and arguments to prove the existence of God and why they believed he did exist. Another philosopher Karl Marx thought that his theory could convince people not to believe in God . Report Project? One philosopher. Existence , Existence of God , God 1259 Words | 3 Pages. goals is impossible without help from the gods as they control everything that happens.

Divine intervention is a very important aspect of the . A2 Coursework? Odyssey seen right from the beginning to the end and report all who have help from the gods survive while those who don't die. This is clearly shown in the conversation between Athena and thesis about education and family her father Zeus on mount Olympus, in which Athena asks her father what should happen to the Ithacans. The will of the gods is individual report supreme to all other powers, and the decision. Athena , Bible , God 1390 Words | 4 Pages. Do You Believe That There Is a Unique Body of Nursing Knowledge?

are, very few of these people can picture fairy tales as the subject of top custom websites literary criticism and scholarly commentary or analysis. The general perception is . that if fairy tales are products of the literary imagination, they are simple narratives that do not require critical study. Scholars became interested in individual for group project, fairytale, because of apparent ties between those stories and about myths and legends. The Grimm Brothers are mostly famous for their collection of fairytales, but they can also be accredited with. Brothers Grimm , Fairy tale , Giambattista Basile 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Jordan Beard September 27, 2012 ENG 111-14 Caddy What Do You Choose: Life or Death? Abortion can be harmful or help in . For Group? many ways. Abortion can be harmful in many ways. Some examples are taking a child’s life, risking your health, it’s against ocr history scheme some people’s religion and project money issues.

Abortion can be helpful also. Some ways abortion can be helpful are it prevents a mother who’s been raped from having trauma, it prevents mother to child diseases, and it can stop babies from having drug addictions. Abortion , Childbirth , Fetus 1327 Words | 4 Pages. Culture, Religion, Experiences. How Do They Make You You ? Experiences…How do they make you , “ you ”? What do you think makes you , . “ you ”? I think your culture, religion, and essay experiences contribute to make a person who they are. I believe that certain aspects of humans and their experiences work together to create a person. For me, culture or religion can help shape a person’s characteristic because they play important roles in affecting how they view life. Another characteristic that can influence who or what a person is, is individual report for group their experiences. When you experience. Alex Haley , Experience , God 1483 Words | 4 Pages. ?Farah Omar 900142215 Troy Hedrick RHETT 1010 27 October 2014 How do you find the papers management, real ‘ you ’? what is it? . Culture reinforces the idea that each and every one of us has a ‘ you ’, an identity that shows how valuable we are.

Generally speaking, theories have different point of views; it depends on individual for group, from which perspective you look at it. For instance the way I look at the self is from 3 views, which are scientific, spiritual/religious and about education cultural/psychological . Basically what I learned through out. Human , Identity , Self 1120 Words | 3 Pages. ? Do you know what your purpose is? Do you know what drives you ? As you . Individual Project? think about that question, you may be picturing a certain aspect of your life. For example: · Home life · Spiritual life · Work life · Recreational life · School life · Etc. We have compartmentalized our lives. But with God , there is no distinction between the different areas of term papers management our lives. God has a purpose for individual for group project, our life. Sadly, many of websites us don’t have any idea what that purpose is. For Group Project? · Joke: Did you hear about the little girl.

Bible , Family , Grandparent 1574 Words | 8 Pages. The belief in the Christian Gods existence has been a controversial issue for a very long time. The Holy Bible is a lot of things to a lot of . people. To some, the Bible is a self-contradictory book about cultures from the distant past. Others, such as Christians, believe that it is a guide on how to live their daily lives and it is a source of inspiration. I personally believe that the essays, existence of God is individual report project nonsensical. If the truth is that ugly - which it is - then we do have to essay be careful about the. Atheism , Christianity , Existence 1334 Words | 3 Pages. ? Do You See The Jetsons Going to Church?

Mark H Dillon Colorado Christian University 11 March 2015, Submitted: 14 March . 2015 Author Note: Prepared for “History of Christianity” HIS-211-A-ON25; Professor Lilia Anand Abstract In the past 20 years the percentage of Americans that say that they believe in God has dropped by report 8%. ( - A new Harris Poll finds that a strong majority (74 percent) of U.S. adults say they believe in God , but that's down from the 82 percent who. Bible , Christendom , Christian 2028 Words | 9 Pages. as bath water. Many times there are coral reefs that reside just below the on strategic management, surface in individual, many areas. They can be very hazardous to even the most experienced . surfer or swimmer; one small scrape can leave you cut quite deep. Coral reefs, while dangerous, could be the least of essays your worries in Oahu if you find yourself in individual report, the wrong place at the wrong time. Sharks are prevalent among the waters of Oahu and most of the rest of the Hawaiian Islands.

There may be up to forty species living around the Islands. Animal , Hawaii , Hawaiian Islands 846 Words | 3 Pages. Does God Exist? It is one of the most asks questions around the world still to this day. A controversial topic which doesn’t have an answer. No . Essays The World? way to project prove, or disprove the concept that there is mark scheme someone or something else that has created the universe we live in. But what is the definition of God ? The definition of God is that He is omniscient (all knowing), omnipotent (all powerful), and omnibenevolent (morally perfect and all loving). This definition is most used in Philosophy of Religion and is. Existence , Existence of God , God 933 Words | 3 Pages. DISCLAIMER: THIS IS JUST A ROUGH DRAFT.

Mark Twain once said, “Always do what is right. It will gratify half of mankind and astound the . other”. Through events in the play Antigone, Sophocles discusses this choice between what is morally right and individual report lawfully right. Sophocles believes that the god’s laws should be upheld no matter what the circumstance, and term papers on strategic management he demonstrates this through the events in the play. Using the Greek traits Hubris, Ate, and the Nemesis, Sophocles creates inner turmoil within. Antigone , Creon , Decision making 941 Words | 3 Pages. Does God Exist and is He real? To believe in God is to believe that there is individual project a creator and entity in a literature for a research, . which has control of individual report for group project all things. The questioning of the existence of God has been around since the beginning of time. It has been seen in all cultures around the writing, World.

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